Penal battalions fronts and separate penal company were established in fulfillment of the order of People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR № 227 dated July 28, 1942, which became known as Stalin's order, "Not one step back." Contrary to a popular destination telepodelke reality does not fit with the liberal legends.
The order number 227, and it is stated:
"1. Military councils of the fronts and the first commander of fronts:
a) eliminate all means of retreat mood in the army and a steel hand stop propaganda that we can and should Tipo retreat further to the east, that from that retreat will not harm Tipo;
b) certainly remove from their posts and sent to bid for a military court verbovaniya army commanders who accepted troop withdrawals from occupied positions without orders Front Command;
c) Form of the front boundaries from 1 to 3 (looking at the situation) penal battalions (of 800 people), which direct the middle and senior commanders and political workers of the respective arms, guilty of a breach of discipline by cowardice or instability, and put them on a more difficult parts of the front, in order to give them an opportunity to atone for the blood of his crimes against the Motherland. "
8th separate penal battalion
And in August 1, 1942 the commander of the Stalingrad Front, Lieutenant General Gordov ordered the troops of the 62nd Army: "1. 3.8.42 To form two front punitive battalions of 800 men each, to guide middle and senior commanders and political workers of the respective guilty of breaches of discipline by cowardice or instability. "
We formed on temporary states 1 and 2 battalions and the rooms were also temporary, for vnutrifrontovogo use. By the end of September, it became clear that the two penal battalion front, now Don, staff fails.
By order of the troops number 09/0125 of 30 September 1942 2nd Err was disbanded and its officers and political composition (33 people) is oriented to resupply the 1st.
Shtrafbat had the room first. On any front, where he later formed battalions, their numbers began with the number 1. Only much later, November 25, 1942 order of the chief of the Head Orgshtatnogo management control formation of the Red Army number org. / 2/78950 penal battalions all fronts were numbered.
December 14, 1942 order of the battalion number 120, it was announced that a separate penal battalion of the Don Front assigned number 8. Commander and military commissioner Err picking and claimed Front Military Council. The battalion commander had the right to division commander. Battalion commander and headquarters were allowed to look for a suitable company commanders and platoon leaders in a separate regiment reserve officers (POLL).
Unchanging core Err, not including the commander and commissar, deputy battalion consisted of (at drill parts), and the political apparatus of staff officers, commanders and political instructors of 3 rifle companies and a company antitank guns, platoon commanders and political instructors, several commissaries, medic and voenfeldshera. In addition to the officers in the companies were based on the same six sergeants and Red (clerk-kaptenarius, medical instructor and four stretcher-bearer). Only from neshtrafnikov platoon consisted of Supply and later provided a staff platoon curfew, which came in the puzzle reliable security staff with a variety of documents for each penalty box.
The term of service in officer positions in parts of the penalty according to the order number 298 NGOs — 42 years 1 month shall be calculated for the purpose of pension under 6.
Testimony of the witness
On August 15, 1942 in the 1st Err Stalingrad Front 95 servicemen were considered fixed composition (29 of them over the state to special order). It's been proven fighting men.
Began to wage war in the 8th Err from September 1942 as deputy commander of the mortar platoon for political affairs, political instructor Paul I. Piunov said of his own destiny in the constant composition penal battalion. In September 1942, officers of the 27 polls Stalingrad Front was built for purpose in combat units. The representative of the personnel unit of the front (or maybe it was someone from the command staff or Err) was, apparently, a man not without a sense of humor. Declaring that requires command of the battalion officers in the area, he asked if the volunteers. No one stepped forward. "Then — continued hiring manager — volunteers such and fail." And named several names, including the name Piunov. It is possible that in the political instructor Piunov was chosen for the reason that by the time he was gunned fighter, a fighting retreat through Belarus to defend Moscow near Naro-Fominsk. But there have been other examples. Recalls now recognized for its many books on the 8th Err "Battalions" Alexander Pyltsyn, at the end of December 1943, looking at the same poll skinny private affair of the young lieutenant, the chief of staff of the penal battalion Lozovoy Basil Afanasevich said to him: "I do not clear. You go, lieutenant, to us in a penal battalion. "
The first commander of the battalion was assigned to the Major James F. Grigoriev, and the Commissioner — Commissioner Paul battalion Prokhorovich Larenok, which is in the order of the battalion number 1 on August 15, 1942 announced just appointed commander.
For the battalion was mounted special operations officer of the front section of the NKVD lieutenant Paul T. Efimov.
You must know that the variable composition of the penal battalion was equipped with only the guilty officers. Neofitserskih Battalions were not. They should not be confused with the companies of the penalty, which were sent to the enlisted men who showed timidity and alarmism in battle, deserters or committed other crimes. In the 8th Err penalty box called "fighter-peremennik." By their commanders they were treated as usual in the army, for example, Comrade Captain.
In battalions officer could impose a sentence without the division commander of the military court, his equal or more than the highest per head of only timidity or instability on the battlefield for a period of 1 to 3 months. For all other sins determined the fate of the guilty military court was guided, usually that of the 'norm': imprisonment up to 10 years — three months penal battalion, and eight years — two months, and 5 and the least equaled to one month. At the time of stay in the penal penal battalion lost their officer rank and available to the them by the time the awards.
Blood and life
First combat severe loss of 1st penal battalion suffered in the zone of operations of the 24th Army General IV Galanin at an altitude of 108.4 in the village Kotluban Stalingrad area. There, as stated in the order, showing bravery and courage, 19, died the death of the brave "fighters peremennikov" and one commander platoon, 28 "fighters peremennikov" injured. All the victims were buried on the southern slopes of the same height.
Of a number of reports that are available in the Central Archive of Defense in Podolsk, which could see AV Pyltsynu, you can get an idea of what was then the punishment contingent.
So, for example, for the period from 2 October 1942 to 1 January 1943 the battalion received 154 convicted by military courts and 177 aimed at the orders of division commanders and above — for timidity and other transgressions, on the battlefield. Total
— 331 people. During this time, the loss amounted to 71 killed and 138 of the wounded (209 people!).
They redeem themselves, who with blood, and who lives. But here's a few more numbers of those same reports.
Released early for distinguished service, 54 people at the end of the period — 15. Means, without the shedding of blood of 69 penal deserve forgiveness country. Awarded three Orders of the penalty box and medals — 5 (total — eight).
Loss of officers in the middle of a fixed composition: killed — 10 wounded — eight. Awarded medals — two. On December 30, 1942 part of the "fighters peremennikov" 1st Err Don Front was a follow.
The Chiefs of Staff of divisions, brigades and equivalent — 6, commanders of regiments and their equal — 14, the battalion commanders, divisions — 13, the company commanders, batteries — 41, platoon commanders, deputy commanders — 100, tank commanders — 11, staff officers of the regiment , Battalion — 12, political workers regiment, battalion — 11, politruks companies, batteries and equivalent — 26, officers of the Air Force — 24, chiefs, stores, art and the autos — 17, military enlistment office employees, PX — 2, Secretary military court — 1, Especial detective department of the NKVD — 1.
According to military ranks: colonel and his peers — 1 lieutenant colonel and equal — 4 Major and equal — 5, the captain and equal — 26, First Lieutenant and equal — 44, Lieutenant, Lieutenant, and equal — 199, State Security Lieutenant — 1.
Changing the battery commander Err DF was made November 3, 1942, as commander of the 1st penal battalion on the basis of the order number, the Don Front OKF/3010 joined the Major Dmitry Ermolovich Burkov.
At full strength the 8th Err is under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Arkady Osipova was put into action for the first time only at the Kursk Bulge. By July 1943 (the beginning of the Battle of Kursk) Battalion was formed and took up defensive positions in the area Ponyri-Maloarkhangelsk Orel on the site of the 7th Infantry Division of Lithuania. The battalion at that time there were 698 penalty box (769 statewide) with 100 full-time officers of constant composition (missing 31). Among the "fighters peremennikov" only 39 were under the orders of the commanders, but the 207 — on verdicts of military tribunals and 452 were in captivity and surroundings. The average monthly number of the penalty box in a penal battalion was 225, not 800, as instructed by order, and they were used in combat, usually porotno.
Legends of the detachments
According to AV Pyltsyn in 1943 — 1944 years of variable composition can already be divided into two categories: the first — former prisoners of war and emerged from the environment or from the liberated territories ("encirclement"), and the second — former officers of the front or rear units have been convicted by military courts or sent to a penal battalion decision of the division commanders and above.
Naturally, everyone had their own fault. Next to the property could be squandered somewhere in the rear of old techniques and the young Lieutenant Lieutenant-dunce who is late from leave or to arrange hassle of intoxication. There were, of course, and disgusting person as an engineer, Major G., which as a pathological coward convicted of blackmail and harassment of girls sexy-soldier, knows Pyltsyn in their own books.
Statewide battalion was supposed to be armed with 435 rifles, 139 machine, 27 light machine guns (on the machine gun on each branch infantry platoons), 16 anti-tank guns, one company commander 50-mm mortars. Since the battle of Kursk in the battalion were formed by four other companies — gunners, machine gun, dvuhvzvodnogo company of PTR and dvuhvzvodnaya, armed with 82-mm mortars.
Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel AA Osipov 8th Err particularly distinguished himself in February 1944 in Rogachev-Zhlobin operations when the penal battalion, secretly breaking the front line, in full 5 days acted boldly in the rear of the enemy. And no detachments (or detachments of the NKVD until November 20, 1944, no — from September 12 until the end of 1941 — the army.. — Ed.)! The commander of the 3rd Army, General Gorbatov freed more than 800 penalty box almost 600 from the upcoming visit to the penal battalion without "shedding of blood" without being wounded. All of them have been restored to the officers' rights ahead of time, in other words, has not passed the deadline of punishment, even if just something in the fighting, many of them were only the 5 days.
As a result of the raid many now former "soldiers-peremennikam" for the crimes they have been handed feats Military Merit: Order of Glory III degree medal "For Courage" and "For Military Merit". As the Pyltsyn, penal not very happy the Order of Glory. The fact that he was on the status of soldiers and officers did not rely. Many would like to hide their presence in the penal battalion as convicts, and such order was testament to that.
Orders for the restoration of the officers in the military ranks were drawn up separately for the dead, the wounded, freed for deeds manifested on the battlefield, and those who left for the sin of a certain term in a penal battalion.
Rehabilitation procedure was the fact that the representatives of the army (front) and the staff at the front tribunals have considered exempt property to the penalty box and perceived preliminary decision on the removal of convicted criminal records and restoration of military ranks, which later on the orders of the commander of the front engage in legitimate force. Representatives of the senior staffs to order the return of awards and gave out the proper paperwork.
After Rogacheva were fighting at the front Zhlobin for Brest, Vistula, Narew bridgehead languid loss when capturing a bridgehead on the Oder River, near Konigsberg on the Oder. In August 1944, the fourth penal battalion commander was Lieutenant Colonel Nikolai Baturin Nikitivich. Beginning his story with the Stalingrad Front, 8th Err, waged war on the Don, Central and Belorussian fronts and finished the war as part of the 1st Byelorussian near Berlin.