Submarines as a policy tool
Post South American online publication The Washington Free Beacon on monthly cruise Russian multipurpose nuclear submarine type Akula (Project 971 «Pike-B» — in Russian systematization) in the Gulf of Mexico caused a nervous reaction in the United States. Especially in light of the fact that the submarine, according to an overseas website, was found only when leaving the waters adjacent to the coasts of the United States.
Republican Senator John Cornyn of Texas claimed from the Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Jonathan U.S. Navy Grinerta clarification. If media reports are accurate Russian boat, «the consequences will be serious,» he threatened.
To reassure the public, the Pentagon said it had no data on the penetration of a Russian submarine in the waters of the Gulf. In turn, the Russian Ministry of Defense has not confirmed, nor denied the information about the presence of U.S. submarine nearby. «In accordance with international practice, the act of submarine forces of the Navy, their hiking trails, and even more combat service are not covered in the official reports are public information and even after decades,» — said the official dealer of Russian military. He added that at the present time the Russian Navy submarines «are combat service on schedule in different areas of the oceans.»
Russian submarines «found» at the American shores in 1957, when the Democratic senator from North Carolina Carl Durham told the astonished audience that the U.S. side under 184 Russian submarines prowl! In fact in the year was coming to Florida, only one Russian submarine — B-77 Project 611 (Zulu — to systematize NATO) Captain 3rd rank Arcadia Mikhailovsky, many years later became the commander of the Northern Fleet. She followed the trials of U.S. missiles launches from Cape Canaveral and was not seen by anyone.
At the end of March 1958 the submarine B-78 project AV611 (Zulu V — the western systematization), armed with 2 nuclear ballistic missiles R-11FM with a range of 150 km and a capacity of 10 kilotonnes of charge, under the command of Captain 2nd rank Victor Gorontsova made autonomous trek to the northeast coast of the United States. And, too, remained undetected by anyone. It was only May 28, 1959 near Iceland South American submarine Grenadier (SS 525), commanded by Ted Davis for the first time established contact with the Russian submarine and within 18 hours haunted her until she came out charging Accum. Basic patrol aircraft P-2V Neptune, induced Grenadier, photographed her. It was the first authentic case detection Russian submarine near the U.S.. By the way, the South American submariners celebrate May 28 as the beginning of the day «cold war» under water.
The sharpest underwater battles in American shores unfolded 50 years ago — in October 1962, then during the Cuban missile crisis submarine 69th Brigade Northern Fleet submarines with 4 diesel submarines Project 641 (Foxtrot — to systematize NATO), which followed from the Kola Peninsula to Fri based in the Cuban port of Mariel, received orders to act kontrblokadnye in the Caribbean (this is based on interviews with the commanders of Russian submarines, I wrote a book, «Cuban samba quartet» Foxtrot. «Russian submarines in the Caribbean decline in 1962,» which was published 2002). In fact, the case before them was tasked seriously «scare» the South American fleet, surrounded by Cuba. Submariners themselves did not even know what kind of role it was assigned. Forces were quite unequal. Against Quartet «Foxtrot» were thrown almost all were in existence antisubmarine ships and aircraft the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. And yet Russian submarine quite successfully evaded prosecution (referring to representatives of the U.S. Navy’s South American media reported then about 20 Russian boats, allegedly operating in the waters around Cuba). A B-4 under Captain 2nd rank Rurik Ketova generally managed to break away from the tutelage of the shock-search groups the U.S. Navy.
The most dramatic episode of the Cuban epic associated with B-59 Captain 2nd rank Valentin Savitsky. His boat for a few days could not swim to the surface for charging and communication with akkumy command. Temperature in the compartments was kept at around +40-50 ° C, and in the electromotive and completely rolled over +60 ° C. Lookouts fell from dehydration and carbon dioxide poisoning, the contents of which have gained critical actually deadly for people level. Sawicki himself was very exhausted from insomnia and lethargy Straseni. And his nerves could not stand. He gave the order to prepare to fire a nuclear torpedo (its capacity was about 20 kilotons). «Maybe at the top of war has already begun, and we’re here turn a somersault — motivated own submarine commander ordered. — We currently sharahnem on them! Themselves will perish, and drown them! «Is next Chief of Staff of the 69th Brigade Captain 2nd Rank Vasily Arkhipov and political officer B-59 Lieutenant Commander Ivan Maslennikov calmed friend and offered to swim, to understand the situation. So they did.
Shot nuclear torpedoes would not take place for another reason. Lead in fighting condition it could only charge the officer specially assigned to a nuclear torpedo (unfortunately, find this man I could not). He did not obey Savitsky. Give him the order, a special encrypted code could only Defense Minister. And the code had only this officer. But such an order from Moscow was not.
But here we can not forget the Captain James Bush statement, Simon Bolivar SSBN commander of the U.S. Navy with 16 Polaris missiles on board, that the submarine commander in cahoots with the commander of missile torpedo, who owned the second «key» to nuclear weapons in principle could perform unauthorized launch of ballistic missiles. But in the case of the B-59 is no collusion was and never could be.
Submarines of the 69th Brigade took command of Russian role decoy ducks distracting military and political control of the U.S. Russian missiles in Cuba until the Kremlin decided what to do next and how to wriggle out of the situation. In Moscow, obviously wish that the South American fleet found «Foxtrot»! It was a demonstrative action, designed to confuse the U.S. Armed Forces. Even while collecting session have not changed from 00.00 capital time in the Western Hemisphere, where the act of the submarine, it was 16.00. But podvsplyvat boats come to periscope depth and raise the antenna, which is equivalent to the output of the bath naked in the hotel lobby. That it was not the result of operator error Head of Staff of the Navy, evidenced by the fact that a week before the boats in the Caribbean of the 69th Brigade, the same operators, which is «held» in the area submarine B-75 Project 611 under the command Captain 2nd rank Nikolai Natnenkova. His Zulu Americans did not find, though submarine recharging akkumy ever to emerge in the daytime. Which is also in the days of the Cuban missile crisis acted at Pearl Harbor Pacific submarine B-88 (also Project 611) Captain 2nd rank Kireyeva Constantine. She even managed to «hunt» for a new aircraft carrier while Constellation (CV-64), which has only mastered the crew.
Incidentally, the successful resolution of the Cuban missile crisis has not diminished, and increment the presence of Russian underwater off the coast of the United States. Already in 1963 to the East Coast of the United States was focused second «Quartet» diesel submarines of the Northern Fleet, three torpedo Project 611 (B-74, B-76 and B-77) and missile submarine K-153 Project 629 ( Golf — systematization of NATO), under the command of Captain 2nd Rank Vladimir Liabedzka. K-153 carrying three ballistic nuclear missiles R-13 (SS-N-4 Sark — the western systematization) with a range of up to 600 km and megaton class warheads. They were all aimed at Washington, although one would be enough to carry off the face of the Earth, DC. Torpedo boats were gathering intelligence and covered the position of the shock unit. In fact the case, it was the first case of objection submarines military service away from their native shores. And that typically South American anti-forces did not find this compound submarines. Since that time hiking «on America,» as the Russian submariners who have become permanent and even routine.
SUBMARINES as a policy tool
A deliberate loss of stealth submarines — has long been spent welcome Russian and Russian Navy. Detecting gave himself for various reasons — especially when the United States was required to show «gruel.» The last time this happened almost exactly three years back, when the New York Times said about the origin in the U.S. East Coast 2-Russian nuclear submarines of Akula. Then administration Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev held talks on a brand new treaty on strategic arms reduction 2-states. This process marred U.S. plans to deploy in Poland and the Czech Republic missile defense capabilities. And, can be fully, Russian management launched «sharks» in the South American water to exert pressure on the United States. After all, it is no secret that the submarine project 971 can be equipped with cruise missiles «Granat» with a range of up to 3000 km with nuclear warheads. In general, at the moment these submarines, apparently, do not carry a gun.
Now the topic EuroPRO — again annoying moment in US-Russian relations. Russian control, of course, no longer believes in the possibility of a quick and easy achievements compromise on this issue. «I think that the problem will not be solved defense regardless of whether Obama is reelected or not, — Putin said at a press conference after the summit» twenty «in Los Cabos, Mexico. — U.S. moving towards the creation of their own defense for more than a year and I do not see anything that would change their approach. » Looks like someone in the United States came to believe that the defense can help to protect the area of the country from nuclear missile strikes. This is a fallacy. 2-nuclear submarines of Project 941 «Akula» (Typhoon — the western systematization) in the Atlantic and the Pacific, with a few hundred square meters of cruise missiles on board would be enough to dispel this illusion. These super-submarine at the moment «freeze» at the dock in Severodvinsk. But, as said in an interview to RIA Novosti Head of Department of the state defense order the United Shipbuilding Company Anatoly helmets, boats, these «live», and their fate is not sealed. It is possible that they will come back into the sea with a new missile weapon on board. In the meantime, the depth of the Gulf of Mexico and other waters adjacent to the areas the U.S. can surf other nuclear-powered vessels — Projects 971 and 945A «Condor» (Sierra II — to systematize NATO) — low noise and massively armed.
And soon they will come to reinforce the multipurpose nuclear submarines of the latest generation Project 885 «Ash». They get adopted supersonic cruise missiles family «Caliber-submarine» with a range of over 2500 km. They will not only difficult to intercept, and find.
Lining up at the moment the missile defense system the United States comes from the assumption that exactly or at least approximately known areas launch ICBMs and SLBMs. But if the starting point will constantly change? After all, when firing SLBMs, for example, the waters of the Galapagos Islands in the flight time of the missiles for the U.S. area is only 5-6 minutes. During this period simply means defense will not react to danger. Well, with the southern areas the U.S. has no appropriate means of radar control. And such possible positions in the Pacific and Atlantic majestic huge amount. And each missile-direction can not build a protective bastion. Saddled with debt and lack of budget Americans can not afford for themselves such. We must not forget also that, since the end of the «Cold War» potential anti-United States Navy was greatly reduced. He did not go to any comparison with what was at the time of the Cuban missile crisis.
THREAT from different directions
In over 2-a-half centuries the territory of the United States was a fortress, surrounded on all sides by strong «moats» — the oceans, who defended the country against invasion from outside. At the moment, the situation has radically changed. Oceans — comfortable transport routes for delivery to the U.S. destructive weapons. And there are good facilities submarines.
In May of this year, Iran finished repairing diesel-electric submarine Taregh — one of 3 Russian built 877EKM (Kilo — to systematize NATO). Modernization began in 2005 and it was attended by Russian spices. But after the introduction in 2010 of the UN Security Council sanctions have withdrawn them. Ceased and the supply of spare parts. But all the same boat changed about 18 thousand different parts and assemblies. A significant part of them — state production. One of the areas modernization — increasing autonomy. According to Navy Commander of the Islamic Republic of Admiral Habibullah Sayar, Iranian spetsy have acquired the necessary experience, and now such work will be performed significantly faster.
SSK 877EKM after proper retrofit can be armed with cruise missiles «submarine-land.» Our homeland is not an instrument of Iran supplied. But, certainly, Tehran wants to acquire similar missiles. And in this area, of course, maintained, possibly with the involvement of foreign experts. And Iran’s navy is ready to use such weapons. In the past year Yunis submarine type Kilo made 67-night sailing in the Gulf of Aden and the reddish sea at the design autonomy of 45 days. Now, according to Admiral Habibullah Sayar planned hike submarines of this type for 90 days. Still quite enough to get to the coast of the United States, go to the firing position and return to their base.
Given that the South American naikrupneyshim administrative and economic centers are located in the coastal zone, in other words in reach cruise missile submarines, it becomes clear the extent of the possible danger. According to the report of the Federal Emergency Management USA-only «for official use», as a result of undermining in Washington in charge of the White House nuclear capacity of 10 kilotons 45 thousand people will die, and the number of the wounded will exceed 320 thousand. Massive destruction will occur approximately within 1 km from the epicenter. During the 2-hours after the explosion, the fallout will fall. Near the epicenter of the radiation power range from 300 to 800 X-ray, which will lead to the death of virtually all of the people there. But diesel-electric submarines armed with not one but several cruise missiles. Because the consequences of an attack can be much more terrible.
In this connection it is necessary to direct attention to the words of Rear Admiral Ali Fadavi, who, speaking to students at Yazd Institute, said: «If the need arises, our fleet will be deployed in 3 miles from New York.» Naturally, in the statements of senior Iranian military and political figures are always, to put it mildly, exaggeration, and though discounted the possibility of the American shores Iranian submarines can not. Especially in light of the objectives of Tehran to begin designing and building submarines with nuclear power plants. These plans said Navy Deputy Commander Rear Admiral Abbas Zamini responsible for the technical equipment of the fleet.
Omoryachennaya operational-tactical ballistic missile (left) is comparable in size with a cruise missile «Yakhont» (right).
The disappointing news for Washington and come from China. August 16, China Bohai Strait in the area in the northern part yellowish sea conducted a successful test of an intercontinental ballistic missile JL-2 Julang («Big Wave»), launched from a nuclear submarine type Jin. Firing range of SLBM — 7400-8000 km. In other words, from the shores of China it can hit targets across the U.S. countryside.
China reached the significant success in the development of cruise missiles, «submarine-land» to equip diesel-electric submarines, which has a huge amount as part of Navy People’s Liberation Army. At the moment, for the PLA Navy built a new type of NNS 043 Qing. Their water displacement is about 5200 tons They are equipped with auxiliary power units airindependent (VNEU) Stirling and have full electric propulsion, which allows significant increment duration snorkeling and provide low noise, in other words, the acoustic signature. The main instrument of NNS type 043 — supersonic cruise missiles CJ-10K with a range of 1,500 km and a nuclear warhead small capacity, which are arranged in 3 vertical launchers in fencing sliding devices. Some sources say that these launchers are placed and medium range ballistic missiles DF-21D.
FOR pistol shot
In principle, the combination of ammo submarine cruise and ballistic missiles and medium-range not only can be, and better. We have already noted that one of the principal parts of the U.S. global missile defense neutralization may be a diesel-electric submarines VNEU, kitted small ballistic missiles short and medium range — inconspicuous and having kutsee maximum flight time to the target. ABM means simply do not have time to react to the way tribute to their launch. As the basis of such a complex can serve omoryachennye options tactical missiles Ground Forces «Iskander», «Oka» or «Volga» with a range of 400 to 1000 km. Launched from a submerged position, they will be able to «pistol» distance destroy coastal infrastructure missile defense system and the implementation of the nuclear — the principal shore targets, including military, political and economic centers.
Calculations show that the vertical launchers, for example created for launching cruise missiles «Caliber-PL» and «Onyx» / «Yakhont» / BRAHMOS, can be accommodation options omoryachennyh tactical missiles. In other words, they are able to go not only to the arsenal of multipurpose nuclear submarines «Ash», and non-nuclear type «Cupid» (Project 677E), some modifications which are designed to fire cruise missiles BRAHMOS. The same application can find and Indian ballistic missile K-15 Sagarika with a range of up to 700 km in the nuclear and ordinary execution. Having a takeoff weight of 10 tons, it allows the placement not only on the type of submarine Arihant, but modern diesel-electric boats.
CDB ME «Rubin» ideally have graduated from the test bench VNEU chemical generators and started creating deliverable standard, which can already be installed on submarines type «Cupid» and «Halibut» (Project 877/636). These units are expected to be undemanding. They will use standard diesel fuel and do not require complex coastal service. Such VNEU may already be armed with the third of the construction project NNS 677, and during its modernization and receive other submarines of this type, also submarines of Project 877/636.
On Russian NNS as VNEU can also use auxiliary nuclear installations (WOW). With their range of scuba diving on 4 nodes increases to 7,000 miles. In Russia WOW quite worked out. There is an experience of their operation on submarines.
Relatively cheap compared with the nuclear-powered ship with VNEU submarines armed with cruise missiles and ballistic small coastal targets to hit, can significantly impact the potential increment at least some of the fleet and the precipitate ambition country applying for hegemony. That’s why these kinds of naval gun in the last decade gained perceptible development (see table).
This «club» may seem, and probably will, new members. And far away they will not always priklnnymi United States.