Around feat young Komsomol, which has become in the years of the war majestically Russian first lady — Hero of the Russian Union until now hovering gossip and speculation
History feat Zoe Kosmodemyanskoy since the war period is in fact the case hristomatiynymi. As the saying goes, this is written, rewritten. Yet in the press and in the near future, and the Web, there is a well, and there will be some "revelation" of the modern historian Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya was not a defender of the Fatherland, and podzhigatelnitsey that destroyed a village near Moscow, condemning local people to death in the fierce cold . Because, they say, the inhabitants of Petrishchevo grabbed her and threw themselves into the hands of the occupation authorities. And when the queen led to the execution, farmers Tipo even cursed her.
"The Secret" mission
Heresy occasionally appear out of nowhere, its breeding ground — all sorts of "secrets" and nedogovorki official interpretations of events. Some incidents feat Zoe were classified and because of this, and somewhat distorted from the start. Until then, nedavneshnih in the official version was not even clearly defined who she was, which made directly to Petrishchevo. Zoe then called the Metropolitan Komsomol, went to the rear of the enemy to take revenge, the partisan-Scout, caught up in Perischevo in a combat mission.
No so long ago, I met a veteran front-line intelligence Alexandra Potapovna Fedulin that Zoe knew perfectly. Ancient scout told:
— Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya was no partisan. It was the Red Army commando brigade, which was run by the famous Arthur Karlovic Sprogis. In June 1941, he formed an extraordinary military unit number 9903 for sabotage in the rear of the enemy troops. Its base were volunteers from the Komsomol organizations of Moscow and the Moscow region, and commanders of the students recruited from the Frunze Military Academy. During the Battle of Moscow in the military intelligence section of the Western Front was prepared 50 battle groups and teams. Total for September 1941 — February 1942 they were committed 89 entries into the enemy's rear, destroyed 3,500 German soldiers and officers, eliminated 36 traitors Exploded 13 tanks with fuel, 14 tanks. In October 1941, we were trained in the same group with Zoe Kosmodemyanskoy to intelligence brigade. Later walked together to the rear of the enemy on special assignment. In November 1941, I was injured, and when returned from the hospital, found out the tragic news of the death of Zoe pained.
— Why is it that Zoe was a soldier of the army, long held back? — I asked the Fedulin.
— So how was classified documents defining the field of activity, namely, the teams Sprogis.
Later I had a chance to get acquainted with not so long ago, the order of the Supreme Command declassified number 0428 of 17 November 1941, signed by Stalin. Quote: It is necessary "to deprive the German army abilities reside in villages and towns to expel Germanic invaders from all populated Fri cold in the field, smoke them out of all the rooms and warm shelters and force to feel cold in the open. Spalivat down and destroy all the settlements in the rear of the German forces at a distance of 40-60 km in depth from the front edge and 20-30 km on the right and left of the road. To engage communities in a designated radius Fri act immediately throw the aircraft, extensive use artillery and mortar fire, the team of scouts, skiers and subversive groups, equipped with Molotov consistency, grenades and ammunition. When coercion withdrawal of our troops … to withdraw from a Russian population, and certainly destroy every single human settlements, so the enemy could not use them. "
Here's a puzzle made in Moscow Sprogis brigade fighters, including the Red Army Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya. Surely, after the war, the country's leaders and the armed forces do not want to exaggerate the information that the men of the army burned the village near Moscow, for the above-mentioned order of rates and other documents of this kind for a long time is not the wraps.
Naturally, this order opens a very painful and diversified page of the Metropolitan battle. But the truth of war is much more ruthless than our current ideas about it. It is unclear what would be the bloodiest battle ended the second world war, if the Nazis were given a full opportunity to relax in the overheated village huts and feed on the collective farm grub. In addition, many fighters brigade Sprogis tried to blow up and set fire to only the house, where the lodge and the headquarters of the fascists. One can not be isolated and that when there is a struggle for life and death, in the actions of people show up at least two truths: one — philistine (to survive at any cost), the other — the heroic (readiness for self-sacrifice for the sake of Victory). Specifically, the collision of these 2-truths, and in 1941, and now occurs around Zoe feat.
What happened in Petrishchevo
In the night from 21 to 22 November 1941 Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya ran across the front lines as part of a special subversive and intelligence team of 10 people. Already in the occupied areas in the depths of the forest fighters ran into an enemy patrol. Someone died, someone showing cowardice, turned back the clock and only three — the group commander Boris Kraynov, Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya and YCL razvedshkoly Basil Klubkov continued to move on the previously defined route. In the night from 27 to 28 November, they have gained Petrishchevo village, where, besides other military facilities Nazis had to kill carefully disguised as a stable point field radio and electronic intelligence.
Senior Boris Kraynov, distributed roles: Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya seeps into the southern part of the village and Molotov consistency destroys the house where the Germans lodge itself Boris wing — in the central part, which is home to the headquarters, and Vasily Klubkov — in the northern. Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya successfully completed his assignment — bottles of "KS" killed two houses and an enemy vehicle. But going back to the woods, when she was already too far away from the place of diversion, it was seen by a local leader Sviridov. He called fascists. And Zoe was arrested. Sviridov confession invaders poured a glass of vodka, as is told after his release Petrishchevo local residents.
Zoe is long and brutally tortured, but it did not give any disk imaging or about the team, not about where to expect her companions.
But soon the Nazis seized Basil coiled. He showed cowardice and all he knew, he said. Boris Kraynov miraculously managed to escape into the woods.
Vprosledstvii coiled been recruited by Nazi spies and "legend" about the escape from captivity were sent back to the team Sprogis. But he quickly found out. During the interrogation, Klubkov told the feat Zoe.
From the transcript of the interrogation of 11 — 12 March 1942:
"- Refine the incident in which you were captured?
— I came up to a certa
in house, I broke a bottle with "KS" and threw it, but it did not fire. At this time, I saw myself nevdali from 2-German sentries and, having shown timidity, fled into the forest, situated in 300 meters from the village. As I ran into the forest, I swooped down two German fighter took my pistol with ammunition, bags with five bottles of "KS" and a bag of prodzapasami, among which was also a liter of vodka.
— What evidence you gave German army officer?
— As I only passed the officer, I showed timidity and said that it was just three of us, calling the names of Kra and Kosmodemyanskoy. The officer gave the German language is any orders to the German soldiers, they promptly went out and brought in a couple of minutes Zoe Kosmodemiansk. Detained if they Kra, I do not know.
— Were you present during the questioning Kosmodemyanskoy?
— Yes, there was. The officer asked her how she set fire to the village. She replied that she did not set fire to the village. After that, the officer began to beat Zoe and sought evidence, but she flatly refused to give any. I am in her presence showed the officer that it really Kosmodemyanskaya Zoe, who came along with me to the village to carry out acts of sabotage, and that she set fire to the southern outskirts of the village. Kosmodemyanskaya and then questions the officer did not respond. Seeing that Zoe is silent, several officers stripped her naked, and within 2 — 3:00 very beaten with rubber batons, seeking evidence. Kosmodemyanskaya told the officers: "Kill me, I have nothing to tell." After that it was taken away, and I never saw her again. "
From the interview AV Smirnova on 12 May 1942:
"The next day after the fire I was at his own house burned, I was approached by a citizen of Solin and said," Come, I'll show you for who you burn. " After she uttered these words, we went together to the house Kulikov, which was transferred to headquarters. Entering the house, which was under the protection saw the German fighter Zoya Kosmodemiansk. Solina and I became her fault, not counting the battle I Kosmodemiansk twice swung mitten, and Solina, hit her with his hand. Next, we did not give over partisan mock Valentine Kulik, who drove us from our own home.
During the execution Kosmodemyanskoy when the Germans brought her to the gallows, I took a wood stick, went to the girl and the sight of all those present, hit her in the legs. This was at a time when partisan standing under the gallows, when I read all this, I do not remember. "
From the testimony of the inhabitant of the village Petrishchevo V.A.Kulika: "… She hung on the chest plate, on which was written in Russian and in German:" Pyro. " Up to the gallows led her by the hand, as due to the torture she could not walk without the help of others. Around the gallows was a lot of Germans and civilians. Was taken to the gallows and began taking pictures of her.
She clicked: "Citizens! You do not stand, do not look, and to help the army to wage war! My death for their country — it's my achievement in life. " Then she said: "Comrades, the victory will be ours. German soldiers until the late surrender. Russian Alliance invincible and will not be defeated. " All that it said just when she was photographed.
Later framed box. It is without any team with the strength from somewhere, she got up on the box. Teuton came and began to put on a loop. It is at this time of clicked, "How many of us either hang, can not hang all, we are 170 million! But for me, for you, our comrades will take revenge. " It said it has a loop on the neck. She wanted to say something else, but at this point removed the box from under his feet, and she hung. She instinctively grabbed the rope with his hand, but the Teuton hit her on the arm. After that, everything went. "
A whole month has hung in the center of the body Petrishchevo girl. Only 1 January 1942 the Germans have allowed residents to bury Zoe.
Everyone — the
NIGHT MODE January 1942 during the battle for Mozhaisk several journalists were in surviving a fire in a village hut near Pushkin. The correspondent of "Pravda" Peter Lidov conversation with an old farmer, who said he had headed for its occupation of the village Petrishchevo, where he beheld a penalty girls Muscovite, "Her hung up, and she read it. She hung up, and she threatened them … "
The story of the old man shook the leads, and the same NIGHT MODE he went to Petrishchevo. The correspondent did not calm down until the time has not yet talked with the inhabitants of the village, not found out all the details of the death of our Russian Joan of Arc — so he called those executed, he believed partisan. Soon he returned to Petrishchevo coupled with the photographer of "Pravda" Sergei Strunnikova. Opened the grave, took a photo, showed partisans.
One of the guerrilla squad vyznat Verey was executed in a lady he met in the woods the other day played out in Petrishchevo disaster. That styled itself as Tanya. Under this naming and became the heroine in the story leads. It was only later revealed that this is a nickname that Zoe enjoyed a view of conspiracy.
The true name of the first Petrishchevo beheaded in February 1942 established a committee of the Metropolitan Municipal Committee of Komsomol. In the act of February 4, stated:
"1. The citizens of the village Petrishchevo (names follow) for the charges of the intelligence headquarters of the Western Front photographs identified what was hanged Komsomol Kosmodemyanskaya ZA
2. The Commission made the excavation of the grave where buried Kosmodemyanskaya Zoya A.. Examination of a corpse … again confirmed that hung a comrade. Kosmodemyanskaya ZA. "
February 5, 1942 CIM Komsomol committee has prepared a note in the Capital City Committee of the CPSU (b) a proposal to present Zoe Kosmodemiansk for the title of Hero of the Russian Union (posthumously). And on February 16, 1942 saw the release of the respective decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. As a result, a Red ZA Kosmodemyanskaya became the first Russian war majestically female knight of the Golden Star of the Hero.
The leader of Sviridov, traitor Klubkov, Nazi collaborators Solina and Smirnov were sentenced to capital punishment.