Russian newspaper: Our science is put formidable diagnosed her ranking to fall further if the problem is not solved young scientists. She prescribed three drugs: an increase in salaries of apartments and provision for youth rates in scientific institutes. In your opinion, does that help?
Constantin Severin It will only slow decline, but fundamentally prepyadstviya not solve. Take, for wages. They say that our young scientists do not get enough. Yes, for example, the rate of a research assistant in the Russian Academy of Sciences — 10-12 thousand rubles. But here we must add three thousand for a degree. And it is very significant "income" bring benefits to the grants of different funds and research programs. Including tax, according to my estimates, there are "wallet" of our young scientists in most metropolitan academic institutions around three times thinner than that of their peers in the U.S.. Amounts fully comparable, especially when you consider the real purchasing power.
If anyone believes that, they say, will give scientists more money, and they will start to give out to the surface world-class results, that's wrong. I will say subversive thing that probably would annoy many. Now raise wages of our scientists to Western standards, in my opinion, immoral. From the perspective of the taxpayer, we will get expensive, but effective science. In general, the lower the wages of our scientists is fully compliant with the organization of Russian science system, its operation and impact. Wage increases, say, half do not lead to a proportional increase in the results.
RG: If no funds, then that still hinder our scientists to raise the efficiency of its own research?
Severin To be honest, the continued listing of circumstances has long been crammed mouth. For example, in my science — molecular biology — very nearly all depends on the reactants or, more precisely, on how fast and fit them manage to get from abroad. Because of their own in Russia almost done. By the way, the issue of delivery of reagents was one of the winners at the meeting megagranty scientists with President Dmitry Medvedev. Promised to promote. But as long as before to fill out a pile of papers and wait two months or even more to get a halfpenny reagent, without which the work is worth it, while overpaying for it three times. In the West — it's a matter of days. In short, as I drove through the ocean bags reactants and as I drive.
No better situation with a scientific service. Global Science has long forgotten what a natural economy, when you gather in his laboratory all that is required for the research. Everywhere there are structures which are relatively small funds can perfectly hold the required work. We have a similar system was actually developed.
In general, "cons" can be listed for a long time. But we need to highlight the most important thing: Russian system of the organization of science and tied her infrastructure is not "tuned" to a scientist, do not make treatment more favorable for new results. In such a situation, no matter how then increase the wages of the scientist, nothing will. My co-workers, whom I send to work in the United States, Great Britain and Belgium, they say, that during the same time clearance time to make it at least two times higher than in Russia.
RG: And they vorachivayutsya, having tasted all the beauty of a typical organization of science?
Severin Everyone strives to stay as longer, delaying the return under various pretexts. We have to get, like a snail from its shell. I begin to cry out to consciousness, to justice. To be honest, I'm not very nice. It seemed that in their own 2-Russian labs I have been able to do quite a comfortable mode, but it turns out that this is not the case. And in fact at their usual argument against which you can not argue: they work better.
The very well know how drags scientific research, when you start to get an exciting new results. Excitement, not many with nothing comparable. And what it is, when, after driving away, suddenly have to slow down because you come back in a viscous environment that constantly resists. And the opposite, that this resistance is not due to a lack of talent, education or skills. It bugs the entire system of scientific work organization, to which the scientist is powerless. The fixed resistance of the medium is very exhausting, it is logical that many decide prodolzhit academic career abroad.
RG: And some of your students received recognition in the West?
Severin Yes, of course. And two generally have their own laboratories — in the U.S. and the UK. One got it in '34, the other — in 27 years. Employment, and then they released the most popular articles in scientific magazines, which opened to them the doors of the leading institutes and institutions of the world. On a similar capacity every scientist dreams, because getting the lab, you end up working "at his uncle," will be able to develop their ideas, to realize themselves to the maximum.
RG: Lead in the West lab in 27 years — it sounds almost fantastic. We may be similar?
Severin I doubt it. In the leading countries careers directly related to the scientific fruits. However, they are measured at the Hamburg score — the level of publications in popular magazines. The best aspect is not yet invented. We have a professional career as a scientist difficult to arrange, just doing science. But you can quickly go up the hill by other ways, far from scientific paths. To see this, one need not go far. Pretty to look at the results of the elections in the Russian Academy of Sciences and evaluate the citation indexes and individual contribution to world science some new members.
RG: Nobel Prize winner Vitaly Ginzburg read in an interview with "RG" he shamefully after each election to the Academy, which often take place far not the best.
Severin Unfortunately, this principle applies at all levels, for example in the elections to the Council of Young Scientists of the RAS. And if so, what does the output belongs to the science of youth? To reach of success, it is not necessarily saying simply, plow, not getting out of the lab, there are other methods. Realize the young man can not be said — work at the limit of your abilities, and you will be rewarded. This is our reality is a hoax. Hence prepyadstviya, especially for those who are really willing to devote himself to science.
RG: A couple of years back the Council of young scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences Russian president assured that you want to select for the youth rates and flat? The process seems to have gone …
Severin Very well, that helps young. But it is palliative, it does not address systemic problems. For example, if rassredotachivanii rates understandable to select the best aspect — from publications in international scientific magazines, working not far away at all times. Rates down to universities on the principle of "each sister is left out," and inside the institution all at the mercy of the Academic Council, which, in fact, the Presidium of RAS in miniature. This is a typical get-together,
everyone has their own interests, their protege. In the end infighting rate does not necessarily get the most worthy.
As for apartments for young scientists, I think it's sinful thought that turns the Russian Academy of Sciences in a social security and opens up ample opportunities for abuse. Well, let's get out of the quota allocated by the President professional person apartment, and then what? After all, how annoying it did not sound, youth passes swiftly, and quite soon the lucky owner of the home will go into middle age. In its place will come new young, and the housing problem will arise again. It turns out a vicious circle, and the Russian Academy of Sciences, instead of being engaged, as it should, the basic science is constantly crush your head, how to provide housing for the young.
In the West, there are no programs to provide housing for young scientists unchanged, and no one comes to mind to achieve it in control of the country. Young renting apartments, and it does not prevent them from doing science. Many set aside a family and the emergence of kids at a later date, when they finally get unchanging position in the industry, at universities, research institutes.