Creating a temporary middle class
It is known that Yugoslavia was a relatively small country and $ 30 billion received by Tito, was for her a lot of money. Tito has always loved to live in grand style, and once in power, even more so. Have already been described in detail his palace and the residence 21 at Brioni. He created and nurtured a strong police, big money went to partbyurokratii own content, but still, they could not eat through, as they say, in one sitting. And fall to the development of tourism, the construction of strategic highways, representative of hotels, and the purchase of licenses for the development of light industry, the creation of joint ventures with "friendly" western corporations. Financial support for 60-70 years received and convenient credit system that provides distribution and decumulation of the received at the time of IMF loans. Ask any secured Belgrade or Zagreb residents — as he built a luxury home, or — as you have got a luxury apartment? Be sure to follow the spirit of the answer — that's, you know, got in the late sixties / seventies or fifties / s credit on favorable terms, and …!
Artificially overwrought loans standard of living, and on this basis the temporary appearance of the "middle class", the ability to float up to 1.5 million young Yugoslavs and yugoslavok at menial jobs in Western concerns by writing them in the "guest workers", the opening of the western borders to imports of all kinds, creating a stable picture of well-being. At the perfect time late fifties — seventies, the pro-government press (and the other was not), effusively praised such a good "market, humane, arbitrarily, democratic" socialism. However, at the same time, this same press, "Politics", "Fight", "Bulletin of the" other, no, no, and you can read these headlines: "The number of our guest workers reached 1,000,000," " 9000 Yugoslavian girls wash the stairs luxury home in Vienna, "" Creepy living conditions of the miners, "" On the tragic situation of the children of our guest workers "," The growth of drug addiction "," Pornography has captivated kiosks cities "and others. Newspapers were filled with information on the many different scams executives and directors who loot arbitrarily lay their teams and the stolen money in foreign banks.
Remembering the life-century ago, prosperous Yugoslav might say, "So what? It was the same cost! But, as we have lived, as we all respected. At the funeral of Tito as much as 126 heads of state arrived! " And the Russian man in the street can also exclaim: "So what? We have such loans, that would have to live like that! " By the last phrase should a minor addition. To a Russian create the same illusion of prosperity, as in Tito's Yugoslavia, Russia must ensure that two conditions must be received 30 billion dollars and 300. And given all of the former republics, and all $ 600 billion and is not adjusted for inflation of the dollar over the years. The second condition is that the West should agree to accept to work for him and those 20-30 million unemployed people of the future, which will create a market environment. But then if you look really, Tito received for the "case", he also attacked the powerful citadel of socialism, which was considered impregnable until 1948. Gorbachev received until the country is falling apart, its 100 billion. And Yeltsin for what to give? Fortress is already taken! Not that $ 600 billion, 30 will not give. Will only be the case if the counter-revolutionary foundations imposed Russia, seriously staggered.
Disillusionment Tito-ism and retribution for evil loans
Yugoslavia took loans and lived her specifically rich life, however, was all in debt. The matter went to a comic-tragic mishap. Appeared in the late eighties press reports that the monetary authorities do not know how much and to whom the state must, and therefore appealed to the foreign "experts" is to help sort out this complicated case. Any business executive, and the more statesman knows (the common people this truth long ago learned by heart), which is for loans from friends it is necessary, if not tomorrow, then the day after, pay, and for the more diabolical loans. This, of course, does not apply to managers who believe that "after them, the deluge."
Most of the 1.5 million migrant workers, the Yugoslavs and their wives worked hard in factories, hotels and hospitals, street medics and bouncers in the brothels of Hamburg and Amsterdam, Munich and Wuppertal, Hanover, Zurich, Norrköping, Graz, Gothenburg, Liege and other Cities "developed" West. They sought to save up money for their work in order to then in the road south — as they affectionately called his native Yugoslavia — to build a house, open a workshop in their field and begin to live again in their own land. Some of them could not stand the Western way of life, and rolled down to the bottom of the world, adding to the ranks of the lumpen, gangster and mafia gangs.
About tremendous tragedy of the situation of Yugoslav migrant workers in "civilized" Europe spoke with pain in his books, "Petit prst" (fifth finger) and "People sa 4 prsta" Serbian writer Bulatovic. These books are quite by accident have not been translated and published in Russian efforts all the same, "sixties", because it would be a severe blow to their beloved Tito-ism, reformism and Western idolatry.
It should also be remembered that all migrant workers were under the pressure of systematic indoctrination Americanized European mass culture mixed with skillful social democratic demagogy, and the addition of the insidious influence of Catholicism, Protestantism, fundamentalism, and even under continuous treatment nationalist emigre organizations Ustasha, Chetniks, etc. The working class is under the influence of artificially raising the living standards of the population, followed by a propaganda gain by any means, disconnectable nationalist movements in the country, flourishing within a framework of "market socialism", unfortunately, could not, in the face of the cult of personality, followed by a rigid dictatorship, unite to the protection of their interests and the interests of the state.
So the years passed, approaching retribution — an economic disaster in 1989 and the bloody denouement in 1991.
December 18, 1989, in his report to Parliament penultimate Prime Minister of Yugoslavia A.Markovich talking about the causes of the economic catastrophe in which Yugoslavia was based on the economic analysis made bitter but truthful conclusion, which consists in the fact that the economic system of "market, arbitrarily, humane, democratic "socialism, which was created by Tito on the idea of the West and that they were building for thirty-plus years with the help of loans from the West and its allies, with no systematic annual subsidies the IMF and other organizations, and is not viable due to the termination of the subsidies," has died "(Why stopped subsidies A.Markovich does not have, and will talk about this below, he stopped for a possible way out of the economic disaster. According to him in 1989, there are only two ways. Either return to a planned economy, or with their eyes open to full restoration of capitalism, with all the ensuing consequences. First way, according A.Markovicha, unfortunately, in 1989 is unrealistic, because demands that Yugoslavia was based on the strength of the socialist community and the Soviet Union, but under the leadership of Gorbachev, these states are so weak that not only others, but ourselves and are unlikely to help. A second way is possible only in case of Western investment in full. western capital should be given guarantees that he can buy in Yugoslavia whatever he pleases — the land, factories, mines, roads all of which must be guaranteed by the new federal law, which must be immediately adopted. Markovich appealed to Western capital to accelerate investment and take the team to implement them.
And for that, as is often the case, the tragedy has turned into a farce, Markovic, feeling that the West with the investment will not be in a hurry, had to turn to the Yugoslavs — billionaires who run away with stolen people's money to the West and the Yugoslav tribunal convicted a 60 — 80 years with the lacrimal request to show "patriotism" and invest their money (they were about $ 7 billion) in the Yugoslav economy, to show an example of Western capital. On the Yugoslav side, said A.Markovich, they will be guaranteed the same rights as the Western capitalists.
By the way, the reader must pay attention to some similarity "uplytiya" Yugoslav labor billion 60's — 80's with "uplytiem" Russian labor billion over 90 years in the same luxurious Western banks, with the only difference being that Russian "uplyvshih" billions will be at least an order of magnitude greater. And no wonder — the country is an order of magnitude or more and richer. More surprising. It turns out in Russia are unfortunate policy and would-be leaders who, like the former prime minister of Yugoslavia Markovic, hoping that today's homegrown entrepreneur thief thieves to show their "patriotism" and show an example of how well the foreign investors to invest their capital in the dubious deal . That's true, the top end of the XX century demagoguery!
Of course, no western rich nor the Yugoslav-rich crooks who live in the West, did not rush to the aid of Yugoslavia. They have either been informed or his spinal cord sensed that the strategic and geopolitical interests of the West is ordained for posttitovskoy Yugoslavia early 90's a third way — the way of total collapse and disintegration of the country. Why?
Christianity, the cult of Tito's personality and administrative boundaries of the Yugoslav republics of the Union
Before attempting to answer why this is the civilized West purposed for the way the collapse of Yugoslavia and the dismemberment of her early 90s, and why Yugoslavia fell apart rather quickly, it is necessary to consider other factors that influenced the adoption of such a solution, and provide a fairly easy implementation of planned .
If we consider the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on religious grounds, as is known, the three republics — Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia were Orthodox, two — Croatia and Slovenia were Catholic, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina Orthodox Serbs lived, then the Serbs took during the Turkish the yoke of Islam and about 18% of the Croatian Catholic population.
It should be noted that long before the Turkish invasion of the Balkans in the XIV century, is continually faced with the X century, yet the two religions — Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The expansion of Catholicism, the Vatican pursued since the early Middle Ages to the present day, was not a success, because in X-XIV centuries, Catholicism is not perceived by the Serbian Orthodox principalities and kingdoms located in the territory of today's Republic of Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The dividing line between Orthodoxy and Catholicism came from the Adriatic Equal Kotar, Lika through the rivers Quran, Coupe, Sava and further Pakrac. Even Bohemia and Moravia in the IX century were Orthodox, while zealous servants of Rome is not blinded and drove Methodius. The Turkish invasion in the XIV-XV centuries destroyed the Serbian principality and has led to the planting in the cities and towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Islam and Islamization of the Serbian population in these places.
But after the collapse of the Turkish Empire in the XIX century, Bosnia and Herzegovina occupies the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the watershed boundary between Orthodoxy and Catholicism moves conditional on the east — on the river Drina, and more specifically on the administrative borders of the Orthodox states of Serbia and Montenegro, on the one hand and the Roman Catholic Austro-Hungarian Empire on the other. The fight against the Catholic expansion continued. On her way there were little freedom Slavic states to defend their independence in the fire of a long struggle for national liberation against the five centuries of Turkish rule. At the same objective historical evidence suggests that the long struggle of Serbian and Montenegrin people for their freedom Orthodox Church has always maintained as it could, and in the period of a powerful popular uprising of 1804-1813 it straight sided with the rebels. The hero of the uprising Archpriest Matija Nenadović, a close ally Karageorgiou, was not only his secretary, a diplomat and a priest in the army, but if necessary, and the Commander of large units, often personally involved in bloody melee with the oppressors.
In World War I, when a small Serbia in 1914 rejected an ultimatum to the Catholic Habsburg Empire, the Serbian Orthodox Church was again on the side of his freedom-loving people and the possible help in 1939, the Vatican tried to split the Serbian Orthodox Church, offering a lot of political pressure to sign so-called "concordat" contract bearing the large concessions to Catholicism by type Uniate Greek Catholic Church in Western Ukraine. Serbian Patriarch Barnabas appealed to the people, it was the mass support of the claim and rejected the Vatican. The onslaught of Catholicism was repulsed, but the patriarch Barnabas as a punishment for disobedience was poisoned.
And in the Second World War of 1941-1945, often in guerrilla groups and in the national liberation movement were to be found the Orthodox clergy. This was, for example, pop Zechevich who had joined the insurgent people and subsequently participated in the highest bodies of popular power generated by partisans of free territories. Such was the priest Ivan Nikolic, a member of the rebellion against the German invaders, an active member of resistance, for which the Chetniks, catching him, stabbed Finke. One can cite the names of dozens of priests, have risen at a difficult time for the insurgent and who fought for freedom of the people.
Of course, we can not remain silent about the fact that when the Orthodox Church became the state religion, it was attached to the ruling classes. But these facts peacetime should not obscure the historical truth and that in the difficult years of the struggle for freedom of the Orthodox Church was always on the side of the people.
The Catholic Church, led by the Vatican, to keep under its control half of the world for centuries dominated in all the great empires of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies with their bessmetnymi in the west to the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the East. Of course, it is in compliance with its interests and has been a reliable mainstay of the exploiting classes of the same states. The historical context in which it existed and operated, causing it permanent, with few exceptions, reactionary. If you look at its role in the Balkans, then in Croatia for example, in the Middle Ages it was constantly on the side of "yasnovelmozhnyh" mostly German and Hungarian feudal lords and barons. Therefore, it is logical that if the great rebel — the leader of the Serbian peasant masses in the struggle for freedom Karageorgiou, the Orthodox Church has supported non-state, then this is a great son of the Croatian people, the leader of the peasant masses deprived of Croatia in the struggle for social and national liberation in the XVI century — Matiyu Gubtsa rich Catholic brothers with the blessing of the Vatican ruling, catching, "crowned" white-hot iron crown.
No doubt, the Catholic Church has put forward one of their number of brilliant minds and personalities — such as Campanella, Giordano Bruno, Galileo Galilei, Munzer, Copernicus, Guss, Croatia — nadbiskup Dyakovitsky Shtrosmaer, but they are all in varying degrees of repressed Vatican. For the mere acceptance of the idea of the brotherhood of the South Slavic peoples and its propaganda Shtrosmaera systematically persecuted. It is known that Protestantism has pressed the Vatican to the pedestal of the main ideologist of the horn and the exploiting classes. In the struggle against Protestantism turf Catholicism in a number of regions of the strategy shifts. In Latin and South America, often acting as a defender of the poor and oppressed. But it is in the far South America. At home, here at hand in the Balkans in the struggle against the Orthodox Church, he knows no mercy.
In the middle of the XX century the Vatican with a zeal worthy of a better cause, welcomed the formation of Hitler in 1941 on the ruins of the Yugoslav kingdom fascist state headed by the Ustashe. With the blessing of the Vatican Ustashi carried out a genocide of Orthodox Serbs, who lived for centuries in their lands of Serbian Krajina, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Slavonia. In its brutality and savagery of World War II with this genocide can be put on a par with their only American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Was a logical and, for example, a step the Vatican during World War II. In February 1942, a small area of Vojvodina — Srem, ceded by the decision of Hitler newborn ustashskomu state, the Vatican has decided to convert to Catholicism overnight. In Srem population was entirely orthodox. Frater caught up, caught up ustashskih thugs went villages and communicate their solutions. Of course, the Serbian people reared together with Orthodox priests and under the leadership of Communist Srem became one of the strongholds of reliable national-liberation movement.
So why, in this situation, "merit" in Yugoslavia led by Tito, the Catholic Church enjoyed much greater freedom of action than Orthodoxy? To answer this question it is necessary to dwell on one point.
There was one question, it would seem, do not play any role in the post-war period of thirty years, and suddenly jumped in the late 80's and early 90's to the forefront, right on the edge of a knife. Is it about the administrative boundaries of the six republics. After Croat felt good and Belgrade, and Skopje and Ljubljana. Serb lived quietly in Slovenia, Bosnia, Osijek and Vukovar, etc. Battle cry of brotherhood and unity was in the war and in the first years after the war, a fundamental and seemingly unshakable. But if you look closely at the administrative borders of the republics in the Yugoslav inquisitive scholar of history and ethnography could be various issues. Why is it, for example, moved Baranja region of Croatia, Dalmatia why, never was a part of Croatia, has at least autonomy, why large areas, as the Serbian Krajina, Slavonia, Lika and areas inhabited by Serbs, have no autonomy in Croatia, but in Serbia formed two large autonomy and the rights of the republics of Serbia itself curtailed under Turkish rule as to the boundaries of the "Belgrade pashaluka?" Why is the famous Montenegrin Boka Kotorska fjord locked Croatian isthmus? Why Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, since it was formed as an independent unit, has a ridiculous way out to the Adriatic Sea just a few kilometers, and Croatia — more than a thousand miles away?
Why is this a 1948 ABC kirillika under various pretexts, forced out of the items and even the famous Serbian plum brandy, "Monastirka" and "Klekovacha" wrote eleven centuries kirillikoy, suddenly began to be written in Latin script? For the patriarchal Serbian peasant it was nonsense, the mind boggles.
So why Tito, despite the fundamental slogans of brotherhood and unity, under their prikrggiem without raising much noise, crossed lop Croatia and Serbia? After all, there is a fundamental breach and could, under certain conditions, they float to the surface and turn against the author of violations. Involved are purely subjective factor, which, unfortunately, often acting under the influence of personal interests. Being a Croat-Slovene nationality, and giving priority to its activities primarily their own interests it — Tito personally crucial questions of administrative boundaries, feared that in Serbia, the main largest on militancy, economic power and a huge contribution to the People's Liberation Movement, the victims being brought to the altar of freedom, can easily move out a new, more wise, capable and visionary leader, and so many ways to diminish, lop, pinch Serbia. Through a policy of anti-Serb Tito forced myself to forget about what he said during the hardest days of November 1942. But that does not make for the sake of retaining power, for the glorification of his greatness! He even went to the open form of Bonapartism forcing obedient parliament written into the Constitution, it is a life-Tito President and the Charter of the League of Communists of record that he — Tito is the Chairman of the Communist irremovable as Tito claimed Organization (??) .
This is, in a very concentrated form visible to the entire essence and Tito-ism and "democratic" system based on Western money. The personality cult of Tito arranged and the Anglo-Americans, and the Vatican, as long as they served it faithfully. Contributed to inflating the cult of Tito's personality and lack of governance in the system of feedback and levers that would prevent this.
Unfortunately, cults of personality and the top leaders staged socialist states of the postwar period, and they are now clearly visible, were one of the major causes of damage control systems socialist states. As we know, unfortunately, has not yet developed any theory, evidence-based design, no serious practical measures absolutely eliminate this shameful phenomenon in the labor movement that transformed the leaders of the socialist states in the brake on social development and contributed to the 1991 catastrophic defeat of the first workers' and peasants' state — the Soviet Union, a major defeat of the communist movement of the working people of the world. Of course, the genius of the proletarian revolution, VI Lenin this deficiency in the development of the theory and practice of the socialist state would make up with his scientific depth and specificity, however, is known to be the counter-revolution, unfortunately, is not missed, causing their shots during Lenin heavy blow for the relevant theoretical developments and to ensure a conditions of victorious socialism real democracy.
Now this task arose to his full height and need it to be solved by progressive people of the labor movement in the near future. As the reality of the end of the XX century, without addressing these issues and bring them to the masses of workers can not be a major consolidation of the forces of the working-class and communist movement and its movement towards future victories.
From the book by Predrag Milicevic "Six West's aggression against South Slavs in XX — century"
Mr. Hu of Tito?
A cautionary tale about how the general secretary of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia became a revolutionary artist and marketer of ideas of Western strategists
The strategic plans of the West and its implementation through Tito's Market, "humane", "democratic", "arbitrarily" socialism on Western money