Two air divisions and mix jet bombers was ordered on high alert to expect the order to probable bombing of the Kremlin.
Then he was voiced version of all of these manufacturers: Minister of Internal Affairs Beria was preparing municipal upheaval that was required to warn of the Beria was arrested, tried and executed. 50 years, this version would not be questioned by anyone.
Ordinary, well, not so ordinary person knows about Laurentia Beria's only two things: he was a butcher and sultry maniac. All other seized from history. So even wonder why Stalin had suffered about myself this worthless and a dark figure? Afraid of what? Riddle.
Yes niskolechko not afraid! And there is no mystery. Moreover, without the awareness of the role of this person is unrealistic to realize the Stalin era. Because in fact it was totally because people have invented later, seized power in the USSR and privatizing all the victories and achievements of their predecessors.
On a completely different Laurentia Beria on the pages of our newspaper journalist knows St. Petersburg Lena Prudnikova, the creator of the sensational historical investigation of historical and journalistic participant of the "Mysteries of History."
"Economic Miracle" in ZakavkazeO "Japanese economic miracle" we have heard many. But who knows about the Georgian?
In autumn 1931 the first secretary of the Communist Party of Georgia was a young KGB officer Beria — personality is very noticeable. In '20 he ran an illegal network in the Menshevik Georgia. In the 23rd, when the country was under the control of the Bolsheviks ran across, struggled with gang violence and headed for impressive results — the beginning of the year in Georgia, there were 31 gang, by the end of the year there were only 10. In the 25th Beria was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. By 1929, he became chairman of the GPU directly Transcaucasia and an authorized representative of the OGPU in the region. But, surprisingly, with the KGB service Beria stubbornly tried to leave, hoping to finish in the end education and become a builder.
In 1930, he even wrote a desperate letter to Ordzhonikidze. "Dear Sergo! I know you will say that now is not the time to raise the question of the study. But that still do. I feel that I can not go on. "
In Moscow, complied with the request exactly the opposite. Thus, the fall of 1931, Beria became the first secretary of the Communist Party of Georgia. A year later — the first secretary of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee, practically owned the region. And that's about how it worked in the post, we read a very, very not love.
Rayonchik Beria got one yet. Industry as such was not. Poor, hungry margin. As you know, since 1927, the USSR was collectivized. By 1931, the collective farms in Georgia managed to drive 36% of the farms, but the least hungry population of this no more.
Then Beria made the move stallion. He suspended the collectivization. Left alone privateers. But in the collective farms began to grow not bread and corn, from which sense was not as valuable crops: tea, citrus, tobacco and grapes. And this is where the big farms were justified by 100 percent! Collective farms have become richer with such speed that farmers themselves pushed into them. By 1939, without any compulsion, it was 86% socialized farms. One example: in 1930, the area of the tangerine plantation was a half thousand hectares in 1940 — 20 thousand. Yields from the 1st of wood has increased, in some households — as many as 20 times. When you go to the market for the Abkhaz tangerines, remember Beria!
In the industry, he has worked just as well. For the first five years, the gross industrial output alone Georgia increased almost 6 times. During the second five-year period — even in 5 times. In other Caucasian republics was the same. Specifically, when Beria, for example, started to drill the Caspian Sea, for which he is blamed for extravagance, Why bother with all this nonsense! But now for Caspian oil and for its transportation routes is a real war between the superpowers.
At the same time, and the Caucasus became "spa capital" of the USSR — who then thought about the "resort business?" By level of education in 1938, Georgia has left on one of the first places in the Union, and the number of students on a thousand souls overtaken the UK and Germany.
In short, for the seven years that Beria had held the post of the "main man" in the Caucasus, he swung backward economy of the republics that right up to the 90's they were one of the richest in the Union. If you look, medical economics, carried out the restructuring of the Soviet Union, there is a lot to learn from this security officer.
But there was a time when no political windbags, and specifically business executives valued its weight in gold. Stalin could not miss such a person. And the purpose of Beria to Moscow was not the result of hardware intrigue, as at the moment trying to imagine a completely legitimate thing: man, so working in the region, can be trusted with a huge business in the country.
Raging Blade Revolution
We Beria's first name is associated with repression. On this occasion, let the most common question: When were the "Beria repression"? Date, please! It does not exist. For the unfortunate "37th year" meets the then chief of the NKVD Comrade Yezhov. Even such was the expression — "iron fist." The post-war repression also conducted when Beria in the bodies did not work, and he came back in 1953, the first thing he did — they graduated.
When were "Beria rehabilitation" — is the history of recorded correctly. A "Beria repression" — pure product of "black PR".
And that was in effect?
With the leadership of the Cheka-OGPU country had no luck from the start. Dzerzhinsky was a strong-willed and honest man, but a very busy job in the government, gave authority to the deputy. His successor Menzhinsky was seriously ill and did the same thing. The main frames of the "organs" were appointees of times plainclothes war, poorly educated, besprintsipialnye and ruthless, you can imagine for yourself what obstanovochka there reigned. Especially since that since the late 20's heads this department more nervously treated to what else control over their own activities:
Yezhov was a man of "bodies" is new, started well but quickly fell under the influence of its own deputy Frinovsky. He taught the basics of the new People's Commissar of the KGB right "at work". Ase were very ordinary: the more people will catch opponents, the better; thrash can and should be, and the peel and drinking — even more fun. Intoxicated with vodka, blood and impunity Commissar soon frankly "floated". His new eyes, he did not particularly hide from others. "What are you afraid of? — Read it in one of the banquet rooms. — For all the power in our hands. Anyone willing — will execute someone willing — Mila: After all, we — that is all. It is necessary that everything from the Regional Secretary, walking under you: "If the secretary had to go under the head of the regional department of the NKVD, who on earth had to go under Yezhov? With such personnel and such
deadly gaze of the NKVD was not safe for the authorities and for the country.
Hard to say, when the Kremlin began to consider what is happening. Perhaps, somewhere in the first half of 1938. But understand — understand how to unleash the monster?
Exit — to plant their own rights, such loyalty, courage and professionalism, that he was able, on the one hand, to cope with the NKVD, and the other — to stop the monster. Almost Stalin was a great selection of similar people. Ok, though one was found.
Curbing the NKVD
In 1938, Beria was in the rank of Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs became the manager of the Head of State Security management, taking over the controls very unsafe structure. Almost immediately, exactly under the November prazdnichkom was biased and largely arrested the entire top of the Commissariat. Then, having placed in the top positions of reliable people, Beria began to deal with the fact that his predecessor had done.
Presumptuous security officers fired, arrested, and some people and shot. (By the way, then again in 1953, becoming the minister of the interior, you know what Beria issued orders to the very first? About prohibiting torture, he knew where he was going.
Bodies brushed cool: from privates were fired 7372 people (22.9%), of the governing — 3830 people (62%). Immediately began to engage in checking complaints and review of cases.
Placed in the near future data have allowed to assess the extent of the work. For example, during the years 1937-38 from the army for political reasons was laid off about 30 thousand people. Returned to action after a change of control of the NKVD 12.5 thousand. Comes out to about 40%.
According to the most approximate estimates, as the full details hitherto not been published, up to and including 1941 have been released from camps and prisons 150-180 thousand people from 630 thousand in the years of the Yezhov terror convicts. In other words about 30 percent.
"Normalize" the NKVD had for a long time to finish and failed, even though the work was carried out right up to the 1945. Other times have to face the facts quite indescribable. For example, in 1941, especially in those places where the Germans were advancing, the prisoners are not a special ceremony — the war, they say, write everything off. But to write off the war failed. From 22 June to 31 December 1941 (the most languid months of the war!) Prosecuted for abuse of power has been drawn 227 of the NKVD. Of these 19 people for extrajudicial executions have the highest measure.
Repression in this environment — the theme is special. Who and under what circumstances, planted developers of military equipment in the criteria for the coming war? Not a rhetorical question. In-1's, there was a real NKVD agents in Germany, which actually set the real German intelligence tried to neutralize the Russian defense industry right people. In-2, and "dissidents" in those days was nothing less than the end of the 80s. Also Wednesday is indescribably ugly, and denounced it has always been a lover means of settling scores and career growth.
It seems however, taking Commissariat of Internal Affairs, Beria was faced with a fact: in his department were arrested hundreds of scientists and engineers whose work is just desperately need the country.
As is now stylishly read — feel yourself Commissar!
Before you lies the cause. This person may be povinet, and may be innocent, but it is necessary. What to do? Write: "Liberate", showing an example of a subordinate working characteristics of lawlessness? Inspect the case? Yes, of course, but you wardrobe, in which 600 thousand cases. Almost on each of them to carry out the re-investigation, and no personnel. If the question about the already convicted, it is necessary to achieve the cancellation of the same sentence. From whom to start? With scientists? With the military? And time goes by, people sit, the war is getting closer …
Beria bearings quickly. Already 10 January 1939, he signed a decree on the organization of major technical bureau. Subject of research — a purely military: aircraft, shipbuilding, missiles, armored steel. Professionals from these sectors, sit in jail, forms the entire group.
When the opportunity to tuck, Beria tried to free these people. For example, the designer of aircraft Tupolev May 25, 1940 announced the sentence — 15 years in the camps, and in the summer he was released under an amnesty. Designer Petlyakov was pardoned on July 25, and in January 1941 he was awarded the Stalin Prize. A large group of military equipment was set free in the summer of 1941, another — in 1943, others were freed from 1944 to 1948.
When you read the writing on Beria, create memories that he had caught the war and "enemies of the people." Yes of course! He had nothing to do! March 21, 1941 Beria was appointed Deputy Chairman of the CPC. For a start, he oversees Commissariats timber, coal and oil industry, ferrous metallurgy, adding here soon and the steel industry. And from the very beginning of the war on his shoulders lay down more and more defense industry, as at first he was not a security officer and party activist and organizer of a beautiful production. That's why he and charged in 1945, the nuclear project, on which depended the very existence of the Union of Russian.
He wanted to punish the murderers of Stalin. And for that he himself destroyed
The two chief
Within a week after the war, on June 30, was established by the emergency authority — Municipal Committee of Defence, which is concentrated in the hands of all power in the country. Chairman of the T-bills, of course, was Stalin. But who came into the office but him? This question is in most publications neatly bypassed. According to one very common reason in the middle of five members of T-bills is one unstated corollary personality. In the short history of the second world war (1985 issue) in the index of names given in the end of the book, where there are such important dates for the victory of the individual, as Ovid and Sandor Petofi, Beria's not. Was not, was at war, did not participate … So here goes: there were 5 people. Stalin, Molotov, Malenkov, Beria, Voroshilov. And the three Commissioners: Ascension, Mikoyan, Kaganovich. But it soon became a war bring about changes. Since February 1942 Beria was in charge instead of the Ascension creation of weapons and ammunition. Officially. (And in fact, he did that in the summer of 1941.) That same winter in his hands is the creation and tanks. Again, not because of any intrigue, as well as his best output. The results of Beria is best seen from the figures. June 22 if the Germans had 47 thousand guns and mortars against our 36 thousand, then by November 1, 1942, these characteristics equal, and by January 1, 1944, we had them 89 thousand against the German 54.5 thousand. From 1942 to 1944 the USSR produced by two thousand tanks a month, far ahead of Germany.
May 11, 1944 Beria became chairman of the Operations Bureau of T-bills and the Deputy Chairman of the Committee, almost — the second after Stalin's man in the country. August 20, 1945, he takes on the difficult task since that was a matter of survival for the Soviet Union — became the chairman of the Special Committee to develop an atomic bomb (where he made another magic — the first Russian atomic bomb, against all expectations, has been tested only four years later, on August 20, 1949).
Not one person from the Politburo, well, in general no one in the Soviet U
nion did not come even close to Beria's largest tasks, in terms of opportunities, yes, of course, just the scale of the individual. In fact, the post-war Soviet Union was at the time a binary star system: the septuagenarian Stalin and the young — in 1949 he was only 50 — Beria. The President and his natural successor.
Specifically, this fact Khrushchev and posthruschevskie historians and hid so carefully in the funnels and omissions under piles of heresy. Because if June 23, 1953 destroyed the interior minister — it is also drawn to the struggle against the coup, and if the head of the country destroyed — this is the one most, putsch, and there is …
The script of Stalin
If we trace the information on Beria kochuyuschuyu from edition to edition, to its source, then almost all of it stems from memories of Khrushchev. A man who actually believe and can not, because of his memoirs collation with other sources in their transcendent issue of inaccurate information.
Who has not made "political science" analysis of the situation of winter 1952-1953 period. Which songs do not come up with what options are not counted. That Beria and Malenkov was blocked, with Khrushchev that he was on his own … In these analyzes only sin — to them, usually, completely eliminated the figure of Stalin. Taciturn is that the leader of that time retired, was almost in insanity … only one source — the memoirs of Nikita Sergeyevich.
But why, in fact, we have to believe them? A son Sergo Beria, for example, during 1952, fifteen times who saw Stalin's meetings on missile armaments, recalled that the leader does not seem enfeebled mind … The period after the war, our history is dark more than doryurikovskaya Our homeland. What was happening in the country, do not really know, for sure, no one. It is clear that after 1949 Stalin pulled back somewhat from the cases, leaving the whole of "churn" in the course and to Malenkov. But one thing is clear: something is being cooked. Based on indirect evidence it is believed that Stalin devised some very great reform, first economically, and even later, can be political. Clearly something else: the leader was old and sick, well knew that, did not suffer the lack of courage and could not help but think what would happen to the state after his death, and did not find a successor. If Beria was at least some other nationality, there were no problems whatsoever. But one after the other Georgians on the throne of the empire! At this would not have gone even Stalin. It is understood that after the war, Stalin slowly, but inexorably squeezed party apparatus of the captain's cabin. Naturally, these functionaries would not be satisfied. In October 1952, at the Congress of the Communist Party, Stalin gave the party a decisive battle, asking to release it from its obligations Secretary General. It did not work, do not let go. Then Stalin invented a combination that simply read through: the head of state is pre-frail figure, but the real head of the "gray eminence", is formally on the sidelines. And so it happened: after the death of Stalin, Malenkov was the first passive, but actually ran Beria policy. He not only had an amnesty. Behind him is, for example, a resolution condemning forcibly Russification of Lithuania and Western Ukraine, and he offered the perfect solution to the "German" question if Beria had remained in power, the Berlin wall would simply not exist. Oh, and incidentally, he returned to his "normalization" of the NKVD, the rehabilitation process is running, so that Khrushchev and the company later had only been going to jump on the train, pretending that they were there from the beginning.
It later they were that were not "agree" with Beria that he is their "crushed." Later, they read as a lot of things. And in fact completely agree with Beria initiatives.
But then something happened.
Relaxed! This is a revolution!
On June 26, the Kremlin was scheduled meeting or the Presidium of the Central Committee, the Presidium of the Council of Ministers or. According to the official version, it came to the military, headed by Marshal Zhukov, the members of the Presidium called them into the office, and those arrested Beria. Later he was taken to a special bunker in the yard of Staff CVM troops, conducted the investigation and was shot. This version does not hold water. Why — to talk about it for a long time, but it has a lot of inconsistencies and outright exaggeration … Let's just say one thing: none of the third-party, non-interested people after June 26, 1953 Beria was not alive beheld. Last beheld his son Sergo — in the morning, in the country. In his memoirs, my father was going to call in on a city apartment, and later go to the Kremlin, to the meeting of the Bureau. Around afternoon Sergo called his friend, pilot Amet-Khan, and said that the house was fire-Beria and his father, apparently, is no longer alive. Sergo, together with a member of the Special Committee Vannikov, rushed to the address and time to behold the broken windows, broken doors, wall-strewn trails mnogokalibernogo bullets from a machine gun.
Meanwhile, the Kremlin brought together members of the Bureau. What happened there? Forced his way through the rubble of heresy, the particles recreating what was done, were able to approximately reconstruct the action. After Beria was over, the performers of this operation — presumably they were soldiers from an old, yet the Ukrainian team Khrushchev, whom he took to Moscow, led by Moskalenko — headed to the Kremlin. Immediately there came another group of soldiers. It was headed by Marshal Zhukov, and in the midst of its members was Colonel Leonid Brezhnev. It is interesting, is not it? Further, presumably because all unfolded. In the middle of the coup were at least two members of the Presidium — Khrushchev and Bulganin Defense (they always refer to their own memoirs Moskalenko and others). They put the other members of the government before the fact: Beria killed this have to do something. The whole team was necessarily in the same boat and began to hide the ends. Where else interesting: what destroyed Beria?
The other day he came back from a ten-day trip to Germany, met with Malenkov, discuss with them day or agenda of the meeting on June 26. Everything was perfect. If something happened, in the last day. And, most likely, it has something to do with the upcoming meeting. However, there is a day or agenda, which is preserved in the archives of Malenkov. But most likely, it's lime. No information about what really should have been devoted to the meeting, did not survive. It seems to be … But there was one person who could know about it. Sergo Beria said in an interview that his father had told him in the morning at the cottage that meeting on the future he is going to claim from the Bureau of sanctions on the arrest of former minister of state security Ignatieff.
But now everything is clear! So that clearly does not happen. The fact that Ignatieff was in charge of the protection of Stalin in the last year of his life. That he was a man who knew what happened to Stalin's dacha on the night of March 1, 1953, when the leader of a heart attack. But it turned out there is something about which many years later, the survivors continued bestalantno watchmen and very obviously lying. And even then, Beria, who kissed the hand of the dying Stalin would have pulled out all his secrets Ignatieff. And then the political process to the world of him and his partners in crime, no matter what positions are not occupied. It's just his style … No, thereby accomplices under no circumstances should be allowed to arrest Beria Ignatieff. But it will keep the? It remained only to destroy — and this was done … Well, later is hidden ends. By order of the Defense Minister Bulganin was arranged terrific "Tanks-show" (just as bestalantno repeated in 1991). Khrushchev's l
awyers under the new Attorney General Rudenko, also a native of the Ukraine, staged court (mock — up to the present time hobby prosecutors). Later, the memory of everything decent that did Beria was painstakingly blocked out, and put into use vulgar tales of bloody butcher and sexy maniac. As part of the "black PR" Khrushchev was gifted. It seems that it was only his talent …
And the sex-maniac, he also was not!
The idea to present Beria sultry maniac was first announced at the plenary session of the Central Committee in July 1953. SHatalin secretary of the Central Committee, which, he claimed, did a search of his office Beria, found in the safe, "a large number of items of male libertine." Later came the watchman Beria Sarkisov, telling about his numerous connections with the ladies. Of course, none of it is not inspected, but the rumor was started up and went for a walk in the country. "As a morally corrupt man, Beria cohabited with numerous women …" — wrote the investigators in the "sentence."
There is in fact, and the list of these ladies. That's just bad luck: he is almost completely the same as the list of ladies who lived with whom he was accused was arrested a year before the head of Stalin's general Vlasic. It is necessary, if not lucky Beria. These abilities were, and battered women just out of Vlasik! And if no laughter, the easier the usual: they took out of the case Vlasik list and prisobachil to the "case of Beria." Check, then who will? Nina Beria many years later in one of his own interview said very ordinariness of the phrase: "It's amazing: Laurence day and night was busy with work, when he was dealing with a legion of ladies!" Ride through the streets, take them on holiday villas and is also a home for herself, where she was a Georgian wife and son lived with his family. In general, when it comes to that, that denigrate unsafe enemy who is interested in what was in effect?