The truth and the legend of Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905.

Truth and myths about the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905.

Japan and our home was unequaled by any human capacity — the difference is actually threefold or by ability of the armed forces — the residents of the country of the rising sun were afraid that angry "bear" may in the event of mobilization of the army to put three million.

Thesis, familiar yet with the Russian times that conflict with the samurai was lost due to rot tsarist, "the general backwardness of Russia," one hundred percent agreement with the conclusions that are contained in large numbers in the western media. Their essence is reduced to normal — say, "corrupt tsarist regime could well make war." The eyes of our own and Western historians rarely agree, what did cause this unity of views?

Virtually all researchers agree that the people of the country to win the Rising Sun CONTRIBUTE hard work, sacrifice, patriotism, the highest combat training fighter commanders skill, exceptional discipline — praise is endless. Let's try to sort this all out.

To what extent were ready to officers and soldiers of the rising sun to sacrifice themselves, as it is at this moment to say love? As their morale superior patriotism of our soldier and sailor? After all, is attributed to Russian propensity to rebel, not only in the rear — it's about the battleship "Potemkin", but even at the front — think of a small description of the mutiny on the battleship "Eagle" in front of Tsushima battle. How it contrasts sharply with the description of the life of Japanese sailors that has become publicly known through written by French journalists: the members of the crew of Japanese armored cruiser in his spare time weaving wool socks for their own army colleagues!

In order to set the record straight «i», we turn to the sources of the Japanese. It is a question of feature films made in the very land of the rising sun. At the same time not too far in order to foster pacifist emotions in subjects of the ruler, and what is known as the descendants of the example.

Talking about the lives of ordinary sailors on the flagship of the Japanese fleet, "Mikasa", the filmmakers demonstrate all its ins and outs — the massive fights, theft, disobeying orders, hazing.

There is also an element of unknown to us: Sergeant lend money at high interest rates sailors. Such is the "bouquet" of violations Russian Army and Navy, thank God, did not know ever. So it is understandable why, in spite of external discipline, the crew of "Mikasa" rebelled immediately after the arrival of the British in 1902.

Now — about the readiness for self-sacrifice. We have, as, in general, and most of the world is rooted made the wrong idea about all the Japanese, as kamikaze pilots. One has to take into account the subsequent: courage the Japanese as the wind blew off, as they began to suffer harm in combat. How to remind historians, in 1904, after several failed attempts to storm Port Arthur right on the front refused to obey the orders of the 8th Infantry Regiment, and many Japanese officers were going to jump, run away in terror from Shanghai to die.

Another argument in favor of Japanese exceptionalism is to follow: they acted in a fight just fine, due to which overpowered. Let us remember even recognizable poem of the time: "In Manchuria Kuroki in practice Kuropatkinu gives lessons in tactics." This quality Tipo and allowed the residents of the country of the rising sun to prevail. In actual fact — it's just hard blown myth. What kind of literacy can be discussed when the Russian building in Port Arthur were buzzed in through the forehead perfectly sighted in the area several times. And the same Heyhatiro Admiral Togo, declared almost a military genius of the war, has not been able to explain his admirers, why in August 1904 did not stormed the Russian squadron, huddled together after the loss of the flagship "Crown Prince". Another question: Why would the initial step in the battle of Tsushima he framed its own flagship concentrated under fire most massive Russian ships, nearly dying himself?

Not different actions of our adversaries and special coherence of different departments.

As the British, the captain of the first rank Pekinhem William, who was attached to the squadron of Admiral Togo, after the end of the first day or Tsushima, when the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun gave the order to assault the remnants of the 2nd Pacific Squadron its destroyers, some of them, while avoiding collisions with in a moment of darkness vynyrnuvshim ship of another compound, made a sharp turn and rolled over. Probably right, those who says that the root of all the mind-blowing Japanese victories in the exclusive vezuchesti admiral.

We are in something inferior to the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun in the construction of artillery systems, but also the residents of the country of the rising sun, too, were not far away at all well: their rifle "Arisaka" visibly lost Russian Sergei Mosin rifle on a number of important features. Samurai is just not able to compete with the best in the world of the Russian cavalry, and, most importantly, our opponents can not compete in the physical strength of our warriors.

Ok, but that still assist residents of the country of the rising sun to win? I think he gave a point to know the whole range of reasons — both personal and impartial. One of the key — very careful appeal to the Japanese military secret, our competitors were able to classify even the death of 2-6 of them available to the armadillo. What to read about the smaller destroyers — they went to the bottom of "bundles", but the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun all stubbornly denied, and after a while the commissioning of the same type, in other words, such a ship under the same naming. Global and Russian public believed, and was born the myth of the invincibility of the opponents. Naturally, all this influenced the mood in the middle of our military. Living in the country of the rising sun also scooped all the information about our losses, troop movements and purpose of new commanders of Russian newspapers.

Our gendarmerie, which was assigned then counterintelligence function, simply could not cope with the new criteria for it — is trivial to distinguish the Japanese from Chinese, many of its members were not able to.

It came to the point that in the summer of 1904, it appears from the front-line reportage magazine "Niva", left strict orders to shoot all Asians, is shown in combat positions of our troops.

Let us not ignore the underestimation of the enemy, first ruler did not want to flip or 1st connection from the European part of the Russian Federation, and the second Pacific squadron began to equip the road only after the death of Admiral Stepan Makarov.

Another reason — a feature of the Russian spirit. We're accustomed to war with the expectation of a gradual gathering strength for the next devastating blow to the enemy. Example — Russian war of 1812, when we retreated to Moscow, and of majestic Russian. As they say, the Russian harness slowly, but quickly go. So in those years were heard expressions like "The Japanese will inevitably crushed, if not under Luoyang, because of Mukden, not at Mukden, so under Harbin, Harbin is not under so near Chita." The story we did not give it a chance.

But there was also apathy Russian diplomacy. The vocal department was not able to be used for international isolation T
okyo fact attack on Port Arthur, without a declaration of war.

Beyond the power of the diplomats had to decide the question of the pass through the Turkish straits controlled by the most powerful battleships of the Black Sea Fleet. Instead of the Foreign Ministry chose to come up with horror stories about the possible war with Great Britain, Afghanistan and Turkey in the event of the passage of our ships.

Evil tongues then accused the minister of foreign affairs, Vladimir Lamzdorf helplessness in character, seeing the cause of his unusual sexy orientation …

But the main reason was the wrong decision at the beginning there is the main naval base of Port Arthur. It is — in more than nine hundred miles from the Korea Strait, which was and is to this day the focal Fri routes of ships between Russia, China, Korea, Japan and the countries of Southeast Asia. Not in vain mariners not adored this city, calling it a "hole". Because naval command to sweeten the pill, formally considered whole Pacific Fleet … Pacific squadron of the Baltic Fleet. Worsened the position of the main base that has been linked to the metropolis narrow "thread" the railroad, the final part of which ran in Manchuria area, which had a then obscure status — as would not the Chinese, and not a hundred percent Russian. But naval strategists have persisted — we need ice-free harbor on the Pacific Ocean and to the point.

Closer to the reality of the position in this matter held, surprisingly, the then Minister of War, General Alexei Kouropatkin. At the end of 1903, he sent a note to the chain of command, in which, namely, wrote that Port Arthur, "being away from our natural defensive zone along the shore of the Sea of Japan, and being in a distance from it, from 600 to 1000 miles, it can not serve as a support for our marine operations along this coast, leaving it completely open enemy attack, in particular remains open to taking possession of impunity whole south Korea-sparing with the available here Fuzanom Japanese outpost, and, being in the distance from it from 600 to 1,200 miles from the northern ports of our principal enemy — the Land of the Rising Sun, the fleet our in Port-Arthur would be completely deprived of the ability to prevent and even threatened to attack the Japanese fleet Korean or our coast. This base does not cover even the west coast of Korea, and the approaches to Seoul, because it is located in a distance of 350 km in front of the sea Yellowish, in other words, the front of the enemy's coming, which will also be based firmly on all ports of the southern and south-western coast of Korea . After all, being in the range 1,080 miles from our home base — Vladivostok Port-Arthur is entirely cut off from it, for line of the message, on the one hand has no bearing Fri crotch, the other — the entire length of the subject's own attack the Japanese fleet. "

The outbreak then war fully confirmed his fear.

Moreover, in his own note Kuropatkin went much further — he offered to give up not only of Port Arthur, and all of South Manchuria, referring to the case — we may simply not enough forces for a simultaneous defense of Port Arthur and maintenance of large-scale military action against the Japanese in Manchuria and Korea. In anticipation of the likely objections, General argued that the industrial companies in this region are not very much, and therefore the likely costs of care will not be very significant. In all, he brings more than a dozen arguments in favor of leaving us in South Manchuria.

Excellent podnatorevshy all the intricacies of the operation state machine, Kuropatkin was well aware that his innovative plan has little chance of being realized. That's why he sent his "fan", here and there, hoping to enlist the support. But all remained silent.

And so begins war. Kuropatkina appointed to the post of commander of the Manchurian Army. And here begin to happen strange — Russian Army suffers one humiliating defeat after another, while, as it seems a stranger to observe, quite out of nowhere. For example, under the Luoyang we went away earlier panicked Japanese, who were preparing to retreat, just gave the victory. In fact, the same thing happens again, and Mukden first 1905: Kouropatkin refused a critical time for the Japanese to enter into battle Russia's reserves, for which he was publicly humiliated by another Russian commander. Says it is not about the persistent, fatal pursuit Kuropatkina still implement its own plan of leaving the South Manchuria? After all, so in the end it turned out. It turns out that the team expects that in the case of defeat, he remains in the top echelons of power — and that happened.

As a result, the next, the question often arises: how could our homeland to continue the war after the battle of Tsushima? The same Vladimir Linevich appointed to the post of commander of the Russian army after the withdrawal Kuropatkina, later claimed that he could beat the Japanese. It is echoed in his own memoirs, the future leader of the snow-white movement in the south of the Russian Federation Anton Denikin, saying that we could put the squeeze on the Japanese. But this is — represent generals, not very well represent the role of the fleet.

It should realize that after the defeat of the Russian squadron residents of the country of the rising sun had sea. This meant that they were free and quickly put troops where they want — for example, they have to test the waters for an invasion of Kamchatka.

Do anything in response, we were not able to — we are able to concentrate troops was only in the final Fri our railways.

Naturally, the Russian-Japanese war, despite the assertion that all the facts are known about her, remains until the end and not understood. That more or less clarify the situation, need a job as a Russian and a Japanese, Chinese and Korean archives. This task is not for the 1st generation of researchers.

One thing is clear — the assurance of the invincibility of the Japanese army and its generals of genius — just a myth.

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