The largest eruption Facts
Toba Volcano is located in the north-central part of the island of Sumatra (Indonesia).
Besides the fact that it has the largest — 1775 km ² — caldera (depression with steep walls, formed as a result of the failure of the top of the volcano), scientists believe that the eruption of the volcano 75 thousand years ago, a serious impact on the fauna and flora of the Earth and nearly destroyed the human race .
This eruption mankind has never known. From the depths of the volcano has been thrown over a thousand cubic kilometers of magma, which is enough to cover the entire territory of Russia vosmisantimetrovym layer of lava. The blast column of hot gas and ash instantly reached the edge of the stratosphere at 50 km, and poured out on the surface of more than 2800 cubic kilometers of magma, sometimes tens of meters thick. When the dome of the volcano collapsed inward, into a giant hot air up the ash cloud. They were moving at a speed of almost 400 kilometers per hour, melting the rocks in its path and burning all life. In India, the ash from the Toba volcano went places a layer of six meters. At the site of the volcano crater length of 100 kilometers and a width of 35 kilometers.
Released into the atmosphere ash covered the sun for six months. The planet began volcanic winter, the temperature dropped to 11-16 degrees. Cooling lasted 1.8 million years. As a result, lost five out of six large creatures that inhabited the Earth. Humanity fortunate even less — of the millions inhabiting planet survivors of cooling from 3000 to 20 000. It is believed that, in evolutionary terms, mankind has been set back by 2 million years.
In support of this the largest in the history of the Earth's volcanic eruption, scientists shows the evolution of flora that time and study solidified volcanic ash in India, Indonesia and adjacent waters. Indirect confirmation of this data are also genetic studies in recent years showing a marked reduction in genetic diversity among modern humans 100-50 thousand years ago. This suggests that the size of their population declined sharply.