Roelof van den Broek of the University of Utrecht (The Netherlands) has published the book "Pseudo-Cyril of Jerusalem on the life and passion of Christ," which first proposed the Coptic translation of the Gospels, written nearly 1,200 years ago.
This apocryphal story is unique: there are such plot twists, which the researchers did not encounter anywhere else. For example, an eating Pontius Pilate with Jesus before the crucifixion at the table and offers to sacrifice his son in order to save Christ. And Judas kissed Jesus in connection with the fact that he had the ability to change the look and detachment "of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees" could not recognize him. In addition, the arrest, according to the text, there was a Tuesday night, and not at all on Thursday, as reported by the canonical scriptures.
Document exists in two lists that are stored in the Morgan Library and Museum (New York) and at the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. For translation used mainly in New York manuscript, because the other option — almost unreadable.
Coptic and Ethiopian churches consider Pilate's holy, which explains the sympathetic attitude of the author of the text. "Without further ado, Pilate set the table and ate with Jesus on the fifth day of the week. And Joshua blessed Pilate and his whole house. "
Then Pilate said to Jesus: "Behold, the night has come, Arise and depart, and when the morning comes and they charge me for you, I'll give them to his only son, so they killed him instead of you." But Jesus comforts him: "O Pilate, you received a great grace, for it is well accepted me." Jesus also made it clear to Pilate that he could disappear at any moment, if he chose, "Pilate looked to Jesus, and behold, he was incorporeal, and he has not seen him for a long time."
The same night, Pilate and his wife see the same dream in which the killing of an eagle, that is, Jesus.
As for Judas, the canonical texts, he betrays Jesus in exchange for money with a kiss, which helps to identify the Savior. This apocryphal story explains this act as follows: "The Jews said to Judas: How do we arrest him if he does not have a certain form and change. He sometimes blush, sometimes white, sometimes red, sometimes wheat color, sometimes pale, like an ascetic who is sometimes young, sometimes old man. " Unable to give a description of the appearance of Jesus, Judas offers to kiss him.
Mr. van den Broek explains that the first act of Judas, this explanation offered early Christian writer Origen, in his work "Against Celsus": "Everyone saw it differently."
The text is written in the name of St.. Cyril of Jerusalem, who lived in the IV century. It tells the story of Passover during the homily — pastoral guidance. Such homilies attributed to St.. Cyril, there are several, and they are likely to be fakes.
At the beginning of the apocrypha author, whoever he was, says that in Jerusalem, "in the house of Mary", found the book of the writings of the Apostles of the life and crucifixion of Jesus. Mr. van den Broek considers it unlikely that something like this really happened: it's a standard technique to strengthen the confidence of the reader a link to the apostles, often found in Coptic literature.
Most researchers hit the transfer apostolic Supper and Jesus' arrest on Tuesday. And thus did the last supper Jesus shared with his disciples did not, and with Pilate — after being brought before Caiaphas and Herod.
1200 years ago, the New York manuscript kept in the library of the monastery of St. Michael in the Egyptian desert near today's town of Al-Fayoum Hamul in the west. The document notes that it is a gift, "Archpriest Father Paul," and that this book exists because it works.
The monastery, apparently ceased to exist at the beginning of X century, and the text was rediscovered only in the spring of 1910. In December 1911, he along with other manuscripts acquired by the American financier John Pierpont Morgan, based on the collection of which was later formed the aforementioned library.
The text of the New Testament as we know it today, was formed and was canonized by IV-V centuries, but the Apocrypha long remained popular, particularly among the Egyptian monks.