Joining the Baltic States and Finland first 19th century improved the ability of the defense of the capital of the empire. By the First World War defending the capital: the Kronstadt fortress forts, navy, with the Estonian and Finnish coast of the approaches defended the 25 batteries mnogokalibernyh guns. In addition even for a day prior to the announcement of the war, Admiral Essen gave the order to put the minefields. German fleet by the end of the war did not try to break through such a difficult defense, which only undermined the February revolution.
Russian management was much more difficult to defend the city of Lenin — Baltic states gained independence (countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Finland has also become independent, besides more and aggressive Soviet Union. Leningrad could bombard not only aviation area with Finland, but even took out the artillery. From the sea, you can also carry out a successful amphibious operation. Minefields that are not protected from the Estonian and Finnish coast, mnogokalibernoy artillery could be removed. The Baltic Fleet lost to maneuver with only one item-based. Leningrad, the second capital of the Union, on the eve of a major war, and the Russian administration was aware that she is, there are not obsessed idiocy was defenseless.
Samples resolve the matter peacefully
In March, the 3rd Reich annexed Austria for themselves, in April the Soviet Union proposed Helsinki gun, ammunition, army, navy to help them, in order to guarantee Finland USSR its resistance to the Wehrmacht, if that will make it attack. Helsinki refused.
Moscow began to find other options in order to secure a second capital. To illumine USSR offered to protect the Baltic Fleet Finnish store, if Germany attacked Finland. Helsinki refused.
September 30, 1938 signed a contract Munich, Germany given the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia without a fight. In October 1938, Moscow offered to assist Finland to build a military base on the peninsula Hogland, and if the Finns will not be able to protect her, that assist in the defense. Helsinki refused.
USSR asks the Finnish government to give in rent for 30 years, 4-D island in the Gulf of Finland. Helsinki refused.
USSR asking them to change their views. In March 1939, Reich captures Czechoslovakia. Moscow asks for a lease of 30 years of land at Cape Hanko (it is located at the entrance to Finnish Bay). Also offers to change the area of the Karelian Isthmus to the defensive "Mannerheim Line", the huge largest Russian land. Moreover, the main focus was on the lease of land on the peninsula of Hanko. The importance of the negotiations for the USSR confirms the fact that the negotiations with the Finnish delegation led Stalin. The USSR was ready, except for territorial concessions, go for significant economic preferences. When the Finns declared that their country will not be foreign military bases, that Moscow immediately offered a few new options — offered to dig a canal across the Cape and make the base of the peninsula, have offered to buy a piece of land and make it a territory of the USSR. Offered to buy several uninhabited islands off Cape Hanko. Helsinki all rejected! They were not needed any economic benefits, no alliance with the Soviet Union, nor the increase of their own territory. Finnish elite went against common sense,. Why?
Configuration of borders on the Karelian Isthmus, after the "Winter War": a reddish line — the border before the war, the blue — "Mannerheim Line", green — the post-war border
Background to the negative business elite of Finland to Moscow
Finnish elite lived illusions of the collapse of the Russian Empire and the 20 — ies. They remembered that our homeland malehankih lost land of the rising sun in 1904-1905., Was defeated in the First World War, never have withstood the crack to the Baltic states, Poland and Finland. Lost to the Soviet-Polish War of 1919-1920., Losing Western Belarus and Western Ukraine. Romania gave Bessarabia. White Finns killed the Soviet power in the countryside of Finland, killing eight thousand prisoners, another 12 thousand people killed in the concentration camps, starvation and Moscow could not answer anything.
By lurking in canals Helsinki came the intelligence that up to 75% of the population can not tolerate the "Bolsheviks". The General Staff, analyzing the actions of troops of Marshal Blucher at Lake Khasan, reported that reddish army can not only offensive, but really fight defensive actions. On the basis of these data, Helsinki were convinced that they could make war with the Soviet Union alone more than half a year, and then if you do not get a descent to overcome, for them to enter the majestic power.
Because the war plans of the Armed Forces of Finland were just offensive. According to him the south head of the Red Army reflected the "Mannerheim Line", and in Karelia Finnish Army was advancing on all fronts. Newcomer to the Finnish border, after "winning the war" was to take place on the strip of the river Neva — the southern shore of Lake Ladoga — the eastern shore of Lake Onega — A snow-white sea. Bimbo Finnish territory included the Kola Peninsula, with all this area has increased in Finland twice, and the land border with the Soviet Union declined by more than half. The boundary begins to pass entirely on the deepest rivers and huge lakes. It must be said that the aim of the war posed to him by the Finns, if it was achievable, does not cause fluctuations in your own intelligence. And refused to Helsinki from offensive war, only a week of the war, when tested by the Red Army!
In other words, Finland was preparing itself to anger and so was deaf to reasonable offers of Moscow, provoking him to actively conduct. This confirms the role of Finland, together with the Third Reich in the attack on the Russian alliance. Although Moscow brokered by London and Washington offered the world, trailing occupied in the "Winter War" of 1939-1940. areas and as "compensation" was still willing to make territorial concessions. Helsinki but then refused, saying Washington: "Finland is committed to take the offensive and neutralize the enemy positions, including lying on the borders of 1939. It would be bezotstupno for Finland and in the interests of efficiency of its defense to such action in 1939 during the first phase of the war, if only its forces were sufficient for this purpose. "
Solves the problem of the USSR
In autumn 1939, Moscow signed a contract with the Baltic countries on mutual assistance. At their local Russian troops were located. The problem of the southern coast more or less decided. USSR did not spare even give Lithuania a large area of Belarus with the city of Vilna, the future capital of Lithuania — Vilnius.
Stalin again wants to return to the talks, invites the Finnis
h delegation to Moscow — October 5. 6th Finnish troops begin to be nominated to the border, the 10th started the evacuation of the inhabitants of the border areas of Finland on the 11th when the Finnish delegation arrived at the talks, Finland began the mobilization of reservists. Until 13th November there were negotiations, Stalin asked to give cape of Hanko. Helsinki refused and brought an army of half a million people.
Moscow has gone out how to reason with the Finnish elite force. November 30, 1939 troops of the Leningrad Military neighborhood joined the battle. In the end, Stalin was even more than requested — at Cape Hanko began to build fortifications, took the entire Karelian Isthmus with the city of Vyborg border almost throughout moved deep into Finland.
However, the Finns had to once again warn, they became an ally of Hitler. In 1943, Stalin offered them peace. In response Helsinki signed a contract with Berlin. That does not come out of the war until victory Reich. In 1944, Russian troops broke enhanced "Mannerheim Line" and went into the country. The case went to a full capture of the country, the prime minister resigned his seat occupied Carl Mannerheim (in the past officer of the Russian Empire), he made a truce. Moscow took from Finland in the north area of Petsamo, with its supplies of nickel, the Vyborg area, Helsinki and even regretted instead of 600 million dollars contribution for five years, took 300 million for 6 years.
Helsinki made a huge stupidity instead to become an ally of Moscow, to expand its area at its own expense, obtain the economic benefits. Helsinki went the way of the creation of a "Greater Finland", at our expense, and received a "bodlivym by the horns."
Territorial configuration in favor of the USSR in 1940 the Metropolitan contract