In general, the new authorities, and behind them the Bolsheviks renamed all ships, one way or another connected with the "accursed tsarist government." And these new names of the ships did not bring happiness. Was found in the Black Sea Hero, equal namorsi Shchastny because the Black Sea Fleet has suffered from the actions of "allies" significantly more. To kill a handsome Black Sea battleships and other ships of the active fleet, British intelligence had to exert a lot of effort. The prologue of the disaster and then served as the Brest peace treaty. Article number 6 he said:
"Russia is obligated to immediately make peace with the Ukrainian People's Republic … The territory of Ukraine immediately cleared of Russian troops and the Russian of the Red Guard. "
Germany has made Ukraine as their feeders, so ensure that you receive from there, "fat, mammals, yayki." Gritting his teeth, recognized the independence of the Ukrainian Rada, and the Bolsheviks. According to the agreement to the terrain of Ukrainian Russian troops to clear the fleet to withdraw to Russian ports. Everything is very simple and clear, only the first glance. In the Baltic Sea, there was no hesitation, what is the Russian port — is Kronstadt. In the Black Sea itself is not clear, because no one on the separation of 2-fraternal people could not conceive, and in a terrible dream. Because the border between the two countries-name is not there. More precisely here and there it is, and in some places it is not. And everyone can interpret it differently. Including the Germans, whose spiky helmets sticking out from behind the government independent Ukraine. According to the views of Germans and Ukrainians, Sevastopol is not a Russian port, and how it should be specified in accordance with Article 5 of Brest number of contract vehicles must be disarmed. Since both of Novorossiysk, where you can relocate the fleet, too Ukrainian port.
Nope on the Black Sea Kronstadt Russian Navy has nowhere to go. Oh, ought to think better, signing that contract, utter historians: a tiny patch — and it could have been different. But we know how and why Lenin agreed to the contract. Know this, and the Germans. Know and "allies." And in another could not be. German control, as we have already beheld, not trust in the loyalty of their own successful "spies" led by Lenin. Just in March Ilyich now increased from under the nose of Kaiser Baltic Fleet from Helsingfors. The fact that all this is done on their own initiative, contrary to orders, one brave patriot Shchastny, the Germans did not know well, do not believe it.
Seeing that the "German spies" in their actions are guided by a "allies" but the Allies, not Berlin "owners", the German management solves a desperate attempt to grab yourself even ships of the Black Sea Fleet. The benefit of the legal preconditions for this Bolshevik diplomats they did by signing a specific edition of Brest contract. In Berlin, understand that Lenin, under pressure from its own "allied" supervisors will be required to flood the fleet, although the RF sense in this action, no no. April 22, 1918, German troops captured Simferopol and Evpatoria. Completed an amazing mind-boggling mission Leninist messenger explorer Zadorozhnogo, to oblivion defended members of the Romanov family. Germans in Crimea — Sevastopol occupation becomes imminent prospect of the next few days.
The Germans are turning directly to the management of the fleet — Tsentrobalt. The German command proposes to raise at the Russian ships yellow-blue separatist flags. For it promises that it will not touch the ships that swear allegiance to Ukraine, and recognizes their fleet allied countries. Before the sailors raises a difficult problem. Change the oath of, to become "the Ukrainians" and save the ship or, remaining faithful to the "red" Homeland, lead ships with a clear prospect of losing them.
God forbid anyone to such a choice. It is difficult to judge and either side. Part of the Russian sailors have decided not to go to Novorossiysk, stay and raise the Ukrainian flags. Another part of the ships that are configured probolyshevistski, lifted anchor and leave Sevastopol. Among them, the destroyer "Kerch", proudly raised the mast on its own reddish flag.
Subsequent NIGHT MODE go to sea both powerful dreadnought — "Free Russia" ("The Empress Catherine the Great") and "Will" ("Emperor Alexander III»), an auxiliary cruiser, five destroyers, submarines, patrol boats and commercial vessels. As ships approach the aisle containment booms, the bay illuminated missiles. The Germans manage to set beside the bay battery of artillery, which opens fire warning.
It's fun, it's — a suicide. 1st Russian dreadnoughts volley was enough to stir the German gunners with reddish Crimean land. Given the absence of commands and laxity officers — 3, 5. But the Russian plenipotentiary of the Republic in Berlin comrade Joffe sends a telegram warning of People's Commissars:
"Any mistake, even petty provocation on our part will be immediately applied from a military point of view, should not under any circumstances allow it."
One shot of 305-millimeter guns dreadnought — it's not even "minor provocation" and a tremendous multimeter funnel full of scraps of German artillery and melted cores guns. Because you can not shoot, because the Germans are not afraid to open fire to kill. The destroyer "Angry" is thrown into the hole and stored in good Ushakovskaya support. The crew is leaving his car exploded.
Small ships, submarines, boats, fearing fire, vorachivayutsya to berths.
Dreadnoughts quietly out to sea — the German gunners on them still do not dare shoot. So Makar, go to Novorossiysk 2 battleships, 10 destroyers of the "Novik", 6 coal destroyers and 10 patrol boats.
But that was only the beginning of the disaster, not the end. In fact cause for joy was not any. German command makes Leninists ultimatum to surrender the Black Sea Fleet. Bolsheviks answer consent, although the situation for them is similar to not being solved. To wage war against the Germans can not — it would lead to the final break and choke them, "Land of the Soviets." Run an ultimatum to Germany's navy is also impossible — then Western intelligence agencies fail to drown the Russian ships …
May 1, 1918 the Germans come in Sevastopol, May 3, Trotsky sends the Baltic Sea orders to his remarkable explosion of the fleet and the sailors on foreign currency accounts. So resist the Germans can not resist the &
quot;allies" too. What did do?
Lenin's mind-boggling elasticity helps to find a way out of the impasse. Germans demand from Lenin to conclude a peace treaty with Ukraine and pass the ships — excellent, we begin the negotiation process. We Bolsheviks wish to establish good neighborly affairs with Kiev, just a lot of questions for discussion: borders, visa section of the royal debts. "Allies" need to flood the fleet — send in Novorossiysk own people to keep the situation under control and organize the destruction of ships …
Occurring on the action covered by a mist of uncertainty. Russian historians renders the situation of complete hopelessness of resistance to the Germans, in which Lenin and decided to sink the fleet. But if it is good to turn up, you can find and very different facts which show that the sailors were preparing Novorossiysk on the defensive, and then diplomatically situation in relations with Germany in general is fundamentally changed. Germany agreed to recognize the rights of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation, and has committed to return the court at the end of World War II. Such a scenario would not only hold British intelligence. Acts of Lenin is simply not reasonable to explain, if not to take into account cross massive pressure on the head of the Russian state. Ships lying on the days of the sea, to the revolution and the Russian Federation are lost forever. This substantially worse albeit vague, but all the same abilities that the Germans will give them back the Russian Federation after World War II. Not about the country thought Lenin, taking its decision, and again and again about the survival of their own offspring — the Bolshevik Revolution. Such an idea was expressed in 1924 and GK Count in his book "On" Novik ". The Baltic Fleet in the war and the revolution. " Because of her and sent in special depositories:
"It is clear that the settlement of the Black Sea Fleet … was fundamentally the Bolsheviks: anyway, if the fleet and be delivered, it would be very risky to violate the conditions of the world, but if he remained in their hands, then drown it did not make sense, as it was in their complete dependence. And if it sank, it is only because of the requirement allies brought against a hard time. "
June 6 (May 24) in 1918 on the Dark Sea of Lenin's emissary arrives. It is a member of the Marine Board sailor Vakhrameev. With him in his report of the Head Naval General Staff with a laconic resolution of Vladimir Lenin:
"In view of the hopelessness of the situation proved the highest military authorities, the navy killed immediately."
Assignment of a special envoy Vakhrameeva — do it. So that problems with an assignment does not appear, opposite Fleet Commander Mike P. Sablin called in advance to Moscow. Unusual coincidence invitation from Trotsky actually comes at the same time as the call to the capital namorsi Shchastny! You can not fluctuate that Sablin there would share his fate. And he himself think out the reasons for the call, and so on the road running and soon crosses a snow-white.
The new commander of the fleet, Captain 1st rank commander dreadnought "Will" Tikhmenev acts exactly like his employee namorsi Shchastny. He is trying to save the ship. He telegraphed to Moscow that there is no real danger coming from the German forces "on the part of Rostov, and the Kerch Strait, Novorossiysk is not threatened, the ships to destroy premature." An attempt to return such orders can be taken for granted sailors betrayal.
Embarrassed himself and Lenin messenger Vakhrameev. Now, when he sees the real situation, it is also not entirely clear why so urgently need to sink ships. To say that the situation is complicated — it does not say anything. And, as usual, in a moment of crisis, Vladimir Ilyich exhibits superhuman resilience. In Kiev, the Bolshevik delegation continues its discussion with the Germans passing ships. Right to Sevastopol recovering orders to destroy them. The texts of Lenin's telegram from memory results in their own memoirs, the commander of the destroyer "Kerch" specific Bolshevik Lieutenant Kukel:
"13 or 14 June (can not remember) open radio message was received from the central government about the content of the subsequent:
"Germany issued an ultimatum fleet to arrive in Sevastopol no later than June 19, with a guarantee that at the end of the war fleet will be returned to the Russian Federation, in the event that Germany threatens to start coming on all fronts. Although not expose the country to new untold disasters requires the Navy to go to Sevastopol with the calculation to arrive there no later than June 19. All madmen who oppose government, elected a multi-million working people will be considered illegal. № 141.
Immediately encrypted radio message was received (approximately) the following wording: "Experience has shown that all the paper guarantees of Germany have no value and trust, and why the fleet returned to the Russian Federation will not. I order the fleet to sink before the deadline ultimatum. Radio does not calculate the number 141. Number 142. "
Machiavelli turning in his grave! Who wants to be a politician, he studied with Vladimir Lenin. Two orders right Reverse content of incoming numbers are number 141 and number 142. Just one by one. Indeed, it is curious.
But Lenin was a genius, and therefore at the same time, the management of the fleet and get another one for a third coded telegram:
"You will be sent an open telegram — To perform an ultimatum to go to Sevastopol, but you should not execute this telegram, but instead to kill the fleet, to do according brought Vakhrameev II regulations. "
Pretending that he is willing to perform the German ultimatum, Lenin clear text over the radio tells the ships to follow in Sevastopol for the transmission Germans and Ukrainians. And here — encoded telegram to sink the fleet. And so no one hesitated what order correct — another encryption and additional companion Vakhrameev with a hidden directive to "destroy all the ships and commercial ships that are in Novorossiysk." Simultaneous 2-sending conflicting orders Lenin gives an alibi and to "allies", and before the Germans. But it is quite obvious that
the head of the Bolshevik stronger fear not the Germans, whose spies him so intensely written by modern historians.
Specifically liquidation by order of the ships the British and French, not the return of Germany is the general line of Lenin at this time. With "allies" Ilyich always knew how to negotiate. Prepyadstviya start with its revolutionary sailors and officers. Captain Tikhmenev decides to make public all the secret orders of Lenin. To do this, he shall convene a general meeting of commanders, chairmen of committees and representatives of ship commands. At the same meeting, is Lenin's emissary Vakhrameev Commissioner fleet Glebov Avila. By the way, the commissioner at the Black Sea Fleet is also very inquisitive. This is not an ordinary fellow. Nikolai Pavlovich Avilov (party name Gleb Glebov) an old Bolshevik and one of the managers of the Leninist party. He even went into the first part (!) Of the Council of People's Commissars and was accordingly Commissar of Posts and Telegraphs. Only in the first of 14 (!) People. And one of the apostles of the revolution sent here specifically, the Black Sea Fleet, and specifically in May, when the sinking of the ship begins to prepare organizationally. This is evident nepoprostu.
But back on the deck of the battleship "Will" on the sailor's meeting. The fleet commander Tikhmenev declares that it has received an extraordinary significance documents from Moscow, which he asks to listen to the most severe and considerate manner. And calls for both commissioners read the telegram in order of their receipt. They tried to turn away, but Tikhmenev insisted, and eventually began to read the telegram Glebov Avila.
Read the telegram number 141, and immediately after her number 142. Impressive. And they made a remembrance on the Black Sea sailors, because their reading was accompanied with loud cries of indignation. But reading text third telegram from the hidden spirit of Lenin's emissary was not enough. Then the commander of the fleet sailors Tikhmenev told the crowd that the Commissioner did not read another telegram in his opinion — the most important. Very loss, Glebov Avila tried to babble something about privacy and such ill-timed announcement. In response to this Tikhmenev took third Leninist telegram and read its collection.
This is a bombshell. Even the revolutionary sailors alive topivshih own officers, was available … conscience. The conscience of the Russian navigator. For little brothers thing smelled straightforward treachery. It was obvious that trying to drown the fleet, Lenin does not assume any responsibility, and, if desired, can even declare a sailors' outside the law. " Vakhrameeva fails to repay the outrage. Now force the sailors to sink their ships virtually impossible. On the contrary, a significant part of the crew, as well as the Baltic Fleet, expressed her determination to fight and only then kill the ships, as befits the Russian sailors, as did the heroes of Tsushima and the "Varyag".
For Lenin, this is equivalent to death. The next day held a new meeting. Now besides sailors it is the chairman of the Kuban-Black Sea republic Rubin and representatives from front-line units. And is indescribable!
The local authorities and the Russian soldiers' deputies not only do not support the Bolshevik line center, but on the contrary, even threatening to Black Sea Fleet in the event of flooding of their vehicles! Senior lieutenant Kukel describes it this way:
"The President in an extensive and very professional speech says no activities with the fleet not solve, because the military position of the edge effervescent … A representative from the front-line units in the most life-affirming colors described the condition of warheads and strategic situation at the end of the speech is hot and firmly stated that warns sailors, in the case of the sinking ship the entire front of 47,000 in the number of people turn their bayonets at Novorossiysk and raise their sailors because the front is quiet until the fleet can defend, at least morally, their rear, but the Navy will not come in front of despair. "
That is the difference between the chairman of the Kuban-Black Sea republic, who does not know about all the responsibilities of managing their own capital, and Lenin, Trotsky, who are in constant contact with Sadoul, Reilly and Lockhart. Do not understand all the usual Bolshevik alignment of the mysteries behind the scenes, because it can allow yourself to hack plain truth and to act according to conscience. Lenin, however, must comply with the agreement with the "allies", and therefore is spinning like a snake in a skillet. The Telegraph sees violent Leninist telegrams
"Orders were sent to the Navy in Novorossiysk, must necessarily be fulfilled. Need to declare that in their non-sailors will be outlawed. I la-up at all costs to prevent a crazy adventure … "
Once Vakhrameev sovladevaet not, then the course is the "heavy artillery". Handed Lenin's orders in Novorossiysk push off Fedor Raskolnikov, received special opportunities and unique order — at any price to sink the fleet.
But until he arrives at the place, time passes. Do not waste time in vain and those who want to save the Russian ships, and those who are passionate lusts of their death. In Sevastopol are the French and the British military mission. As in the Baltic Sea, using this "roof", "union" scouts are desperately trying to do the job their own control.
"Among the sailors Mine crews scurried any suspicious persons, offering something, something promising and something tempting. In some of them it was difficult even to guess the nationality "- says the captain of the 1st rank GK Count.
It's French. Since all the questions of "revolutionary democracy" are resolved at the meetings, it is affecting the world's most active sailors, you can get an overall appropriate outcome. Methods of application are as old as the world — bribery and bribery. French agents distribute funds to mariners not zapamyatyvaya and messengers of Lenin:
"Among other, Glebova-Avilova and Vakhrameeva beheld along with 2 unknown persons — continues GK Count — also, apparently, foreigners, thus heard one of the commissioners promised something meaningful to them, "Do not worry if you please — everything, everything will be done, at least with respect to some" "
The Patriots also did not waste time and try to save the ship. The methods of persuasion "allied" Russian intelligence officers to reach, they bribed no one can. Discipline in the navy too is no more, and ordered his team Tikhmenev can not, it can only assure you. Appeal to conscience and reason. In the middle of sailors, all caught in a tricky political twists of yarn, again there is a split: 17 June 1918 Tikhmenev almost persuaded to go to Sevastopol Dreadnought "Will", an auxiliary cruiser "Trojan" and 7 destroyers. Vosled departing ships on by the "Bolshevik" destroyer "Kerch" signal rises, "craft so Sevastopol: Russian apostate shame."
Sounds great, but the commander of the destroyer Lieutenant Kukel often behold the officers in the company of the French mission, and January 13, 1918 (only 5 months back!) Specifically unde
r his command officers live drowned in the sea with a load on her feet.
Because speaking about the sinking of the Bolsheviks Black Sea fleet, to keep in mind about the human form not only of those who gave the order, and those who did …
You can prick and some from time to time, but nobody has been able to impale everyone all the time. The truth finds a way. Even the dust of the Union of Russian special depositories. And again the word of GK Earl. He personally debated with participants of those events:
"In the French mission in Ekaterinodar themselves members of her blabbed about the adventures of a lieutenant Beno and Corporal Guillaume, French counterintelligence agents, who were entrusted with the supreme command to kill the Black Sea Fleet, undeterred by any means, any means. Lieutenant Beno niskolechko not turn away then from his own role in the case, but on the contrary, very razlyubezno said some details … "
That's how French intelligence "cooked" the arrival of the new Leninist emissary. German ultimatum comes on June 19. There remain a few hours: the 18th at 5 am to Novorossiysk comes comrade Raskolnikov. Those who wish to save the ships have sailed in Novorossiysk. Teams remaining vessels perfectly handled. Raskolnikov swiftly and decisively organizes flooding the rest of the fleet. One by one, go to the bottom of 14 warships, among them Dreadnought "Free Russia". Later, go to the bottom to the same 25 commercial ships. And in Moscow get a laconic telegram reporting on progress of Raskolnikov:
"Arriving in Novorossiysk … undermined the outer harbor all the … I arrived to the court. "
Now career Raskolnikov goes uphill. Almost immediately, the Central Executive Committee Revolutionary Tribunal sentenced to death by AM Shchastny. This is justice, adjusting for "behind the scenes" of world politics: the savior of Russian ships — a bullet, its destroyer — the noble position and future career …
French and English spies, too, have something to offer their own governance — a significant part of the fleet of the Russian Empire was destroyed. But the "allies" have not much to sink the whole Russian fleet and root out the very possibility of its future revival. Because the disaster of the Russian fleet on this is not over.
On the contrary — it has only just begun. The Russian fleet was to be eliminated at all costs. As the Russian Empire, as well as snow-white movement. It is time to look to the assistance. provided that the valiant "allies" fighters for the restoration of. Here we will find a lot of nasty surprises …
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