10 little-known facts about the solar system's interesting
There are many myths and misinterpreted facts about the universe. Sometimes, things that seem familiar to us, in fact, partially or totally incorrect. In this article are 10 little-known facts about the universe, such as the solar system.
10. The case helped discover Pluto
In space, objects in motion. Gravity is one object affects the other path that eventually lead to its change. After the discovery of Uranus in 1781, astronomers noticed a slight deviation from the expected path of its orbit. Presumably, the reason for this could be the gravity of a more distant object. So began the search for celestial bodies, are at even greater distance from the Sun than Uranus. In 1846, German astronomer Johann Galle discovered Neptune by observation, based on mathematical calculations.
However, astronomers have suspected that Neptune can not be the only reason for the change pre-calculated the orbit of Uranus. Calculations and observations were resumed, and in 1930, the American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto, which for 76 years was considered the ninth planet of the solar system. Next, the scientists found that the alleged interference caused by the deviation from the orbit of Uranus were imaginary. One rule of the calculations needed to find an additional gravitational influence does not exist. This suggests that Pluto was discovered quite by accident.
9. Most meteorites — it rocks
After visiting many science museums and planetariums, where the exhibition of meteorites, you may get the impression that most of the "stars" that fall to Earth, only the heavy stones of almost pure iron — iron meteorites. In fact, the iron meteorites (usually mixed with small amounts of nickel) account for only about 5% of the total fell to Earth objects. Approximately 95% of stone meteorites, they are very similar to terrestrial rocks, but with some distinct and significant differences. Iron also instances so massively represented in exhibitions and collections, simply because they are easier to distinguish and recognize.
8. Not only has the ring of Saturn
Despite the fact that the rings of Saturn is truly the most beautiful and easily distinguishable from other planets, such as Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, they are also present. Saturn's rings may consist of ice particles. Jupiter's rings are very dark trudnorazlichimye because their composition is likely to include dust. They may also contain small fragments of broken asteroids and meteoroids might particles spewing volcanic moon Io. Ring system of Uranus, presumably arose because of collisions of small satellites, clearer than that of Jupiter, but still dull and dark. Such weakly visible rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune can not be seen in a small telescope from Earth. Therefore, Saturn is still 'Lord of the Rings ", it's not only the holder thereof.
7. It seems that Saturn does not sink
Judgment that the Saturn was able to swim in the ocean, no one is surprised. It illustrates the fact that the overall density of Saturn 0.69, then only 70% of the density of water (like the density of birch or cherry wood). That is, if there was a large enough ocean with a constant gravitational field, we would see Saturn, which is held on the water like a huge wooden bowl. Is it real? Indeed, the density of the outer layers of Saturn's smaller than Earth's. However, according to theoretical models, about halfway from the surface to the center of the planet is equal to the density of water. As you approach the core of a rapid increase in this indicator, the value of which may exceed the density of the water 13 times. The Earth, by contrast, almost the entire surface has a density of 2-3 times more water. Thus, Saturn will not emerge in a giant tub or ocean, as expected. Do not drown only the outer layers, and the rest will go to the bottom, like a heavy stone.
6. Titan — the only place with an atmosphere like Earth
Contrary to the conventional wisdom is the statement that in the solar system, there is an object that has an atmosphere similar to the composition of Earth's atmosphere. This moon of Saturn — Titan. Exceeding the size of our moon, and being equal to the planet Mercury, Titan has an atmosphere heavier than the Earth's atmosphere by 20%. Unlike consisting of carbon dioxide atmospheres of Venus (more dense) and Mars (more liquid), Titan's atmosphere is mostly nitrogen. The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere of about 78%. The similarity of atmosphere, particularly the presence of methane and other organic molecules, leading many to believe that Titan may be regarded as an analogue of the young Earth that it may present some biological activity. Therefore, Titan is one of the best places in the solar system to search for signs of life. However, the presence of methane and other "organic" molecules is by no means proof of the existence of life, as these compounds can be formed by inorganic processes.
5. The clouds of Venus are composed of sulfuric acid
Only 50 years ago, scientists had no idea what it looks like Venus. They knew that the planet is closer to the Sun than the Earth, so it's a higher temperature. Only in the 1960s, Soviet scientists conducted an analysis of the atmosphere of Venus. The results confirmed not only conjecture about the temperature, but also the fact that the atmosphere of Venus is much denser. The atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is about 100 times greater than Earth's. Unprotected from this person or spacecraft will quickly crippled and "flattened" pressure in more than 91.4 kg/cm2. Strangulation occurs in an atmosphere containing oxygen-free carbon dioxide, as well as instantaneous combustion at 482,2 ° C (in a conventional earth oven temperature barely reaches 260 ° C). There is an assumption that the particles that form the cloud around Venus are composed of sulfur dioxide with the addition of sulfuric acid — battery acid. Despite the fact that sulfur dioxide falls as rain, it does not reach the surface. In any case, Venus — a very unpleasant place.
4. Disappeared from the solar system, at least two of the planet
Initially, Pluto was considered a planet, but being small in size (much smaller than the Moon), he received the category of "dwarf" planet. The planet Vulcan, which might be the closest to the sun, does not exist. This also applies to Vulcan, Spock's fictional homeland of the movie "Star Trek." He was supposed to be hot and deserted, probably uninhabited. However, this is just a hypothesis. To explain some of the features of Mercury's orbit, more than 150 years ago, people thought that the volcano is real. However, newer and more advanced studies fully eliminate even the slightest possibility of the existence of Vulcan. Today, the planet Vulcan and Pluto ostayutsya only part of the history of astronomy.
3. Maybe hell somewhere near Jupiter
Many people think that Hell is located somewhere in the center of the Earth, and, of course, very hot. But the closest BP may be to Jupiter's orbit, the surface of its moon Io. This exhausted the satellite continuously bent, compressed and stretched under the influence of gravity of Jupiter. As a result, Io's surface is heated and generates huge quantities of magma that erupts onto the surface of the numerous volcanoes and faults. This makes satellite the most volcanically active object in the solar system (at least, because its surface is covered by large flows of brightly colored sulfur lava). In addition, Io is at grave radiation radiation belt of Jupiter.
2. The sun does not burn
Even today, people continue to think that the sun on fire. Some peop
le know that this is not burning, but have no idea what's really going on. But the sun does not burn as well as the burning of a chemical reaction, the electrons that move around the nucleus of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. Combustion is not as effective. Physicists have calculated that if the sun was composed of combustible materials such as coal or wood, it would burn a total of about a thousand years, which is less than the life of the human civilization. And as the sun existed long before people, then just what is happening can not be burning. Thus, the sun does not burn, it releases heat, light and energy with a simple and effective phenomenon called nuclear fusion. With the transformation of the atomic nuclei of one element into another huge amount of energy is released (the same principle is at the basis of a hydrogen or atomic bomb). So, the sun can shine for billions of years without using combustion.
1. Maybe we drink comet
Comets are now — a rare phenomenon. For some people see the big bright comet — a unique unrepeatable event. But once they can be seen more often. Since the solar system formed billions of years ago, astronomers believe that at the time of the comet were common. Found that comets are composed mainly of ice. There is a very popular theory is that the face of the Earth, a large number of these icy objects melted and led to the formation of the Earth's oceans. Let this assumption gives rise to many questions (in fact there are other theories), the idea that our oceans — is tuched comet may be the most reasonable. So bready glass comets!