Since Khrushchev's "thaw" in the folklore of the so called "sixties" firmly entered the heartbreaking stories of how during the war Stalin majestically Russian detachments Tipo shot our retreating units. In the sit-in kitchens companies freethinking intellectuals can often be heard executable with a guitar song about the content itself:
"This company was advancing through the swamp,
And then she gave the order and she went back.
This company of machine-gunned
Own a defensive squad. "
And now those who do not give rest to the undisputed fact that the Russian victory in the war reached majestically under the Stalin continued to intensively exploit the theme of detachments.
Because it helps to understand, what is the real purpose of detachments consisted of and what they have the opportunity?
The detention of a suspect item
It should immediately be noted that the very term for themselves, "defensive detachment" — a rather vague: "detachments or squads and — standing or temporary military unit, created to perform a specific task or fighting." Who formed detachments, whom he obeys, which immediately makes the puzzles — this definition is not visible. In addition, during the war, departmental affiliation, composition and functions of the detachments than once changed.
As it is clear, first in February 1941 the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs was divided into actually NKVD and the People's Commissariat State Security (NKVD). With all this military counter according to the decision of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) on February 8, 1941 was singled out and handed over to the NKVD's Commissariat of Defense and the Navy of the USSR, which were made by others in Ngo NKVMF the USSR and the Soviet Union.
"The organization and control of mobile defensive squads on the roads, railway nodes to clean forests, etc. allocated to the command, to include in their composition operatives of the Third control objectives:
a) The detention of deserters;
b) the detention of a suspect item that has penetrated to the front line;
c) preparatory investigation, produced by operational officers of the Third Ngo (day or 1-2) with the following transfer of the material, coupled with the detainees to the jurisdiction "(Government of the USSR State Security in Lofty Russian war. V.2. Wolverine. Book 1. June 22 — August 31, 1941. M., 2000. P.92-93).
As we litsezreem, first barrage detachments were to produce only arrest deserters also suspicious item was hanging around the front of the band and lead a preliminary investigation, then transfer the detainees to the appropriate judicial authorities.
In July 1941, is the union of the NKVD and the NKVD. July 17, 1941 decision of the Municipal Committee of Defense number 187ss bodies Third Ngo converted to special sections and also run across in the submission of the NKVD. Among other things, this has facilitated the establishment of a tight fit connection between them and the territorial bodies of state security. With all of this special departments have the right to arrest deserters, and, where necessary, and shooting them on the spot (the same place. C.337-338).
The next day the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Beria's own directive number 169 as explained puzzles special departments:
"The meaning of the transformation of the Third governance, particularly by the subordination of the NKVD is to lead the fight against the inhumane spies, traitors, saboteurs, deserters, and all kinds of alarmist and disorganizers.
The brutal execution with the alarmists, cowards, deserters, undermining the power and discrediting the honor of the Red Army also critical, as the struggle against espionage and sabotage "(Ibid. S.346).
To ensure the operational activities of the NKVD Order number 00941 on 19 July 1941 at the special departments of divisions and corps were formed separate infantry platoons, with special departments of the armies — some rifle companies, with special sections of fronts — some infantry battalions manned the NKVD ( Ibid. S.366).
Estonian gang shooting
In carrying out its tasks, special sections, namely, exhibited barrage detachments in the rear of our troops.
About their daily work in the first months of the war gives an idea memo Head 3rd Division of the Baltic Fleet Divisional Commissioner Lebedev number 21431 on December 10, 1941 in the Military Council of the Baltic Fleet (Soviet security organs of state in the stateliness Russian war. T. 2. Origins. book 2. September 1 — December 31, 1941. M., 2000. p.397-401).
Defensive squad in the 3rd division of the Baltic Fleet was formed in June 1941. He was a truck equipped with agile company. To strengthen it at the initiative of the 3rd Division in one of Tallinn's companies produced two improvised armored car.
Initially detachment operated on the territory of Estonia. In order to deal with desertion on the roads leading to Tallinn and Leningrad, were put up barriers. But as the land front at the moment passed far enough, defections were observed in the area of responsibility is not enough. In this regard, the main efforts of the detachments and give it a group of operatives were focused on fighting to take refuge in the forests and swamps of gangs Estonian nationalists.
A substantial number of small bands, consisting, priemuschestvenno, member of the organization "Kaitseliit" priemuschestvenno operated on highways, attacking the small units of the Red Army and the individual soldiers. As a result of the detachments in the first days of the war in Loks was caught six bandits, some of them trying to escape was killed. On agents' data at the same time three people were arrested on charges of aiding the bandits.
Experience has shown that in areas of very fundamental act of gangs have informants in grocery stores, cafes and diners small villages Fri, because the bandit group sometimes had to buy food, matches, ammunition, etc., should submit to the villages in their own representatives. During the 1 st of the visits to the village grocery store four bandits were found with 2 scouts from the detachments. Despite the numerical superiority of the past tried to detain them. As a result, one of the bandits was killed in a shootout, two of them managed to escape, the fourth well, though, as it turns out, in the past it has been a favorite of Estonia on the run, unable to escape. He was wounded, captured and taken to the third division.
Detachments conducted raids, combing the countryside, secrets and gates made considerably more difficult to act Estonian gangs and incidents of armed attacks in areas that are squad controlled, decreased dramatically.
As a result of counter-attack of the 8th Army in the middle of July 1941 was released Virtsu peninsula, the platoon detachments and a group of operatives traveled to the area to carry out cleaning operations of the peninsula from persons militant refers to the Russian authorities and assist the fascists. On the way to Virtsu platoon detachments at one point on the machines hit the outpost Germans, located at
the crossroads of Virtsu — Parnu, in a remote area Caruso. The platoon was fired small-arms and mortar fire of the enemy, dismounted and took the fight. In the end, the battle the Germans, leaving the anti-tank gun, a machine gun and ammunition, hastily retreated. Loss detachments were 6 killed and two wounded.
Passing the defense chipped area constant parts, the platoon detachments arrived in Virtsu. The task force immediately launched a job, resulting detained manager of the local organization "Kaitseliit", two former members of the organization, held in the German command made the formation of "self-defense", the owner of a local restaurant that was used as a translator Germans, as a provocateur, who gave the Nazi authorities 2 -uh agents of our frontier. Among the population Virtsu 6 informants were recruited.
In the same period, had an operation to clean from gangs m Varbla and settlement. Tõstamaa Pyarnovskogo County. Two platoon detachments, reinforced armored vehicles, along with a battalion of fighter to fight captured designated localities, defeating headquarters of the "self-defense" and capturing the machine gun, 60 bicycles, more than 10 handsets, a few shotguns and rifles. In the middle of the bandits were killed and wounded, prisoners occupied four bandits were shot on the spot. Our loss — 1 killed. In Tallinn, the detachments were opened and eliminated the counter-revolutionary organization, to recruit local people in the gang. If all this were seized weapons and explosives.
In addition to combat banditry and operations group desertion detachments deployed Getting to work on our agents in the German rear. Of the abandoned three agents returned two. Penetrating into the captured town of Pärnu, they found accommodation German military facilities. Using this information, aviation of the Baltic fleet bombarded the enemy targets, the results of the bombing were positive. In addition, information was collected on the local senders number of occupants of the Estonian nationalists.
During the battle for Tallinn detachments not only stopped and returned to the front of retreating, and delaying their defensive positions. In particular the worst situation in the afternoon on August 27. Some of the 8th Army, having lost control, leaving the last line of defense, fled. To restore order was thrown not only detachments, and all operational staff 3rd Division. Retreating under threat guns braked and ultimately counter-attack threw back the enemy at 7 km. It has played a crucial in the successful evacuation of Tallinn.
The fact that with all this, the soldiers of the NKVD did not hide behind others suggest the loss incurred by the detachments in the battles for Tallinn — more than 60% of the personnel, including almost all of the commanders.
Having arrived in Kronstadt, detachments immediately proceeded to resupply and is 7 September 1941 sent a platoon with 2 operatives for duty on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, and by September 18 the coast from Oranienbaum to the village. The mouth of the well serviced unit.
Since the beginning of the war on November 22, 1941 detachments were detained over 900 people, of them arrested and convicted 77. With all of this 11 people were shot on the spot or down the line.
Four percent of those arrested
By the beginning of September 1941 the military situation worsened significantly. In this situation, the Supreme Command Directive number 001650 from 5 September 1941 accepted the request of the commander of the Bryansk Front Lieutenant General A.I.Eremenko:
"The rate acquainted with your memo and enables you to make barrage detachments in those divisions which have proven to be unbalanced. The purpose of protective orders — to prevent unauthorized withdrawals of elements, and in the case of flight suspend, using as necessary weapons "(Government of the USSR State Security in Lofty Russian war. V.2. 2 book. C.20).
"Supreme Command Directive number 001919 commanders of the fronts and armies, the division commander, chief of the South-West direction on the development of defensive squads in the infantry divisions
September 12, 1941
The experience of the struggle against German fascism has shown that our infantry divisions there are a lot of panic and aggressive right parts, which at the first push of the enemy throwing weapon, begin to shout: "We are surrounded!" And carries with it the other fighters. As a result of similar actions of these parts division takes flight, throws the real part and the later singles starts to come out of the woods. Similar phenomena occur on all fronts. If commanders and commissars of divisions were at the height of their own tasks, alarmist and aggressive elements could gain the upper hand in the division. But this failure is that the solid and stable commanders and commissars we are not so quite a few.
In order to prevent unwanted effects mentioned above on the front of the Supreme Command
1. Each infantry division have defensive detachment from reliable fighters, numbering less Battalion (based on 1 company of the infantry regiment on), subordinate to the division commander, and having at their disposal apart from ordinary weapons as a means of transport trucks and a few tanks or armored vehicles.
2. Puzzles barrier unit to consider direct assistance in maintaining the chain of command and establishing firm discipline in the division, the suspension of military flight obsessed panic, not stopping before using guns, the elimination of the initiators of the panic and flight, bona fide support and combat units division, are not subject to panic, but dragged by the general flight.
3. To require employees politsostav special departments and divisions to provide all possible assistance to the commanders of divisions and defensive squads in the consolidation of the order and discipline of the division.
4. Creating a defensive squads finish in five days from the day or get the real order.
5. Production and performance of the commander of the fronts and armies across.
The Supreme Command
B.Shaposhnikov "(Ibid. P.85-86).
Unlike defensive squads continued to exist in particular parts of the NKVD aimed to arrest the main suspect parts and deserters, army detachments were created in order to prevent unauthorized withdrawals of elements. These units were significantly larger (battalion per division instead of a platoon) and their personnel are not equipped with the troops of the NKVD and the Red Army from the ordinary. They had the right to use a gun — not for the execution of the retreating units and elements of machine guns, and for the elimination of the initiators of the panic and flight.
A certain idea of the functions of protective battalions gives ruling Military Council of the Leningrad Front number 00274 of 18 September 1941 "On strengthening the anti-defection and the infiltration of enemy units on the ground in Leningrad." The document, signed by the commander of the Leningrad Front Army General Georgy Zhukov and the members of the military council of the front 1st Secretary of the Leningrad Regional and City Committee of the CPSU (b) Zhdanov and 2nd Secretary AA Kuznetsov, and it is prescribed:
"5. Chief of OVT (Protection of army logistics — IP) of the Leningrad Front, Comrade Lieutenant. Stepanov organized to focus and check all the soldiers detained without papers, four defensive squads.
Chief of Logistics of the Leningrad Front, Comrade Lieutenant. Mordvinov arrange for these defensive squads nutritious items "(Ibid. P.119).
Today's reformers totalitarian past convince us, as if only those detachments were engaged and that the shots on their own. In this case, it is not clear exactly for
what they organize in nutritional items? Neuzh something in order to feed before being shot execution?
"Communication Commissioner of State Security 3rd grade S.Milshteyna People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Beria valid especially departments and defensive squads of the NKVD of the USSR in the period since the war began on October 10, 1941
PEOPLE'S COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE USSR
Commissioner-General of State Security
Since the war began on 10th October this year Special departments of the NKVD and the obstruction of the NKVD troops to protect the rear detained 657,364 soldiers who have fallen from their own parts, and fled from the front.
Of their operational Screens Especial departments arrested 249,969 people, and obstruction of the NKVD troops to protect the rear — 407,395 soldiers.
Among the detainees, especially departments arrested 25,878 people, the other 632,486 people are formed in the part and re-oriented to the front.
Among those arrested Particular departments:
Spies — 1505
saboteurs — 308
traitors — 2621
cowards and alarmists — 2643
deserters — 8772
distributors provocative rumors — 3987
samostrelschikov — 1671
other — 4371
Total — 25,878
According to regulations Especial departments and sentenced by a military tribunal executed 10,201 people, they shot down the line — 3321 people.
Deputy. Early. Manage the TOE NKVD
Commissioner of State. Safety 3-rank
[October] 1941 "(Bruin A. The unknown Beria., Moscow-St., 2002. S.439-440).
So, out of 657,364 detainees detachments and operational barriers is special departments arrested was only 25 878 people, in other words, 4%.
Besides barrage battalions in the division and defensive squads formed special departments like units were created and territorial bodies of the NKVD. Thus, the purpose of the detention of the Red Army, leaving with the Kalinin Front, October 15, 1941 the NKVD in Kalinin region barrage detachments were organized in the directions: Kalinin — Kushalino, Kushalino — Gorica Kushalino — Zaytsevo, Kimri — Cashin. They were all subject to the 4th department of the NKVD in Kalinin region.
From October 15 to December 9, 1941 these defensive squads were arrested and handed over to the 256th Infantry Division and other military units of the Red Army 6164 and 1498 people from the system battalions. In addition, detained and prosecuted under Art. 193 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR 172 deserter (The bodies of state security of the USSR into a sublime Russian war. V.2. 2 book. S.396).
With the improvement of the situation on the front need to barrage battalions in the division anymore.
Continued here: Part 2