Numerous publications on the topic in the Red Army defeats the initial period of the Great Patriotic War unwittingly put aside the question of how others defended their homeland armies of Europe, how to behave in the difficult years of their rulers? This refers to those countries as well as the Soviet Union were attacked by Nazi Germany.
First in Europe in the way the German army was Czechoslovakia. However, the facts they say that it appears the Germans in general it did not attack, but just at the end of 1938. annexed the Sudetenland, and later, March 14, 1939, Hitler summoned for themselves in the Berlin of the then Czechoslovak president Emil Gahu and invited him to take the German occupation of the Czech Republic. Hacha agreed to it, and the German army just moved into a festive march to the Czech countryside with virtually no resistance from some Czechs. In the Sudeten German troops greeted with flowers, it is, of course, were not the Czechs and the Sudeten Germans were local. One, the only attempt to organized armed resistance to the incoming Czech countryside Germans, took only one company out of all of the Czechoslovak army, under the command of Captain Karel Pavlik in town Mistek, and all.
So Makarov, it turns out that the Czechs are many peaceful years in vain for his army fed, she simply did not have wished to defend, although with this pretty and capabilities. Not enough of these tools, all the weapons of the Czechoslovak army, all its arsenals, bases and major military factories fled unharmed in the capable hands of the Wehrmacht, often later on the Soviet-German front could be met Czech-made tanks, attacked the positions of our troops or car, driving on the position of the German fighter.
Followed by a European state on the path of German tanks was Poland, which the Germans stormed September 1, 1939. The Polish army, apparently, very long rested on their laurels favorites of the Red Army in the War of 1920. Numerous military parades, beautiful form of military, diplomatic arrogance — it was relevant for Poland late 30 godov.A eventually the country was not ready for war. Poles are expecting an attack from the east and did not see a threat to their own country from the west. However, in contrast to the Czechoslovak Army, Polish Army resisted longer and more desperate, and of the loss of the enemy caused quite tangible, though with all this already on the third day of the war the Polish Air Force ended its existence as a whole is disrupted command and control, because that your connection between the General Staff and the Army. The result was an impossible upcoming mobilization of the army and the shameful thing that came out — this is what the Polish rulers, leaving the army, which still continued to fight with the enemy and its own people, just escaped to Romania, and by October 6 with the state under the title Poland was all over. So Makar, the German armed forces in handy just 1 month and 6 days, the Polish government as much as 5 years old disappeared from the political map of the world.
Many believe that contributed to the defeat of Poland is very Russian alliance, but it is a very controversial issue, because by September 17, when the Soviet Union began to enter their own troops into eastern Poland, its army virtually lost all their combat capability, and a front against the Germans just fell apart, if only the Poles were able to keep the front, it is unlikely that the Russian administration would dare to send troops under such criteria. Poles had hoped in vain for a contract with the Western Allies, they are to help them they did not come.
On the other least important countries the Germans do not want to waste military resources and forces acted in the diplomatic pressure and blackmail. For example, in April 1940, the German ambassador in Oslo and Copenhagen handed to the authorities of Norway and Denmark are similar in content notes, in which Germany offered its "armed protection" to these neutral countries of the likely Tipo recently attacked the British and the French. The German government directly, unceremoniously, to report to the notes, the peaceful occupation of the two states.
Denmark obeyed the requirements of Germany almost without resistance. Another situation in Norway. There, the Germans had to war. Little Norway, but with the help of the British and French troops fought even longer than Poland — almost two months.
Stripping and having secured as they say, its own wing in the north of Europe the Germans have now decided to direct all attention to your own primary opponent in Western Europe, France, army which at that time was holding its main forces on the Maginot band, which was listed as her pride and the main shield of the German Wehrmacht. French troops, together with its main ally, British Expeditionary Force, were on their own positions, were on duty in the trenches and pillboxes across the Maginot band, and in the intervals between the duty rested well the equipped bunkers and shelters, drinking beautiful French wine, playing cards , tennis, even at the forefront of the entire football tournaments were held, and in the days of the weekend, many soldiers were leaving for vacation in Paris and then in London. At Christmas, all bunkers and concrete shelters band Maginot sparkling festive Christmas tree topped, it was warm, comfortable, perfectly at home, it was a truly grand war, which was called the "strange" or "sit-war."
This whole "front vacation" allies ended May 10, 1940, the same day the German troops, violated their peace and sleep, because according to, their own plan, "Gelb", entered as "tourists" on its own tanks, first in Holland and then in Belgium.
The Dutch were able to withstand all day or 4 from 10 to 14 May, a special fortified area in which they are expected to fight off the Germans and wait approach the Allies, under the harsh title of "Fortress Holland" has not become a fortress of Brest, two Dutch housing consisting of 9 divisions laid down instrument, and German tanks, without stopping, has raced further ahead, in Belgium. French attempt to strike back and assist the Belgians were not crowned with success, and already on May 26th ruler of Belgium Leopold III signed the instrument of surrender. Then came the turn and the French themselves, and their allies, the then British. German troops through the countryside of Belgium, beating the Maginot Line from the north, captured almost the whole of France. The remains of the British and French armies were driven to the area of Dunkirk, where shameful evacuated to England. In total defeat of France the Germans came in handy a little more than 40 days.
Hitler, who loved the spectacular gesture to further humiliate France, which was at the time of the fourth power of the world, for the signing of the surrender again decided to use the same carriage in Compiegne, in which Armistice was signed in 1918, bringing Germa
ny to her knees and Complete the First World War. The Germans forced the French on June 22 in the same carriage, to sign the act of capitulation are France (Armistice 1940). So Makar, officially military action ended June 25, 1940.
Criterion of surrender is clear that three fifths French countryside have been given under German control. The French troops were disarmed and contain the German occupation forces had themselves French, just like the one saying, "Who does not want to feed his army, he will feed someone else."
However, Italy, which has had time to jump into this little war trophy, the French still had time to put a few defeats gap stretches and yet the Italian Duce, getting credit for Hitler area, cut off from the French area of almost 832 km ². The French navy (7 battleships, 18 cruisers, 48 destroyers, 71 submarines and other vessels) had to be disarmed under the control of Germany and Italy. Sam Wehrmacht received from the French military arsenals impressive recruiting, especially armored vehicles. It appears, from the French for German tanks anger was more than the Germans, the German command constantly be concerned in replenishing their own armored forces with the latest technology, but after the summer of 1940, this problem was temporarily resolved in some way.
Graduated own military "tourism" Germans march into the Balkans, which, lasted only a day or 24 (from 6 to 29 April), with the least losses for the Wehrmacht, which is obviously strengthened the faith in the infallibility of Hitler's command now has a proven strategy of "lightning war."
The only military operation that led the German military command really seriously nervous — it capture Crete (from May 20 to June 1, 1941.), Where the German Navy and Air Force suffered its most severe loss since the war began in 1939. Allies (British and Greeks) as usual at the time, having an advantage of the ways and means they did not stand in front of a German peace, and the pressure of the commanders in the field, as a result — a complete defeat and chaotic evacuation of Allied troops from Crete.
Studying materials on the second world war, can not stop wondering and asking the same question: why countries of contemporary Europe, is subjected to anger provided little resistance to the aggressor, and surrendered to the mercy of the enemy entire states, if at all, without any resistance? After all, they are, in comparison with our state, lived in the greenhouse, the criteria for well-fed, and it was something to defend. Why did the French and the British, who bore the principal for all the hardships of World War II, and could not in the summer of 1940, the Germans make a second Verdun, or maybe just did not want to? Although all of these questions, historians have long since gave detailed answers, spread out in all the projections put forward by all the versions, and still, to this day do not quite understand why the people of Europe, who have been anger on the part of Nazi Germany, and were not able to arrange the invaders his "Defense of Moscow" or own "Stalingrad"? This question still remains unanswered, because it is faster than a moral rather than historical.