Emperor Alexander III
Scary to look at the agony of the ship. It is as if the injured person is bent in pain, struggling in convulsions, break in two and sinks, making with all this terrible uterine sounds. Doubly hard if you die, native vessel. And it is absolutely intolerable — if its drowning yourself!
The destroyer "Fidonisi"
The destroyer "Fidonisi" rocking on the waves in the rays of the setting sun. From a distance of 4 cables was impossible to miss the mark. The torpedo slid into the water, wait a second, and almost burst destroyer in half, as if bursting unknown terrible power. His feed and nose lifted separately from each other and turned over to starboard and disappeared in the sea water.
The death of "Fidonisi" was the signal for the destruction of other ships. Drowned them in glory. One discovery seachests did not stop. So primitive flooded ship can simply lift, pump out the water and put into operation again. And he will lie on the days are short term and will be the least damage to the ship! Everything was thoroughly. Special teams laid blasting cartridges in the engine rooms, and opened the scuttle klinkety and even otdraivali portholes. With tears in his eyes, with not passing a lump in my throat. Having done his job, silent jumped into the boat, shovel away and looked and looked and looked …
One by one, destroyed by Russian sailors, were at the bottom of the bay Tsemess Russian destroyer Novik, "Haji Bey", "Kaliakra", "piercing", "Lieutenant Shestakov," "Lieutenant Commander Baranov." Disappeared under the water destroyers "Sharp-witted" and "rapid". Only twelve ships.
Now you can do the most important thing. Above the water still towered the colossal hulk battleship "Free Russia". The destroyer "Kerch" came to the ship and gave a volley of 2-torpedoes. Its commander, Lieutenant Vladimir Kukel silently watched as the torpedo hit the beauty and glory of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. First exploded beneath the ship, the second passed by. For such a giant one hit was not quite significantly. The ship was above the water, as if nothing had happened the same. Only post dark smoke rose above its conning tower. I had to release a third torpedo, but even after that the ship is not only stayed afloat, but did not banked. Later exploded fourth torpedo, but the battleship "Free Russia" was made so amazing, that after that he kept as before on the surface of the water!
Black Sea Battleship "Free Our homeland"
Kukel did not believe her disgusted — the ship apparently did not want to sink and fought for life all probable means. Subsequent, the fifth torpedo was released in the middle of his body, at one point turned to the working course and ran to the very destroyer! But how annoying it did not sound, the battleship was doomed, and the sixth torpedo graduated from the case. There was a terrible explosion. A pillar of white and black smoke rose above the masts and closed its base almost the entire ship. When the smoke cleared somewhat, disgusted sailors had the terrible picture: armor from both sides fell off the ship and there is a tremendous gap shining through. A few more minutes and the battleship was nakrenyatsya slowly to starboard. After a few more minutes the ship rolled up keel. And moaned like a drowning man. Shedding of its own grounds, large 12-inch three-gun turret slid across the deck of the "Free Russia" in the water, destroying and crushing everything in its path, picking up large columns of water and splashes. About half an hour body battleship scuttled.
Now established and all of the destroyer "Kerch". At about 10 pm June 18, 1918 went on the air last radio message: "Everything. Dead, destroying part of the Black Sea Fleet ships, who preferred death — it shameful surrender of Germany. "
The destroyer "Kerch"
The Russian Black Sea Fleet ceased to exist. "Free Russia" has gone to the bottom …
Two points of support exists at least some sovereign! One foot vases — the army — it is based on land, the other navy — firmly on the seas and oceans. And these two are not equal its support entirely. The army, even in down and remains broken, recovering rapidly. New generation grows up, no smell of gunpowder, one can only equip them in the form of wear. The point is not cheap, but all the countries in the swarm, aspiring superpower, it always turned on pockets. But the naval arms race on prices to any comparison with the arms race does not go overland. And take time to rebuild a new fleet beyond the power of any power. Because the defeat of the land army is defeated, and the destruction of the fleet — Tragedy.
After interruption of the legitimacy of the Russian government, the defeat of the main contenders for the throne subsequent task of getting the British settlement of our fleet. Only after that could be considered a successful implementation of the elimination of competing with the British Russian Empire. For this purpose all available means: the pressure on the Bolshevik control, direct military destruction, "cooperation" with the Whites. Let's be fair: its goal of "allies" doggedly pursued throughout the Russian turmoil. And — embodied their plans. Compared with the period before the war Our homeland was virtually no navy. Reach languid years of collectivization, to overcome the terrible years of war, and Russian alliance will create a powerful ocean-going fleet. So that in the second time in a century he was a "reset" nimble actions of politicians. During perestroika and the ensuing chaos of the Yeltsin will be put on the scrap actually unfinished aircraft carrier and sawed submarines of the latest series. Are you surprised? Not worth it, all this has happened in our history in 1918. We just do it well forgotten …
After suffering defeat in the Russian-Japanese war of 1905-1906 years, having lost in the sea of failed battles the cream of the Russian fleet, the government of Nicholas II developed a huge shipbuilding program from. It is this Russian programm action came in the period of the global
total jerk "sea" arms race. The last word of the then naval science have improved battleships (battleships). They became known as dreadnoughts. Its title, which became a household name, they received from the "pilot" of the British ship under the title "Dreadnought" ("Fearless"), built in 1905-1906. Made with the latest science and technology, these vessels were more tenacious and status. Big, chunky vehicles with very large caliber guns became important arguments in the future world fight. Dreadnoughts were built faster pace in the fleets of rival powers. The price of such vehicles, the amount of steel and armor used to create these monsters were simply stunning. Specifically dreadnoughts were the personification of the power of the country and its weight in the international arena. Expensive armored giants' budgets eaters "served as an indicator of monetary well-being, economic prosperity, the level of development of science, technology and industry. But not enough, the development of armored monsters themselves going so fast that in 5 years the question was already on the issue "sverhdrednoutov", twice surpassing the old dreadnoughts …
Our homeland began construction of dreadnoughts later than other states because of the beginning of World War II in a system not yet been a 1st ship. However, at various stages of the construction, there were twelve. In 1917, the last of the Russian dreadnoughts had to get up in the system. Fate decided differently. By the end of the war in Russia plainclothes there are only four, and only three of them in minute, but the combat readiness. Taking off his cap, let us remember the dead Russian ships and set a reasonable question: why it suddenly attacked them such pestilence? Is the Russian fleet lost the general maritime battle, such as Tsushima in Russian-Japanese war? No, not lost. Just as the battle itself for our Navy in the First World War was not. Where does such a huge loss?
None of the Russian ships, the Titans did not die in combat, as befits a true military ship. They are all victims of the Troubles occurred in Russia. The newest and most powerful ships sverhdrednouty "Ishmael", "Kinburn", "Borodino" and "Navarino" and not "born," being liquidated back in the "womb" shipyard. And what pretty boy they had become! Their supposed to install a thicker at those times, artillery and anti-aircraft weapons. But did not. And do not be blamed for the death of the ships alone Bolsheviks. The elimination of the fleet still start the Provisional Government. In the summer of 1916 the Admiralty had pinned hopes on entering the firstborn of a series of "Ishmael" in the subsequent operation in the autumn, in other words, 1917. But as the fall of the monarchy in Russia, the government is "a new, free Russia" immediately shifted term availability of towers "Ishmael" at the end of 1919, and the other ships — the first for 1920.
Then flows from the Kerensky government to act completely finished. Bolsheviks warships were needed even less than the "time-servers". By an Order of 19 July 1922 the unfinished mastodons excluded from the lists of the fleet, and then the State Planning Commission decision in May of next year, were allowed to sell them abroad. Ships acquired "as a whole," the German company "Alfred incubation", that is in their own docks cut into the metal …
Other Russian dreadnoughts were eliminated with the introduction of a whole arsenal of policy instruments. Treachery, corruption, heresy, innuendo — all this was a place in the rather short history of the destruction of our ships. But just as in the rather short and there were epic heroes that laid down their lives for the Russian Navy!
But first things first. The main strength of our ships before the First World War were concentrated in the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. In the first step of the war the Russian fleet in the Baltic Sea was purely defensive puzzle defense of Riga and the Gulf of Bothnia from the invading enemy.
Battleship "Sevastopol" — the first Russian dreadnought
In 1915, with the rise in their own ranks dreadnoughts "Sevastopol", "Poltava", "Petropavlovsk" and "Gangut" the Russian fleet was able to behave more active, but it was hard, "corked" Germans in their own waters. But with the advent of the German his actions became more intense: the ships began to support ground troops. In 1916, the communications of the enemy appeared on our seven new submarines of the "Bars", as the British submarine sent to the British "allies." The fall of German ships tried to break into the Gulf of Finland and lost on our minefield 7 (!) Newest destroyers. Our losses were 2 destroyers and one submarine. As we see, before the turmoil of the Russian Chertovskikh no defeats Russian Baltic Fleet has not suffered. Their tasks he did, and the loss of the Germans at all it even surpassed our own.
1917 had to be the year of our coming. But the revolution this year, giving the effect of a completely different direction. Overall expansion of the armed forces in the heavily hurt and naval body. Discipline and combat readiness of ships are now a lot of the best left much to be desired. During the reign of Kerensky and sailors reincarnated from a fighting force into a mass of lumpen, would not want to risk his own skin in a real fight. Heroic death penalty, they preferred over their officers. The decomposition process has gone so far that in October 1917, when the Germans capture Moonsund islands, the crews simply afraid to go to sea. So, the team minelayer "Pripyat" refused to mine the Strait of Soelozund. Ship Committee did not give its own approval for this operation because the mines had to be put within the range of acts of naval artillery of the enemy, and it is "too dangerous." Other revolutionary court simply shameful fleeing from the enemy or refuses to leave the parking lot under the ridiculous pretext that "there is fire."
And yet, the Russian navy snapped: eventually capture Moonsund islands Germans lost destroyers S-64, T-54, T-56 and T-66, patrol boats "Altair", "dolphin", "Guteyl", "Gluckstadt" and minesweeper M-31. The Russian Navy has lost battleship "Glory" and the destroyer "Thunder". Again we litsezreem fascinating picture: even in a period of rapid expansion of the discipline and combat effectiveness of the sharp decline of the Russian fleet Inflicts tangible loss.
Then the baton to the expansion of the Russian fleet in the Provisional Government of the Bolsheviks seized. January 29, 1918 the Council of People's Commissars issued a decree dissolving the Royal Navy and the Navy of the socialist organization. Construction of the "new" Lenin quite rightly started with the complete destruction of the "old." But if in the land army, t
his meant a general demobilization, then na navy chief consequence of Lenin's decision was a total dismissal from the ships of regular officers, as the counter-revolutionary forces in advance. And the role of the officer on the ship much more important. If the land army, carried Bolshevik propaganda to handle, supplanted by new detachments of the Red Guard, and at the very least could try to keep the front, the situation at sea was an order of magnitude worse. Fleet devoid officers could not quite make war, and change it to others, "red" fleet was unreal. It's not even that 'singing matrosney a certain command was simply to fire the guns heavy duty dreadnought requires knowledge of the vast number of complex subjects. Pa eye at a distance of 10 km s not shoot. Gone spices — just reincarnated ships into floating barracks and did not have combat units. Officers fired masses. Write them on the store, the Bolsheviks immediately brought the Baltic Fleet of the game and chained him to the piers ports. And just started to happen with the Baltic Fleet "strange" things. Lenin and Trotsky gave the order … Baltic Fleet to kill …
It turned out this way then. Another step the disaster of the Russian fleet was the signing of the Peace of Brest.
Article number 5 bonded said subsequent contract:
"Russia immediately undertakes to complete demobilization of its own army, including military units, the newly formed her present government. In addition, their warships Our homeland or translated into Russian ports, and leave it to the conclusion of peace in the world, and immediately disarm. Warships of the countries and staying on in a state of war with the powers of the Quadruple Alliance, as these vessels are in the sphere of power of, equal to the Russian military courts … "
As if nothing terrible. Need to be translated into Russian Navy ports — translate, why not. But it is only at first glance. Again comes into naval specificity.
In 1-x, but the ships are floating water in-2, hit the beach, they can only strictly in designated areas. The number of such places is not enough indescribable and the port name. But for parking a fleet comprising large ultra-modern dreadnoughts, perfect and not every port. As a result, by signing the Brest peace, no one bothered to look, and where, in what Russian ports ships can relocate.
Practically speaking, the number of sites in the past of the Russian fleet in the Baltic Sea was not enough Revel (Tallinn), Helsingfors (Helsinki) and Kronstadt. Nowhere else was the respective infrastructure, and pay tribute to the depth of the other things that are needed to accommodate the ships. By signing the Treaty of Brest, Our homeland recognized the independence of Estonia, Finland and rejection. As can be seen, for the home of the Baltic Fleet was only one Russian port Kronstadt. Began wandering Russian ships. At first, the Germans occupied Revel. Part of the fleet located there, relocated to Helsinki after going through the ice. By being in the Finnish capital constraints did not work out, but only postponed its decision for a couple of weeks. Finland, too, has become independent. In addition, just as the Germans responded to a request from the "white" of the Finnish Government, to assist in the fight against the "red" Finns. March 5, 1918 the Year of the Germans landed troops, starting promotion into the north of the country. Now the situation of the Baltic Fleet was quite sad. White Finns and Germans, ending the Finnish settlement of the Red Guards, were approaching to parking vehicles. And the commander of the German squadron presented ultimaticheskoe requirement that the entire Russian fleet, which stood at Helsingfors, was handed over to the Germans on 31 March. Marvel at the nerve of Berlin is not necessary. After the conclusion of the Peace of Brest Germany alternately blackmails the Bolsheviks, exposing them to new demands. Germans can understand — feeling the military weakness of Lenin's control, they rush to get from Russia as much as possible. In pursuit of a tangible benefit German management loses sight of one important detail. The crises in relations with Russia, provoked by themselves, do not give the Germans the ability dramatically and swiftly withdraw troops from the Eastern Front to the West. This leads to a depreciation of the benefits acquired by Germany by agreement with the Bolsheviks. Counting on it "allies" when the Germans entered into a "gentlemen" agreement Getting a group of Lenin in Russia.
Following shaped as letters contract with Germany, the fleet should immediately translate into a purely Russian port in Kronstadt. But this was impossible due to severe ice conditions. Specifically, as "believes" in the Bolshevik top. A few of days earlier part of the Russian ships have successfully broken through the ice from Revel to Helsinki and that has shown that such a transition is likely. But the Bolshevik administration does not order the fleet to move from Helsingfors to Kronstadt, through the same, they have overcome and ice hummocks. Why? Because think Lenin and Trotsky for the salvation of ships. Germany asks to quit ships in Helsingfors, perhaps intending to seize them. At the same time, representatives of the Entente require ships to prevent the capture of the Germans. Involves two mutually exclusive "order", and this will determine the fate of the proletarian revolution. Here, Lenin and Trotsky, and seek out an option that meets the requirements of the "union" Scylla and Charybdis of German, not a solution that will allow to save the fleet for Russia!
A lot of spray and let loose Russian zabugornye historians, covering real prerequisites Bolshevik zeal in trying to drown his fleet. In this pitch-black darkness of fraud and falsehood occasionally, but still shy rays penetrated the terrible truth about the fate of the Russian ships. Baltic sailor, officer GK Count writes frankly about the unusual position of Bolshevik control:
"Instructions of Moscow were always ambiguous and inconsistent: they talk about the translation of the fleet in Kronstadt, that the abandonment in Helsingfors, and then — to prepare for destruction. This raised the idea that someone in the Russian government is under pressure. "
After his discharge from the Navy almost all the officers Baltic Fleet was left without a commander, and the ships run by a collective body — Centrobalt. But echoing sailor wrestler to perform delicate assignments does not fit, you need a certain artist, who is in which case it will be possible to shift the blame. And such is Trotsky himself. Making a directive of the Centre must be hastily appointed Alexis Shchastny. This naval officer, Commander.
Its brand new admiral's office, but as the Bolsheviks abolished all military ranks, he was at the time of its own destiny was called Namoren (Chief of Navy) of the Baltic Sea. Can not afraid to say exactly what it is the lifeguard of the Baltic Fleet. Specifically, thanks to Shchastny Our homeland will keep their ships in the Baltic and massive guns Russian battleships met a Nazi on the approaches to Leningrad in 23 years.
Having taken over command of the ship anchored in Helsingfors, the new commander is in a difficult situation. Calculation of Trotsky was the fact that, being in terrible time trouble and under pressure from Moscow, he pokorlivo execute any instructions Bolshevik tops and send shi
ps to the bottom and will not think about saving the fleet. British intelligence also is not going to quietly look at the development of events. To persuade Shchastny an explosion of ships 'union' agents gives him a photocopy of the German command telegrams Russian government. They are fake or not, we do not understand, but when they are read in Namorsi was to emerge recollection that Lenin and Trotsky made the German guidelines and are traitors. Own enthusiasm — the complete destruction of the Russian fleet — "allies" under the disguise of the ordinary care about, that enemy of the Entente did not get the gain.
"Sea Captain Cromie agent a couple of times went to Helsinki to reach the first rank of Captain AM Shchastny sinking of the fleet," — says Mr. K. Graf.
Cromie — this one a resident of British intelligence, that six months would be shot dead by security officers in the British mission in Petrograd. To Shchastny no qualms in the defeat of the Baltic Fleet, the British show him an example of "selfless service to the motherland." On the basis of our fleet in the Ganges, just 10 km from the framework of Helsingfors, while there is a parking British submarines in 1916, the British sent to the Baltic. British submarine «If-1", "E-8", "E-9", "C-19", "C-26", "C-27" and "C-35", their base of "Amsterdam" and three steamers Explode by order of the British command. The literature on these events will you find mention of the fact that the British submarine Tipo were blown up due to the inability of their transfer to the Russian port. This is complete nonsense, which can dispel a common fact of all Russian submarines stationed in the same ice was 11 safely evacuated from Helsingfors to Kronstadt. Brits want to save their subs, they would have had ample opportunity to do so. And it is not so headed to the bottom of the British submarine that Russian seafarers engaged solving their own problems, did not want to bail out "union" ships.
All significantly trickier. In chess, for the merits of the big success made to sacrifice pawns. So here, the flooding submarine — it is for the British, of course, a blow on his own. Right — this is normal and understandable example for Russian sailors. We British are blowing seven our submarines. Well, you're Russian, detonate all its own fleet! That he has not got the Germans. Managed liquidation British submarine Captain Francis Cromie. Personnel British spy submarine blows up, and on this basis, many scholars of the period are recorded in his submarine. Although he served a brave captain is quite different, "the Office". Because once a safety net, Cromie was negotiating with Latent organization of naval officers. The idea instilled English scout and Shchastny and officers are very ordinariness: the abandonment of ships damaged in the Finnish capital — is the obvious fulfillment of Lenin and Trotsky's own order of German owners. Which in this case must make true Russian patriots?
Pay attention that the option of saving the squadron by the British redeployment se do not offer. Nothing better than sinking ships, they can not recommend. This is understandable, because they need specific destruction of the fleet.
Here we pause for little and think. Germany knows that more than anything else, Lenin feared the continuation of German Advent. It will mean the collapse of Russian power, the collapse of everything. When will have the second case to experience in the construction of a socialist society, no one knows. Probably never. Because Germany can put pressure on Lenin and peaceful contract to blackmail him. "… Who is against the immediate, albeit arhityazhkogo the world, he is ruining the Soviet regime," — wrote in these days of Lenin. World Lenin necessary as air. How to save it? Very simple: to observe the peace of Brest contract and not to give the Germans a reason for its violation. This is the surest method is to save the world so suitable Ilyich. Bukovkoy peace treaty says that the Bolsheviks have for this two abilities. The candidacy of Lenin usual: if you want to save the world — or translate ships in Kronstadt, or leave disarmed the Finns, that actually means the transfer of Germany. So, the only two options. Interpretation of the behavior of the upcoming Lenin and Trotsky historians also give two. First said that they were German spies in every way and worked through the means provided by Germany, performing a variety of acts in its interests. The second argues that although the Bolsheviks and were reddish internationalists, but all the same always act in the interests of their own people. Here let us evaluate and subsequent acts of Lenin, all of the above in the head with.
What should a German spy?
Under various pretexts to block out the Baltic Fleet of the Finnish capital tselehonkim and try to pass it to their German owners.
What should a patriot of his own country?
Try to keep the fleet and take it out of the trap appeared to Kronstadt.
What still makes the Bolshevik control?
Russian government is not doing either one or the other: it gives an official order to fulfill the demand brought against the Germans, but for all that the ships bring in worthless condition.
This means that selects Lenin third embodiment. In whose best interest to bring the Russian fleet in disrepair? In German? No, Germans fleet was not unsafe, signed a peace agreement Brest and Russian guns in more Germans do not shoot. The Navy needed tselehonkim Germans, with German crews on board. So that it can be used in combat. The flooding or damage of ships by the Bolsheviks, the German point of view, this is disobedience. It does not help, "German spies" to their owners. A quarrel with the Germans not to Lenin. Because they still do not really know what to do with Russia.
If the Bolsheviks really did the German will, then they would try to pass the whole German fleet. It is so naturally. Meanwhile, very often in the literature can meet the information that, say, the fleet was necessary to undermine, that he has not got the Germans. According to the views of the creators, and specifically had to do with the fiery revolutionaries crystal nezapyatannoy conscience who did not have any cash contacts with German intelligence agencies. Let us assume that this is so, but in this case it is not clear exactly why half the country of Germany can give, and three hundred square meters of ships — no? Why to save the revolution can donate Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Estonia, Georgia, and the fleet can not give the Germans? Once fellow Bolsheviks so scrupulous in matters stock sell their country, there is no need at all a peace treaty with the Kaiser conclude. If so pronounced "A", and then have the "B" read. Is illogical — at first all that the Germans claimed to do, and later because of some of the fleet with them again in conflict.
And in general, what are the interests of the working people require Russian ships to drown and kill? In the interests of the world revolution would have been the world's only fleet Reddish preserve, not destroy or deface. In addition to everything else, battleships and dreadnoughts are just a lot of money and if the latest socialist RF fleet some unknown reason, is no longer needed, it can also simple to implement.
After the Bolsheviks would later sell the cultural values, why not at the same time and ships tolkanut? You can use the proceeds to buy food and feed the hungry Petrograd workers, their ladies and children.
It turns out that neither the interests of Germany, or the interests of, or the interests of working people all over the planet Lenin ordered the winding up of the fleet did not pursue. Then who led by the ha
nd of Lenin, when he gave such a harsh decree? For whom is a strong Russian navy — is a night terror? For the British, for this ship of civilization, at least some strong fleet — a night terror. That's why the British painstakingly stoked the French fleet at Aboukir and Trafalgar, but very reluctant land battles against Napoleon.
The extermination of the Russian fleet for their task, like Lenin said, "overarching". Even concern for the strengthening of the German fleet in case of capture our ships did not explain the energetic zeal of the English drown.
"In particular, if the German fleet was almost three times less than the British, the Russian was weaker German every 5 — writes in his book Captain 2nd Rank GK Count — From our active forces of the Baltic Fleet had meaning only four modern battleships, whose accession to the German fleet would not have given him all the same ability to compete with the British. Of course, the Brits are not afraid of this, and they had their own judgments are something special … "
In Moscow, Bruce Lockhart, Jacques Sadoul are constant consultation with Lenin and Trotsky. Ilyich maneuvers, the British and French spies insist. They make the same offer Russian summit from which you can not turn away. A plan of "allies" is the same as in the case of the Romanovs. Just did not want to come to power fanatical Bolsheviks disappear immediately after the dissolution of "Constituent Assembly" and a violation of the legitimacy of the Russian government, we must do all the work tarnished. Lenin and the company will have a quick, but from March July:
♦ destroy the country;
♦ remove the main contenders for the throne;
♦ sink the fleet;
♦ one hundred percent disorganize the army, government and industry.
After this wave of "people" perturbations, generously paid for by the same British and French, will sweep the hated Bolsheviks. Will ask no one to …
Everything was perfectly conceived by British intelligence, and lie to the Baltic Fleet in the old days, if not Shchastny Alexei Mikhailovich. He broke the brilliant combination and paid for it with his life. Namorsi sees only good for the interests of the RF solution, he takes the option that no one has offered him: neither Trotsky nor British agents. Russian patriot, a naval officer decides to save the fleet!
"All the efforts Cromie not led to nothing. AM Shchastny just said he at any cost will translate fleet in Kronstadt. "
It was an unprecedented act of courage. March 12, 1918 from Helsingfors, accompanied by ice-breakers is the first detachment. Reid won the title of the Ice transition took place in a very languid criteria, and not just because of the strength of ice and ice ridges. Not interfere with rescue fleet manning the ships officers and even sailors. The Bolshevik policy has led to the dismissal of the first and second active desertion. Have a situation where the courts were just some control.
The problem of partially resolved, placed on board a fighter Sveaborg garrison.
Movement of our ships also tried in vain to prevent their fire Finnish Lavensaari battery on the peninsula. But under the threat of large guns dreadnoughts she promptly stopped. After 5 days, 17 March 1918, the Russian ships arrived safely in Kronstadt. Right behind them went the second group of ships, and the last ships of the Baltic Fleet withdrew from Helsingfors to 9:00 am on April 12, three hours before the arrival of the German Fleet. Ice transition, which was considered impracticable, was implemented. A total of 350 combat ships of the Baltic Fleet was rescued 236 ships, including — all four dreadnoughts.
But rejoice and rest was early. British intelligence salvation of the Baltic Fleet does not suit. I had even more serious push to Lenin. Once the fleet is not flooded, the Bolsheviks would have to give way to another fundamental question.
When Shchastny rescued Baltic Fleet?
17 March 1918.
What more fundamental going on this month?
That's right — in the second half of March, arrested Misha and other members of the Romanov dynasty. March 30, 1918 the family of Nicholas Romanov announced the introduction of the prison regime. The life of the Romanovs is exchanged for maintaining the Bolshevik government. Not cope with the ships of the first approach — will have to excel in another nicety is. In those days are soothed Lenin wrote his policy work, "The next tasks Russian authorities", where war is described as a plain clothes have won and completed. Lenin was so calm about their future because once again managed to agree with the "allies." And Trotsky is his take on not only the blood of babies Nikolai II, and the death of the Russian Navy …
If you look behind the scenes of world politics, again, go back to the bridge of the Baltic battleship. Namorsi Shchastny and ordinary seamen regarded their puzzle made, and the ships saved. At this point the new girl from Moscow came a sudden directive.
Just 12 days after the transfer of the Ice man-of-war's man's Commissar Trotsky sent to Kronstadt hidden order — to prepare a fleet to explode.
Surprise and indignation Shchastny, received a telegram May 3, 1918, there were no borders. Saved by the hard-Baltic fleet expected to flood into the mouth of the Neva River, to avoid capture by the Germans, are coming to town Bolshevik management considered likely. Not relying too much on the consciousness of the sailors in the same directive, Trotsky gave the order to make the special foreign exchange account at the bank for players coming explosion!
Patriot Shchastny made these hidden treasure orders "maritime community," which immediately shook fleet. Even the revolutionary little brother-sailor, so acquainted with the orders of Comrade Trotsky's exciting, sensed something was wrong.
Particular outrage crew was the fact that for the bombing of ships expected to pay their own money. It smelled so obvious payoff that crews claimed clarification.
"But at the same time in the Navy stubbornly spread rumors as if Russian authorities pledged before the Germans special lurking Fri contract to kill our navy," — says abou
t the originator of the emergence of rumors Straseni Lev Davidovich Trotsky. The surprise comes through in the words of the majestic fighter for freedom. Agree — no ground for such thoughts sailors can not be. There is no reason to suspect the Bolshevik top in a really manic desire to flood their own warships.
May 11, 1918 crews mine division, which stood on the Neva River in the center of town, have decided:
"Petrograd Commune because of its complete failure, and failure to do anything to save the country and Petrograd to dissolve."
All the power to save the fleet sailors claimed to pass the Marine dictatorship of the Baltic Fleet. And on May 22 at the III Congress of Delegates of the Baltic Fleet sailors said that the fleet will be blown up just after the fight. So makarom by unveiling lurking order the winding up of the fleet and the fact that it is supposed to pay for the funds could Shchastny second time thwart the plans of the British Intelligence. Rate it simply acts: the hero. But a modern look. Trotsky gives a different assessment activities Namorsi:
"His task was obviously different: ignore information about currency deposits in the Navy in the broad masses of it, arouse suspicion that someone is willing to bribe someone behind Sailors masses for any actions about which publicly and openly do not want to read. Quite clear that this method Shchastny did quite impracticable undermining the fleet in the right moment, for the very same artificially evoked commands such representation, as if this disruption is not in the interests of saving the revolution and the country, and in the interests of any third party. under the influence of any aggressive demands of the revolution and the people, and attacks. "
We are also in the whole affair becomes interested only two questions.
♦ Why did Lenin and Trotsky with such obsessively try to save the ship to flood?
♦ How did the workers 'and peasants' government appeared so quixotic idea, as the payment of funds for the settlement of the Mariners own ships?
Before and after these events, the Bolsheviks have always waged war for an idea for a brighter future for the world revolution. Never have I heard, that reddish chain podymali the attack for the funds or excessive bank interest. Nobody told us about the cavalry Budennogo going on the attack for a controlling stake or an increase in salary. It will take 20 years to small and German troops will be back at the walls of Petrograd-Leningrad, but anyone and would never offer the Petrograd workers recorded in the militia for the funds. Leningradites will breathe with hunger, but do not give up the enemy, and no bonuses and rewards them for it will not be necessary. Since they fought for their country and for the idea, and all of these funds and accounts, all of this — the concept of the other, the bourgeois world. And here for you — the revolution in 1918, reddish sailors and … bank deposits! Something to make ends meet do not converge. Who invented the means to pay the revolutionary sailors?
"He (Schastnyy. — NS) directly states that the Russian government wants "bribe" to defeat the native sailors of the fleet. After that, all but the Baltic Fleet were rumors of Russian government offer to pay in gold for the German settlement of Russian ships, although in reality the situation was opposite, in other words, the British offered gold, because it was a question, not to take the fleet to the Germans. "
Here it begins to clear, thanks to ma-and-scarlet ogovorochka Lev Davidovich.
Gold offered British! That someone is so characteristic of faith in the power of the golden calf, that's who threw Trotsky idea to bribe them to sailors by the opening of bank accounts. "Allies" for the complete elimination of the Russian Federation as the majestic powers to sinking ships. They press on Lenin and Trotsky and promise, as the Churchill, "that they would not interfere in the internal affairs of Russia," in other words, allow Russian authorities to resist. The cost of this neutrality — the head of the Romanovs and the flooding of the Bolsheviks of the Russian fleet. But Trotsky Trotsky would not have been if it had not been tried in this unsightly stories present themselves in a generous light. Because the Revolutionary Tribunal, later sudivshemu Shchastny, Lev Davidovich carefully explained to what's what (excuse the longish quote):
"… When discussing the issue of provisional measures in the event of the need to engage the fleet drew attention to the fact that in the event of an unexpected attack by German courts, with the assistance of the counter-revolutionary commanders on our its fleet, ships, we can create a situation of chaos and disorganization, which will make quite impracticable valid undermining courts; to protect themselves from that situation, we decided to do on each ship will certainly reliable and dedicated group of sailors revolution drummers that under all circumstances, be willing and able to kill the ship, even sacrificing his life by his … When the organization of the battle group was still in the preliminary stage, to a member of the Marine Board was prominent British naval officer and said that Britain was interested in so that ships do not fall into the hands of the Germans, it is ready to generously pay those mariners who will commit themselves to the fatal moment to undermine the court. I immediately ordered to complete all negotiations with the sovereign. But I must admit that this proposal led us to loaf about the issue, which we, in the confusion and turmoil of events, not having thought up to that time: specifically on ensuring families of those sailors who subjected themselves severe threat. I am instructed to say Shchastny on a direct line, which is the name of sailors drummers government puts a certain amount. "
After all, that's what a thing. When you die to protect his wife and kids, his own home and his father's house, means you do not have to offer. For you, clearly and understand why and what you're sitting in a trench or standing at the ship's guns. Funds are needed to stifle remorse. When you do not sit in the trenches, on the wrong side of the fence …
What the British came to offer a means for undermining our fleet? Fortunately, there was in the notes to the speech of Leo Davidovich snosochka. There's the name of that good fellow specified. And with this new knowledge of the whole picture for you and will play a completely new colors.
You have already guessed, was called as "a prominent British naval officer?" Naturally — Captain Cromie! Now that's really interesting. It is no accident that the Englishman is already there in our story, and always with a very "muddy" circumstances. Those who try to convince us that he is an ordinary and conscientious British submarine must first read Trotsky yes wonder: why did he suddenly begins to offer Russian mariners funds for the bombing of their ships? Neuzh that British sailors from the bombed 7 boats allowed the hat? It really excites them, "That the court did not fall into the hands of the Germans" that they are willing to give the last labor pounds, earned back-breaking work underwater?
Of course not. Everywhere and always such functions make people completely from other departments, and to cover up they can fully use all the position and shape. There were also a killer of Rasputin "by British engineers." Now engineers in Russia to do nothing, but divers can stay close with English subs. No need to be trusting and look at the shoulder straps and tunic, Dwell in the town of Russian-British hospital — to be a resident of British doctors, near Petrograd British tank regiment — Captain Francis Cromie would be a tanker. At the same time and more than understandable is the reason for his "heroic&qu
ot; death at the Embassy of the hands of those who, in fact, the British resident and conducted secret negotiations. Again raschudesno coincidence — only a foreigner who died as a result of the elimination of the "conspiracy ambassadors" was not just a British resident, and the person who has participated in the most special talks. Who knew the ins and outs of the British secret service connections and revolutionary tops and so unnecessary last witness for the Bolsheviks, and for the British themselves. Maybe not at all no resistance to speak of, and the security officers just used the situation to eliminate Captain Cromie.
But the question we have is not complete adventures and threats to the lives of British special agent. Back in the stuffy forecastle. The perturbation of the Baltic Fleet command is not really allowed to bribe someone to blow the ships. Court remained intact and very much needed after Lenin and Trotsky to defend Petrograd against the White Guards. The credit appreciative Russian government hero Shchastny not forced herself to expect. After a day or three after the categorical statements of sailors that they will undermine their own fleet only after the fight, May 25, 1918 he was summoned to Moscow. The pretext fiddling: Shchastny Tipo not fired immediately from the fleet of two sailors suspected of "counterrevolutionary activities." Immediately on arrival, after a short-lived conversation with his chief of specific Trotsky, May 27, 1918 namorsi was arrested in his office. And then began really quite weird things. The investigation was like lightning, for 10 (!) Days of the case material was collected and transferred to the special (!) Is designed for that Revolutionary Tribunal. Krilenko appointed state prosecutor, Kingissepp Chief Justice.
The only witness the prosecution and generally the only eyewitness … Trotsky himself.
The Tribunal began June 20, 1918 and was closed. Shchastny admitted guilt "in the preparation of the counter-revolutionary coup in treason" for the next day and shot, despite the Russian government formally repealed the death penalty! Who is it needed his head? After all, in reality Shchastny none komplote not involved, on the contrary — he twice rescued by navy, and during his life he could put the monument. And his shot. The answer common: Lenin and Trotsky to its partners in the agreements lurking something to show, to find an extreme one, of those responsible. Shchastny, who was only just a month in the position of commander of the Baltic Fleet, rescued it from liquidation than absolutely tore backroom agreement and that it was over his head has to answer. It was so dark and mysterious, that when, after adjustment historians deal with this issue, it became clear that the court records do not appear in the Russian archives.
The main information center information about the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR did not have them, too …
Assertiveness "allies" in the implementation of their plans known to us. After unsuccessful attempts to undermine the Navy "at the highest level," the British decide to act again lower rank. After the failure of Captain Cromie is connected to the case once familiar character. His co-worker. General Mikhail Dmitrievich Bonch-who commanded the defense of Petrograd in the period we are describing, refers to him in his own memoirs, as follows: "… then unmasked Prof. British spy Sidney Reilly, who was not a time for me under the guise of the king's lieutenant, battalion, seconded to the British the Embassy. "
The fate of the Russian fleet can not throw the British flegmantichnymi because Sidney Reilly just came to "help" General Bonch-good advice. Salvaged namorsi Shchastny ships located at the mouth of the Neva River. This is very dangerous. According to the views of Reilly (and British Intelligence), they need to … right to place:
"He handed me diligently to make the circuit with the designation of each parking space battleship and with the location of other ships — wrote in his memoirs, Bonch— op started to convince me that such a relocation most of our fleet will provide the best position of the fleet, if the Germans really take the offensive operation on the part of the Gulf of Finland. "
General Bonch-man experienced such touching concern seems to him very suspicious. After analyzing the scheme, and he sees the purpose of the coming of Sidney Reilly:
"… Substitute costing many millions of rubles battleships and cruisers under attack German submarines."
Offering rescue ships from attack, he does just under it, and inserts. Listen to General British spy, and the upcoming developments simply can predict. NIGHT MODE mysterious black (obviously, "German") submarine stormed a Russian battleships and sent them to the bottom. Realizing the game of British intelligence, Bonch-draws his conclusions:
"Having informed about all that the High Military Council, I gave an order to the ships that were part of the Baltic Fleet, and enter into the Neva River, putting in the port at the mouth of the river below the bridge Nicholas, in other words, absolutely not because it offered Decide make them inaccessible to submarines, unable to take advantage of the Sea Channel. "
Now fast forward from Peter frowning on a sunny Sevastopol. In October 1914, the military actions in the Black Sea was opened unfortunate German-Turkish cruiser "Yavuz Sultan Selim" ("Goeben") and his "partner", "Midilli" ("Breslau").
Their German sailors, dressed in a Turkish fez, shelled Odessa and our other port town. At first, the Russian Federation on the Black Sea are just obsolete ships of the line, but after the commissioning of the Russian dreadnoughts "Empress Maria" and "Empress Catherine the Great," the balance of forces in the Black Sea has changed dramatically in our favor. In addition, at the end of June 1916 took command of the fleet, Admiral Kolchak. Specifically, the emergence of an advantage with his Russian sailors and ships is enormous. Appointed to prepare a landing operation to capture the Dardanelles sacred, Kolchak was active but the mining of hostile acts area and was able to almost pinch the Turkish fleet in its own ports. Do not change the situation and the tragic death of a dreadnought "Empress Maria" 7 (20) in October 1916.
Now, after securing full control of the sea, and it was possible to carry out an amphibious operation to capture the Dardanelles. It will almost immediately with a massive land coming. Term — start of spring 1917. After a 2-massive strikes planned to kick Turkey, and then collapsed Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria, which led to the inevitable defeat of Germany and frolic.
Everything is ready for the assault: the first time in the world created by the transport fleet, the connection of specially equipped vehicles that are adapted to receive the troops and equipment.
This means planting people, boats, self-propelled barge, capable of landing troops are not even equipped to coast. SMU interaction with ground troops. British Gimp longer. If you lend a couple of months, the Russian imperial army and navy will strike a powerful blow to the enemy and seize the strategic straits. After that Russia will not overwhelm. In negotiations diplomatically "allies" almost agree to engage in Russi
an Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. And their agents in St. Petersburg immediately proceed to take decisive action. In the capital of the empire begin mess is coming in February.
Building of ships dramatically lowers their rates. In the end, the Dreadnought "Emperor Alexander III» was all the same was put in October 1917 with a new name acquired from the Provisional Government, "Will." His fellow battleship "Emperor Nicholas 1" did not help the new noticeable name — "Democracy." In operation it will not ever in 1927, will be sold for scrap.
Continued here: Part 2