In Defense of Stalingrad
A new step in the history detachments began in the summer of 1942, when the Germans broke through to the Volga and the Caucasus. July 28 came the big-name order number 227 of the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR of Stalin, who, namely, ordered:
[…] B) to form within the army of well-armed 3-5 defensive squads (200 men each), put them in a specific rear unbalanced divisions and require them in the event of panic and chaotic retreat parts division shoot panic-mongers and cowards and thus assist bona fide soldiers divisions perform their own duty to the Motherland "(Stalingrad epic: Proceedings of the NKVD and military censorship of the Central Archive of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. M., 2000. S.445).
In the execution of this order, the commander of the Stalingrad Front, Lieutenant General V.N.Gordov 1 August 1942 gave 00162/op own order number, in which prescribed:
Obstruction troops to subdue the armies of the Military Council, through their special departments. At the head of defensive squads deliver more experienced in fighting for a special person.
Staff the best defensive squads selective soldiers and commanders of the Far Eastern Division.
Provide detachments road.
6. In a two-day period to return in each infantry division barrage battalions formed on the directive of the Head of the Supreme High Command of the number 01919.
Obstruction battalions divisions worthy complement the best fighters and commanders. To bring about the implementation of 4 August 1942 "(TSAMO. F.345. Op.5487. S.5. L.706).
Of Posts Features section of the NKVD of the Stalingrad Front Office in special departments of the NKVD of the USSR of 14 August 1942 "On the implementation of the order number 227, and response to the personnel of the 4th Panzer Army":
Red Army soldier of the same regiment and division Ogo made samoranenie left hand in the perfect crime unmasked, for which he put to trial by military tribunal. […]
On the basis of the order number 227 formed three military detachments, each with 200 people. Designated groups at one hundred percent armed with rifles, machine guns and machine guns.
The chiefs of the units assigned to operational staff, special departments.
Designated detachments and zagradbatalonami on 08/07/42 till units and formations in areas army arrested 363 people, including 93 people. out of the environment, 146 — behind the own parts, 52 — lost their part, 12 — have come out of the captivity, 54 — fled from the field, 2 — with strange wounds.
As a result of painstaking inspection: 187 man oriented in their units, 43 — in the department staffing, 73 — in the special camps of the NKVD, 27 — in the penal company, 2 — to honey commission, 6 people. — Arrested and, as indicated above, 24 people. shot down the line "
(Stalingrad epic: Proceedings of the NKVD and military censorship of the Central Archive of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. M., 2000. P.181-182).
In accordance with the order of the NCO number 227 as of October 15, 1942 was formed by 193 military defensive squads, including 16 in the Stalingrad Front (noncompliance to the number quoted above orders of Lieutenant-General Gordova explains the configuration of the Stalingrad Front, which was derived from a number of Army) and 25 on the Don.
With all of this from 1 August to 15 October 1942 detachments were detained 140755 soldiers who escaped from the front strip of the front. Among the detainees were arrested 3980 man, 1,189 people were shot, oriented to the penal company in 2776 man, penal battalions of 185 persons returned to their units and transit points 131094 people.
The largest number of arrests and seizures made barrage detachments Don and Stalingrad fronts. By Don front was delayed 36109 man, arrested 736 people, 433 people were shot, oriented to the penal company in 1056 people, penal battalions of 33 people returned to their units and transit point 32933 Rights. According to the Stalingrad Front 15649 people detained and arrested 244 people, 278 people were shot, oriented to the penal company 218 people in penal battalions 42, returned to their units and transit point 14833 Rights.
During the defense of Stalingrad barrage detachments played an important role in restoring order in the parts and prevent disorganized retreat from their borders, the return of a significant number of troops on the front line.
So, August 29, 1942 the headquarters of the 29th Infantry Division of the 64th Army of the Stalingrad Front was surrounded by tanks broke through the enemy of the division, having lost control in a panic retreated to the rear. Detachments under the command of Lieutenant security Filatov, taking drastic measures, suspended in the exhaust mess soldiers and brought them back to the previously occupied defensive lines. On the other site of this division, tried to break through the enemy deep into the defense. Detachments joined the battle and held the enemy advance.
September 14th the enemy made coming against parts of 399-th Infantry Division of the 62nd Army. Soldiers and commanders of 396 th and 472 th Infantry Regiment began to move away in a panic. Head of state security detachments Lieutenant Elman ordered to open fire his own squad over the heads of the retreating. As a result, the personnel of these regiments was stopped and two hours earlier occupied the shelves lines of defense.
September 20 the Germans occupied the eastern outskirts Melehovskoy. Overall brigade under the pressure of the enemy began the unauthorized withdrawal. Actions of the detachments of the 47th Army Black Sea Group of Forces in the brigade was put in order. The brigade took the old boundaries and political instructor at the initiative of the same company detachments Pestova, joint actions with the team the enemy was thrown from Melehovskoy.
At critical moments barrage detachments joined specifically to battle with the enemy, successfully held off his head. Since September 13, 112th Infantry division under the pressure of the enemy withdrew from the occupied abroad. Detachments of the 62nd Army under the control of the chief of state security squad lieutenant Khlystova took up defensive positions on the approaches to the concept of height. During the four days of the detachment commanders and fighters repulsed the attacks of the enemy machine gunners, inflicting heavy losses. Detachments delayed beyond the direct approach to military units.
September 15-16, detachments of the 62nd Army during the 2-day succ
essfully fought a battle against overwhelming odds in the Stalingrad train station. Despite their small numbers, detachments not only beat the Germans attack, and counter-attacks, inflicting significant losses in manpower. Own limit squad leave only when the replacement came of the 10th Infantry Division.
Not counting made in accordance with the order number 227 military detachments during the Battle of Stalingrad acted recovered barrage battalions of divisions, also manned by a few detachments of the NKVD in special departments of divisions and armies. With all of this army detachments and zagradbatalony divisions were serving barriers specifically for battle formations parts, avoiding panic and mass exodus of troops from the battlefield, while platoons of special departments and divisions of companies in special departments of the armies used to carry the zagradsluzhby on the main lines of communication divisions and armies to apprehend pants alarmists, deserters and other criminals who had taken refuge in the army and front the rear.
In general, at a time when the very notion of the rear was very conditional, it is a "division of labor" is often violated. For example, October 15, 1942 during heavy fighting in Stalingrad Tractor Factory opponent managed to get to the Volga and cut off from the main body of the 62nd Army remnants of the 112th Infantry Division, and the 115th, 124th and 149th Separate Infantry teams. With all of this in the middle of senior commanders were observed multiple samples to throw their parts and saves up to cross to the east of the Volga. These criteria for anti-panic-mongers and cowards special department of the 62nd Army was created by a task force under the control of a senior security officer Lieutenant security Ignatenko. By combining the remnants of platoons of special departments with personnel of the 3rd Army detachments, she had only had a lot of work to restore order, arrest deserters, panic-mongers and cowards who tried various pretexts to cross to the left of the Volga-saving value. Within 15 days of the task force were arrested and returned to the battlefield to 800 soldiers and commanders, and 15 soldiers by order osoborganov were shot down the line.
In dated February 17, 1943 memo Especial Don front section of the NKVD in the management of special departments of the NKVD of the USSR "On the work osoborganov anti-panic-mongers and cowards in parts of the Don front during the period from October 1, 1942 on February 1, 1943" A few examples of actions defensive squads:
So, October 2, 1942, during the coming of our troops, parts of the 138 pages Division encountered a massive artillery and mortar fire, the enemy broke and fled in panic back through the battle lines 1st Battalion, 706 SP, 204 LEDs, which were in the 2nd echelon.
Measures taken command of the division and zagradbatalonom position was restored. 7 cowards and alarmists were shot down the line, while others returned to the front line.
October 16, 1942, during counter-attacks, a group of Red 781 and 124 pages divisions of 30 people, showed timidity and panic began to flee from the battlefield, a lure for other soldiers.
Who was at the site 21 Army Army detachments, power tools eliminate panic and regained its former position.
November 19, 1942, during the coming parts division 293 pages, with counterattacks, two mortar platoon 1306 joint venture with the commanders of platoons ml. Bogatirov lieutenants and Egorov, without an order from the command left their limit and in a panic, throwing the gun, began to flee from the battlefield.
Being on this site platoon machine gunners Army detachments stopped running and shooting the 2-mongers down the line, others returned to their former boundaries, after which they moved forward.
November 20, 1942, during counter-attacks, one of the companies of 38 pages division, who was at the height without putting up resistance to the enemy, without orders from commanders became chaotic retreat from their territory.
83 64 army detachments while serving barriers specifically for military orders 38 pieces LED, suspended in a panic running a company and brought it back to the previously occupied area height, then the personnel of the company has shown exceptional endurance and tenacity in battle with the enemy "(Stalingrad epic. .. p.409-410).
End of the Road
After the defeat of German forces at Stalingrad and Kursk victory at a turning point in the war. Strategic Initiative defected to the Red Army. In this situation, the barrage troops have lost their value. August 25, 1944 Chief of Political Department 3rd Baltic Front, Major General A.Lobachev sent the chief of the Head of the Political Directorate of the Red Army, Colonel-General Shcherbakov memorandum "On the shortcomings of detachments of the troops' subsequent maintenance:
As a result of this work is established:
1. Detachments do not own direct the functions assigned by order of the minister of defense. Most of the personnel detachments used to protect army headquarters, protection of communication lines, roads, combing the forests, etc. Here is peculiar to the activity of the 7th detachments of the 54th Army. According to the list in the unit is 124 people. They are used as follows: 1st submachine gun platoon guarding the 2nd echelon of Army Staff, 2nd platoon automata given the task of 111 sk guard band communication from the body to the army, given a rifle platoon 7 ck with the same task, the machine-gun platoon in reserve commanding detachments, 9 people. work in the departments of the Army Staff, including the platoon commander of Art. Gonchar is Lieutenant commander of the Rear Army, the remaining 37 people applied at the headquarters of the detachments. So Makar, 7th detachments are not engaged blocked its service. The same position in the other detachments (5, 6, 153, 21, 50)
In the 5th detachments of the 54th army of 189 people. State only 90 people. KP are protecting the army and shut the service, and the other 99 people. used in different jobs: 41 people. — Operations on the service staff of the army as cooks, shoemakers, tailors, storekeepers, clerks, and so on.; 12 people. — In the departments of the Army Staff as messengers and orderlies; 5 people. — The disposal of Staff and the commandant of 41 people. service headquarters detachments.
In the 6th detachments of 169 people. 90 soldiers and sergeants are used for the protection of IP and communication lines, and others are on the chores.
2. Several detachments very swollen States headquarters. Instead staff positions 15 people. Officers, non-commissioned officers and other ranks 5th headquarters detachments has 41 people.; 7th detachments — 37 people., 6th detachments — 30 people., 153rd detachments — 30 people. etc.
3. Staffs of the armies do not produce control over the detachments have provided for them by themselves, have reduced the role of the detachments on the position of commandant of ordinary mouth. Meanwhile, the staff of the detachments of the best matched experienced soldiers and sergeants, members of many battles were awarded orders and medals of the Russian Union. In the 21 th detachments 67th army of 199 people. 75% of the fighting, many of them awarded. In the 50th detachments of battle honors awarded to 52 people.
4. Lack of control on the part of staffs has led to the fact that in the majority of detachments of military discipline is on a low level, people have blossomed. Over the past three months in the 6th detachments for gross violatio
ns of military discipline imposed on soldiers and sergeants of 30 penalties. No better in other squads …
5. Political Departments and vice. army chiefs of staff for political affairs, have forgotten about the existence of detachments, do not rule the party-political work …
About exposed shortcomings in the work of detachments 15.8 reported to the Military Council of the front. Together with the head of the political armies gave indications of the need to radically improve the party-political and educational work in detachments; revitalization of inner-party organizations, strengthening the work of a party and Komsomol activists, conduct for members of the lectures and presentations, improving cultural services for soldiers, sergeants and Officers detachments.
Conclusion: The majority of detachments in their own do not do the tasks defined by the order of the People's Commissar of Defense number 227. Guard headquarters, roads, communication lines, performing various chores and errands, service chiefs, commanders, supervision of internal order in the rear of the army in any way does not come as a function of detachments of the troops.
I consider it necessary to put the issue before the People's Commissar of Defense reorganization or dissolution of the detachments, both lost their purpose in the real environment "(Military History magazine. 1988. № 8. P.79-80).
Two months later, an order was issued Defence Commissar Stalin number 0349 of 29 October 1944 "On the dissolution of the individual defensive squads":
1. Some barrage detachments to 13 November 1944 to disband.
The personnel of the disbanded troops to use to replenish the infantry divisions.
2. On the dissolution of the defensive squads bring to 20 November 1944 "(Ibid. P.80).
So barrage detachments detained deserters and suspicious element in the rear of the front, stopped retreating. In critical situations they themselves often engage in with the Germans, and when the military situation has changed in our favor, began to make the function curfews mouth. In carrying out its tasks directly, detachments could open fire over the heads of departments, or running shorts and shoot alarmists before the troops — but not necessarily in person. But none of the researchers have not yet been able to find in the archives or the 1st of fact that would confirm that the barrage troops to shoot to kill his troops.
Do not give such cases and in the memoirs of veterans.
For example, in "Military History magazine" Hero of the Russian Union of Article army general P.N.Laschenko about subsequent reads:
"Yes, there were barrage detachments. But I do not know that any of them fired at her, at least in our part of the front. Already at this point I asked for archival documents on this subject, there was no such documents. Detachments were at a distance from the front, covered the troops in the rear of saboteurs and enemy troops, detained deserters, who, unfortunately, were, put things in order to cross the river, directing stragglers from their own fighter units to the assembly points.
I would say more, the front was getting refills, of course, not fired, as they say, no smell of gunpowder, and the barrage detachments, consisting only of a fighter already raked, more persistent and courageous, were seemingly reliable and strong shoulder older. It happened so often, that the detachments found themselves face to face with the same German tanks, chains, and German machine gunners in combat suffered huge losses. It is an irrefutable fact. "
Almost the same words described the activities of detachments in the newspaper "Vladimir Gazette" Commander of the Order of Alexander Nevsky A.G.Efremov:
"Really, threatening sites exhibited such groups. These people are not any monsters, but ordinary soldiers and commanders. They play two roles. Was first prepared defensive limit, so backing it could be fixed. In-2, suppress alarmism. When was the turning point in the war, I beheld more of these groups. "
If desired, such memoirs can cause more than a dozen, and presented together with the documents thoroughly enough to realize what a barrage detachments in fact.