Today is the memory of the outstanding Russian naval commander and scientistStepan Osipovich Makarov,
and an outstanding Russian painter of battle-piecesVasily Vereshchagindied 31 March 1904 g of the battleship "Petropavlovsk".
oday day the memory of outstanding Russian naval commander and scientistStepan Osipovich Makarov,
died March 31, 1904
He was born December 27, 1848 in Nikolaev in the family of Navy Ensign. Educated at St Nicholas-on-Amur Maritime College. Makarov participated in the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-78., During which pioneered the use of torpedoes against the Turkish battleships and was awarded a gold sword with the inscription "For Bravery".
His works were awarded prizes of the Academy of Sciences. Makarov became famous as the founder of the theory unsinkable ship, on which he then worked for his entire life, continuously improving and enriching it with new provisions and practical proposals aimed at improving the combat capability of the armored fleet. In 1897, Makarov also put forward the idea of Arctic research with the help of icebreakers. In his project he built the first high-powered icebreaker "Ermak", which Makarov went twice in the ice off the coast of Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land. Since the beginning of Russian-Japanese War in 1904, the Admiral was appointed commander of the Pacific Fleet.
Admiral Makarov was killed on the bridge of the commander's flagship battleship "Petropavlovsk" at Port Arthur. The flagship of the fleet struck a mine explosion occurred in the area of ammunition cellars. Artillery shells and mines detonated fence, literally tearing the ship in half. Two minutes later a powerful battleship disappeared under the water. Together with Vice Admiral Makarov lost his Chief of Staff, Rear Admiral Molas, battle painter Vasily Vereshchagin, 27 officers and 652 of the lower tier. Managed to escape, only 30 sailors, among them was the Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich.
One day with Admiral Makarov died outstanding Russian painter of battle scenesVasili Vasilievich Vereshchagin. He was born October 14, 1842 in Cherepovets in the family of the landlord. Basil began his education at the St. Petersburg Sea Cadet Corps, where he became interested in drawing, showing great ability in him. Graduated with honors housing, Vereshchagin, against the wishes of their parents, resigned and entered the Academy of Fine Arts. Angered by the act of the son, the father refused him financial aid, but persevered Vereshchagin painting. His first independent works were numerous drawings of folk styles, genre scenes and landscapes of the Caucasus.
In 1867, the artist went to Turkestan, where at that time there were military clashes. In Central Asia, the artist had the opportunity not only to witness the war, but its direct participant. In 1868, in the Russian garrison of Samarkand, he defended the fortress against the troops of the Emir of Bukhara, was decorated for bravery and courage of the George Cross. The result of several trips to Turkestan has also become a large series of paintings of Central Asia.
Broke out in the years 1877-1878 Russian-Turkish war again brought him to the front. With all my heart sympathizing with the liberation struggle of the Slavs against the Turkish yoke, he took part in many battles. In one of the battles he was seriously wounded and nearly died.
"Run goal that I set out — wrote Vereshchagin — give society a genuine picture of this war can not be looking at the battle through binoculars from a comfortable distance, and most everything you need to feel and do, participate in the attacks, storms, victories, defeats, to experience hunger , sickness, wounds. should not be afraid to sacrifice their blood, their meat, or my paintings will not. "
Vereshchagin painting Balkan series with unparalleled honesty reproduce weekdays war scenes battles: heavy transitions Russian army in the mountains, field hospitals and dressing scenes of atrocities the Turks. Among the most famous of them — "All Quiet on the Shipka Pass" (1878-1879) and the "Shipka Sheinovo" (1878-1879).
From 1887 to 1901, Vereshchagin worked on a series of paintings devoted to the war of 1812. More than twenty paintings created by them on the subject. Artist led high patriotic thoughts — "to show in the pictures of the 1812 great national spirit of the Russian people, their dedication and heroism in combat with the enemy." The artist managed to express the liberation, the national character of the war, to dethrone Napoleon, to deprive him of "the pedestal of the hero, which he lifted up."
Russian-Japanese War broke Vereshchagin initiated the work on the paintings, he left everything and, in the words of Repin, "flew" to the Far East to take part in the fighting again and tell about them in his works. However, March 31, 1904 Vereshchagin with Admiral Makarov was killed on the battleship "Petropavlovsk" enemy mine exploded at anchor at Port Arthur.