The set of elementary particles produced in collisions of cosmic rays with the upper layers of the atmosphere. Among them are antiprotons. Scientists have speculated that the negatively charged antiprotons moving along the magnetic field lines of the earth, to form a kind of antiproton belt. However, to register these particles until recently it was not possible.
In the new study, experts analyzed data collected in low orbit for 850 days, the instrument PAMELA (a Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics — "The payload for the study of matter and astrophysics antisostavlyayuschey light nuclei"). Among other things, this device, created jointly by Russia, Sweden, Italy and Germany, could register antiprotons. Separately, the researchers examined the information that PAMELA collected when the satellite remote sensing of the Earth "Resource-DK1" flew through the South Atlantic anomaly — a region where the Van Allen Belt fits most closely to the earth's surface. In this region, the unit was 1.7% of the total flight time.
As a result, it was found that while the apparatus is in the anomaly, he recorded 28 antiprotons. Such a recording frequency of antiparticles significantly (by several orders of magnitude) than the frequency of their registration in the upper atmosphere. According to scientists, this is proof of the existence of the antiproton belt that in the anomaly close to the Earth. The researchers themselves point out that the number of antiprotons compared with other charged particles trapped by the magnetic field of the Earth, is extremely small.