It's no secret that our planet's climate is changing, and this time it is very fast. In Africa, the snow falls, and in our latitudes in summer there is incredible heat. Much has already been put forward various theories about the causes and possible consequences of such a change. Some speak of a coming apocalypse, while others are convinced that there is nothing wrong with that. Let's see what the causes of climate change, who is to blame and what to do?
All because of the melting of the Arctic ice …
Arctic ice that covers the Arctic Ocean, were not allowed to freeze in the winter residents of temperate latitudes. "The loss of Arctic sea ice is directly related to heavy snowfall in the winter in temperate latitudes, and with the incredible heat of the summer," — says Stephen Vavrus, a senior researcher at the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies.
The scientist explained that the heated area over the areas in temperate and cold Arctic air created a difference in atmospheric pressure. Air mass moving from west to east, causing the moving ocean currents and generating a strong wind. "Now the Arctic to a new state," — said the scientist David Titley, who worked for the U.S. Navy. He noted that the process of melting ice is very fast, and by the summer of 2020 Arctic will be completely ice-free.
Recall that the Antarctic and the Arctic act as a huge air conditioning: any weather anomalies quickly moved and destroyed by winds and currents. Recently, due to the temperature of melting ice in the polar regions is increased, so the natural mechanism of "mixing" weather stops. As a result of abnormal weather (heat, snow, frost, or showers) "stuck" in one area of a lot longer than before
Global warming on Earth
UN experts predict our planet in the near future disaster due to global warming. Today everything has already started to get used to the crazy antics of the weather, knowing that something is going on with the climate utter. The main threat is the production activity of the person, as in the atmosphere very much carbon dioxide. According to the theories of some experts, it delays the thermal radiation of the Earth, leading to overheating, reminding the greenhouse effect.
Over the past 200 years, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by a third, and the average temperature of the planet has risen by 0.6 degrees. In the century temperature in the northern hemisphere of the planet has grown more than for the previous thousand years. If the world will remain the same rate of industrial growth by the end of this century, humanity faces global climate change — the temperature will rise by 2-6 degrees, and the oceans will rise by 1.6 meters.
Yakutia tamed extreme climate
To avoid this, was developed by the Kyoto Protocol, the main aim of which is to limit emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It should be noted that warming of itself is not dangerous. We were back climate, which was for 50 centuries before Christ. Our civilization is in the comfort of those developing normally. Not dangerous warming, and its suddenness. Climate change is occurring so rapidly that no time is left to humanity to adapt to these new conditions.
Most of the climate change affected people of Africa and Asia, which, moreover, are now experiencing a population boom. As Robert Watson, head of the UN Group of Experts, the warming of the negative impact on agriculture, will be observed horrific drought, causing shortage of drinking water and various epidemics. Moreover, the dramatic climate change leads to the formation of destructive typhoons that have increased in recent years.
The effects of global warming
The consequences could be truly catastrophic. Desert razrastutsya, floods and storms will become more frequent spread fever and malaria. In Asia and Africa, yields decrease significantly, but in Southeast Asia, they grow up. In Europe, floods will become more frequent, the Netherlands and Venice will go into the depths of the sea. New Zealand and Australia are parched with thirst, and the east coast of the United States is in range of devastating storms, coastal erosion will occur. Ice floating in the northern hemisphere will start two weeks earlier. Reduced ice cover in the Arctic by about 15 percent. In Antarctica, the ice retreated by 7-9 degrees. Also, the ice will melt in the tropical mountains of South America, Africa and Tibet. Migratory birds will spend more time in the north.
What to expect Russia?
Russia, according to some scientists, will suffer from global warming to 2-2.5 times stronger than the rest of the planet. This is due to the fact that the Russian Federation is buried in snow. White reflects the sun, and black — on the contrary, draws. Widespread melting of snow will lead to a change in reflectance and cause additional heating of the land. As a result, in Arkhangelsk will be able to grow wheat, and in St. Petersburg — watermelons. Global warming could cause a strong blow to the Russian economy, as will melt the permafrost beneath cities of the Far North, where there are pipes, on which our economy rests.
What to do?
Now the problem of controlling emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is achieved by a system of quotas under the Kyoto Protocol. Under this system, various governments set limits on energy and other enterprises on emissions of air pollutants. First of all, it concerns the carbon dioxide. These permits can be freely bought and sold. For example, a manufacturing plant to reduce emissions, with the result that they formed a "surplus" quota.
These surpluses are sold to other companies, which are cheaper to buy them than to take real action to reduce emissions. Dishonest businessmen making good on that money. This approach is not much better in climate change. Therefore, some experts suggested to introduce a direct tax on carbon dioxide emissions.
However, this decision has not been made. Many agree that quotas or tax inefficient. Should encourage the transition from fossil fuels to innovative energy technologies that have little or no increases in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Two economists from the University of McGill,
Christopher Green and Isabel Galliano, recently presented a project that offered annually allocate one billion dollars on research in the field of energy technology. The money for this you can take the tax on carbon dioxide emissions. These funds would be enough for the introduction of new production technologies that would not pollute the atmosphere. According to economists, every dollar spent on research, will help to avoid the $ 11. damage from climate change.
There is another way. It is difficult and expensive, but will be able to completely solve the problem with the melting of the glaciers, if all the countries in the Northern Hemisphere will act decisively and in unison. Some experts suggest creating the Bering Strait hydraulic structure that can regulate the exchange of water between the Arctic,
Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In some circumstances, it should act as a dam and prevent the passage of water from the Pacific to the Arctic, and in other circumstances — as a powerful pumping station that will pump water from the Arctic Ocean to the Pacific. This maneuver is created artificially mode end of the Ice Age. Climate change is felt by every resident of our Earth. And changing very quickly. Therefore, countries should unite and find optimal solutions to overcome this problem. After all affected by climate change everything.
Russian scientists do not always agree with the predictions and hypotheses of their Western counterparts. "Pravda.Ru" asked to comment on the subject of climatology laboratory head of the Institute of Geography RAS, Doctor of Geographical Sciences Andrei SHMAKIN:
— About the cold snap we speak only laymen, nemeteorologi. If you read our reports hydrometeorological service, it is clearly said about going warming.
What awaits us all, it is not known to anybody. Now there is warming. The consequences of all kinds. There are positive, there are also negative. In Russia, the warming is stronger pronounced than in many other regions of the world, it is true, but the effects can be both positive and negative. What effect, what are the pros — it must be carefully considered.
Let's say a negative thing, yes, thawing of permafrost, the spread of disease, may be a more frequent forest fires. But there are also positive. This reduction in the cold season, the lengthening of the growing season, increasing the productivity of grasses and grass communities, and forests. A lot of different effects. The discovery of North Sea path to navigate, the lengthening of the navigation. And it is not done on the basis of some hasty statements.
— It's a slow process. To him, in any case you can adapt and develop adaptation measures. This process scale of several decades, at least, if not more. This is not what tomorrow — "all go nuts, grab bags — Station departs," it is not.
— A lot. Start with a few years ago was released a report entitled "Assessment Report on Climate Change in Russia." It was published with the assistance of the Russian Hydrometeorological RAS scientists and universities. This is a serious analytical work, everything is considered as the climate changes, the consequences for different regions of Russia.
— Mozhnolikak-tozamedlitetoprotsess? Kiotskiyprotokol, for example?
— The Kyoto Protocol, in practical terms the results brings extremely small, namely those that are stated in it — the impact of climate change, it is almost ineffectiveness. Just because of the fact that the emission reductions it provides for extremely small, they do not affect the overall global picture of this election. It simply is not effective.
Another thing is that it paved the way for agreements in this area. This was the first agreement of its kind. If then the parties were active and tried to work out a new agreement, it could bring some results. Now new documents have to act in place of the Kyoto Protocol, he finished his action. And they still are not effective as in the main. Some countries do not have restrictions, some have very small limits on emissions. In general, it is technically difficult because the switch completely to such technologies, so as not to produce no emissions into the atmosphere, is almost impossible. This is a very costly exercise, this one will not go. Therefore rely only on this …
— First, there is absolutely established that people in general are so much strong influence on the climate system. He, of course, influences, no doubt, but the extent of this influence — is a matter of debate. Different scholars have different views.
Measures should be mainly seems to adaptation. Because even without any human climate change is still in its domestic laws. Just humankind must be prepared to climate change in different directions, and taking into account the effects that it can produce.