70 years ago in the Land of the Rising Sun was arrested by the most famous spy second world war.
October 18, 1941 in Tokyo, Japan, was arrested by police lurking correspondent influential German newspaper "Kurier Börse" and "Frankfurter Zeitung" Richard Sorge. Salting of Germany in the Land of the Rising Sun Eugen Ott tried to convince Berlin that the journalist was a victim of the intrigues of Japanese police. But without result. In September 1943, Sorge was sentenced to the death penalty by hanging on piano wire. The execution was accomplished in Tokyo clink "Sugamo" at 10.20 am November 7, 1944. There he was buried, and (after the war, the remains were reburied with military honors at the cemetery in Tama Tokyo). November 5, 1964 Richard Sorge was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union (posthumously). Shortly before the movie came out in France, "Who are you, Dr. Sorge? '. The question posed in the title, so far not found a complete answer.
For the first time the name Sorge received a public response in 1949. Americans had occupied Japan, gained access to the documents of Japanese intelligence. Among them was found "Case of Richard Sorge." It was a sensation: a German journalist, was a resident of Russian intelligence agents' with the pseudonym "Ramsay". Americans were amazed by the intelligence of disk imaging, this scout transferred to Moscow. Head of the Military Intelligence Department in Tokyo (G-2) U.S. occupation forces in the Land of the Rising Sun, Major General Willoughby made a report and sent it to Washington. That's what told this South American explorer Robert Vaymant own work in "Stalin's spy", "Willoughby gave the order, so that the extended version of the report was sent to Washington with the advice to use it in military schools to study Russian razvedtehnik. Willoughby first resisted his widely reported, but soon realized that the American public this material has educational value: it was intended to serve as a warning of the "international communist komplota directed against the Western democracies." Willoughby, who was General MacArthur touchingly called "my beloved fascist", intended to use the case Sorge, to show how Russian intelligence recruited and sent out to all edges army sympathized with communism and their travel companions for sabotage in free societies … ".
February 10, 1949 Willoughby report was submitted to the Tokyo press. Publication immediately caused a sharp enthusiasm in the world. But not in the USSR. Of the incidents, which will be discussed below, the Russian secret service 20 years disavowed his own residence in Tokyo.
In 1964, the Russian people for the first time vyznat about his own character. This happened after the then head of the country's NS Khrushchev saw the movie Willows Ciampi "Who are you, Dr. Sorge? '.
"He was a little surprised by what he saw — says researcher biographies spy Vladimir Chunikhin. — Learning from the Russian secret service managers attending the film shows, that Richard Sorge not fabrications cine character, but completely real person, Khrushchev gave the order to make it all the materials of the case. Basically Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff was created by a commission under the control of AF Kositsyna for the study materials on the case Sorge. In the materials of this committee included, along with archive documents, certificates and memoirs of those who knew and worked with Richard Sorge. The central organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party newspaper "Pravda" September 4, 1964 published an article about Richard Sorge. In it he described as a hero, the first to obtain reliable information on the preparation of a German invasion. Then he Tipo huge amount of time warned Stalin about the future catastrophe looming over the Soviet Union. "But Stalin did not pay attention to this and other similar reports," — said in this article.
Since that time the name Sorge ideologues often used to illustrate the "obstinacy" of Stalin, who Tipo not believe our outstanding scout and was not prepared in time for the war. Position destroyer of the "cult of personality" is understandable. As a matter of fact with the "Ramsay", the story ahead. To begin with some information about the Richard Sorge.
Richard Sorge and Erich Correns. 1915
Vladimir Chunikhin knows, "Richard Sorge was born on October 4, 1895 in the Russian Empire, in the town of Baku. His father, Gustav Wilhelm Richard Sorge, a German engineer who worked for an oil company of the Nobel brothers, and later opened his own workshop drilling equipment. But the Germans Richard was only half full. His mother was Russian. Gustav Sorge after the death of his first wife he married for the second time on Semenovna Kobeleva Nina, the daughter of the railway worker. Richard was the fifth youngest child. When Richard was the third year, the family of Gustav Sorge returned to Germany. The family always proclaimed in German. Russian language Sorge did not know. When he came to adulthood in the Soviet Union, he had to learn "from scratch."
At age 18, Sorge gets into the meat grinder of the First World War. There he became a communist, which subsequently leads him to editorial work in the Comintern. In 1929, a budding journalist was recruited by the Intelligence Bureau (EDM) of the General Staff of the Red Army. Sorge sails away to Moscow, where the intelligence training. Russian language it at the time taught Ekaterina Maximova, who soon became his wife (after his arrest, "Ramsay" in the Land of the Rising Sun, was deported Russian punitive organs, in 1943, died in the Gulag.)
Sorge was first introduced in Shanghai, and then he was able to do a residency in Tokyo. Vladimir Chunikhin reported: "Working from 1930 to 1933 in Shanghai, Sorge met with a journalist from the United States Agnes Smedley, and through it — a graduate of the Tokyo Institute of pravitelskogo Hotsumi Ozaki. A few years later, in May 1934, the two have already met a comrade in Tokyo and continued creative collaboration. Hotsumi Ozaki majored in Chinese dilemmas became a member of the Council on East Asian Studies. Evenly he's got a lot of weight in the circles of journalists and political scientists, entered the political circles of the country of the rising sun. On the advice of the chief of the Prime Minister Konoe (and the position then held by Akira Kaji) Ozaki became a political adviser to the Cabinet. He had access to the office, and if need be able to talk specifically with the Prince Konoe. Even after leaving office in 1939, Konoe resigned Ozaki continued to remain in the "brain trust" of the coming Prince of the environment. "
The core members of the group "Ramsay 'steel, except Ozaki, engineer, radi
o operator Teuton Max Clausen, a correspondent for the French agency" Havas "Croat Branko Vukelich, South American and Japanese Communist Iotoku Miyagi.
Sam Sorge during this time firmly entrenched in the German embassy, was friendly with the Ambassador Ott. So Makarov, it was possible to "combine" the information coming through two channels, so that more reliable consider the action taking place in the country.
Undercover message "Ramsay"
Now declassified many documents relating to the activities of Richard Sorge, the main thing — it undercover posts. They offer a kind of ideological bias version of Khrushchev. To begin the important quote from them (Tsentrallnom stored in the archives of the Ministry of Defence Op.24127. E.2).
May 21, 1941. Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army's Intelligence Agency
New German representatives, who arrived here from Berlin, argue that the war between Germany and the Soviet Union could begin in late May because they were ordered to return to Berlin at that time. But they also said that this year, and the danger can be avoided. They said that Germany is against the USSR 9 corps consisting of 150 divisions. One Army Corps under the command of the famous Reichenau. Strategic Framework attacks on Russian alliance will be taken from the experience of the war against Poland.
Remarks: "sent to Stalin, Molotov, Timoshenko, Zhukov." "Request" Ramsay ': consult — the hulls of either army. If the shells do not fit in with the concept of the body. Golikov. "
June 1, 1941. Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army's Intelligence Agency
Berlin informed Ott that the German action against the Soviet Union will begin in the second half of June. Ott is 95% certain that the war will begin. Indirect confirmation that I see this at the present time are: the technical department of German air force in my town had been instructed to return soon. Ott claimed by BAT, that he did not send any messages through the principle of the USSR. Transport through the rubber of the USSR reduced to a minimum.
Prerequisites for the German speaking: the existence of a strong Red Army does not give the ability of Germany to expand the war in Africa, as Germany is to keep a large army in Eastern Europe. In order to eliminate any risk of one hundred percent of the Soviet Union, Reddish Army must be distilled out can be faster. So Ott said.
Remarks: "Sent to Stalin, Molotov, Timoshenko, Zhukov." "Request Gushchenko whether in the Land of the Rising Sun Department of Germanic. The Air Force. Golikov. "
June 17, 1941. Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army's Intelligence Agency
Matsuoka is very concerned about rumors concerning a possible war between Germany and the USSR. He sees the only hope of keeping America out of the European war and the occupation of Britain by German troops in any way in the war against the Soviet Union.
Matsuoka requested Ambassador Ott's report to the Ribbentrop.
Remarks: "HO-4, HO-9 to 4 addresses. Golikov. 6/18/41 city "," sent to Stalin, Molotov, Timoshenko, Zhukov. "
June 20, 1941. Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army's Intelligence Agency
German salting in Tokyo Ott said to me that the war between Germany and the Soviet Union was inevitable. German military an advantage makes it possible to defeat the last great European army, as excellent as it was made at the very beginning … (distortion) as the strategic defensive position of the USSR until now even more unfit for combat than it was in the defense of Poland.
Note: "Sent to Stalin, Molotov, Timoshenko, Zhukov."
As we see, all the messages, "Ramsay" necessarily reported to Stalin. They sverhinformativny, but a specific date in the attack they do not, we — the inevitability of war. But this inevitability knew Stalin himself, thought that the danger of a German attack exists, and it is very high, otherwise would not have moved troops to the border. It is unique, thought that this may be inevitable in some way to pull at a later time.
Later came another very fundamental message of "Ramsay" — that on July 2 at the meeting of the Japanese governor decided not to go to war with the USSR. Stalin's reaction to the removal from the Far Eastern borders of several divisions and under the direction of Moscow, in almost all decided the final battle for the capital.
Exchange did not take place
The failure of Sorge, at a vserasprostranennoy (U.S.) version, with an outlet for his counter-intelligence group through some of the lists of members of the Japanese Communist Party USA. Tomy Watabe and most of the other Japanese historians consider: Sorge was betrayed, but the traitor scientists still do not understand.
On October 26, 1941 on March 7, 1942, Sorge was interrogated managing sector lurking police "Tokko" Hiroshi Miyashita and Inspector Hideo Ohashi. After the war, they were with the interview, which recognized that the Japanese counter-intelligence were crucial informant, who "flunked" the whole group.
During interrogations, "Ramsay" did not conceal his own work for Soviet intelligence. According to many reports, this was the premise that he dissociated himself from the GRU. In numerous publications on this topic is that version. In Russian prisoner at the time deputy defense got the Land of the Rising Sun Tominaga Kedzie. The Japanese side three times offered to change it to Sorge, but our diplomats were told that such a person unknown to them.
Almost everything becomes clear from an interview he gave in 1993 by the historian AG Fesyun Lieutenant General Paul Sudoplatov security, which at one time was the deputy head of the foreign department of the NKVD-NKVD. Here are excerpts:
"Sorge — an outstanding scout. On it was the first time vyznat from Eitington, who worked as a resident of intelligence GPU in Shanghai. Very good read to me about Sorge Vinarov — Bulgaria's military intelligence chief, who has worked with Sorge in Shanghai. Later, as head of a special group and vice. Chief of the 1st NKVD I knew about the principal source disk imaging in the office of the German ambassador in Tokyo. "
"Sorge — a hero lurking war, but he has his own popularity in the USSR will of options. Khrushchev in 1964, looked at film of Sorge, asked if there was such a person, and trying to discredit Stalin, who did not heed the warning Sorge Sorge gave the order to reward posthumously. I talked about this LP Wasilewski, who along with Milstein was a member of intelligence veterans who wrote a memoir about Sorge. "
"Sorge certainly Hero Russian Union courageous man, who deserved the credit. He died because we did not put the issue of his extradition or exchange. This practice was in general. And, usually, we helped out of their own people, for example Fedichkin in Poland in 1934, Wollweber ("Anton"), the future Minister of State Security of the GDR in 1938 in Sweden. I remember that Phytin — Head of PSU written request to the Comintern of Sorge in 1941, but Sorge broke the rules, he began to testify, to talk about his own work on the Soviet Union. " Sorge was referred to as a special agent of Russian intelligence foreigner. He was not an officer. He belonged to a generation of outstanding scouts who came out of the Comintern. Unfortunately, he was not prepared for the behavior in case of failure. "