Adolf Shaevich, Chief Rabbi of Russia
On the fourteenth day of the month Adar the Jews around the world celebrate Purim — a very happy holiday to commemorate the miraculous salvation of the people from the threat of complete physical annihilation hanging over our ancestors about 450 BC.
Purim is now considered a cheerful holiday, but it was preceded by no means fun event. The events took place on the territory of the Persian Empire, then ruled by King Ahasuerus (Xerxes). And he was the vizier — Haman, who tried to exterminate the Jews in the entire kingdom.
It all started with the usual everyday affairs. At Susa, the capital of Persia, lived a Jew Mordecai and his niece — a beauty of Esther (Esther), which Ahasuerus took to wife. Mordechai same, refusing to kneel before Haman, made an enemy in the face of the vizier. Then Haman decided not only to accounts with Mordecai, and to destroy all the Jews then living in Persia. To determine the day to carry out their bloody plan, Haman cast lots (in Akkadian "Puru" — hence the name of the holiday). Aman by promising the most benefits at the expense of the treasury pogroms persuaded King Ahasuerus in need of pogroms. And Ahasuerus easily signed a decree to destroy the Jews, because the word "Jews" he absolutely did not say anything. He did not know that his beloved wife — a beauty Esther — Jewish. Ahasuerus … scary angry at Amana, because he loved his wife, and told him to hang on the very pillars on which Haman had intended to hang Mordecai.
Since the royal decree could not be repealed, the king had to issue another one: the Jews were allowed to protect their lives and their property and to take in the event of victory, the property of their attackers. So insidious plan of Haman turned against him and all those who opposed the Jews.
Since then, the commemoration of these events and the miraculous rescue of the Jews celebrate Purim.
Congratulations to the readers with the holiday of Purim, and I wish you all happiness and health, let the good always triumphs over evil!
For more information:
Book of Esther to be read slowly. Her whole problem — in dates.
Aman conceived of his anti-Jewish pogrom in the first month of the year (Nisan, about our April). In his libel in the province were sent letters prescribing the slaughter of Jews to make at the end of the year — the 12th month (Adar, about our March). Haman was executed two months after the start of his anti-Jewish intrigue.
Before the scheduled pogrom was still nine months, because after the execution of Haman would be enough to fulfill the legitimate request of Esther, "If the king and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised by Haman, which he wrote to destroy the Jews in all the provinces of the king "(Esther 8,5).
That's where I would like to see the completion of the Purim story. Already Amana penalty seems excessive (for bad intention — penalty!). But all the same: the attacker executed. Slaughterhouse prevented. The Jewish people are saved. There would read: "The End. And the glory of God! ".
But it is here and there is a turn so sharp that you wonder, marveling at the deafness of those who just this rotation and to this day does not notice and taldychit that Purim is a celebration of self-defense.
So, what happens after the king agrees with Esther? — "Called at the king's scribes were then in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the twenty-third day of his, and it was written all that Mordecai commanded" (Esther 8:9).
Mordecai is the name of the king made a decree on upcoming riots, "that the king granted the Jews which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to kill, and to destroy all the power of the people and province that would assault them children and women, and plunder their possessions "(Esther 8,10-11; Interestingly, the Church Slavic translation does not know this turnover:" Thou commanded them zhiti by the law in their vsyatsem hail, and may help them, and Let us create a rival and enemy of their yakozhe want ").
This decree issued when any danger was looming over the Jews, was already suspended when they already owned almost all the power in the Persian empire. Esther summon the king's decree allowing the Jews to destroy all at will, after the execution of the Haman (Esther 7,10). Here is the biblical text, which is clear from the sequence of events: "And the king Ahasuerus said unto Esther the queen and to Mordecai the Jew, Behold, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and him they have hanged upon the gallows, because he laid his hand upon the Jews and you write about Jews, as you please. And then were called at the king's scribes in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the twenty-third day of his, and it was written so all that Mordecai commanded. And he wrote in the king that the king granted the Jews which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to kill, and to destroy all the power of the people and province that would assault them, children and wives, and plunder their possessions in one day in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the month of Adar. "
Now imagine the horror hanging over the country: the decree, written on behalf of the king Mordecai was not a secret. He was pronounced immediately after the signing and all the cities … people lived more than six months, knowing that "the thirteenth day of the twelfth month Adar" their neighbors, the Jews will be able to enter into any house and kill anyone they wish … "And fear fell upon them the Jews "(Esther 8,17).
In the month of Adar revenge reached already long dead children Haman. Were hanged ten of his children. More precisely — the first of his children were executed. But that Esther was not enough, she asked to hang their bodies from a tree. Here, perhaps, it is worth quoting in full this biblical text:
Well, it seemed to be — everything! But the appetite comes when it is known.
"Then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be the Jews that were in Shushan to do tomorrow also, that today, and let Haman's ten sons be hanged on a tree. And the king commanded to do so and there was given to this decree in Shushan, and they hanged Haman's ten sons. For the Jews that were in Shushan, on the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan. But the other Jews that were in the king's provinces gathered themselves together, their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy five thousands "(Esther 9,1-16).
Who are these 75,000 Persians destroyed? It is unlikely that these were farmers — those Jews who voluntarily remained in Mesopotamia, perhaps not for much training in farming and digging ditches neglected return to their homeland. If the Jews in the Persian Empire was better than in Palestine — then they came into the imperial government and commercial elite. So there they were rivals and enemies. And, then, and underwent excision of the country's elite. Everyone who could be competitive. The fate of the Persian Empire was sealed. When it comes to Ahasuerus Third and 367-353, respectively, then Persia to live a quarter-century — in 332-332 years it will be powerless in the face of Alexander the Great.
Apologists for Purim hardly have approved, if the Moscow Patriarchate each year openly and noisily celebrated the storming of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible, while stressing that she sees in him a model for the treatment of all the enemies of Holy Russia? They would not call this behavior insane and fraught with the shedding of new blood? But then, just as negative should be and their reaction to the celebration of the "merry holiday Purim."
And do not about "who took the sword" … That's the special flavor of Purim — the sword Persians had not yet been taken. The crime was planned, but has not been implemented. Imagine that in the early 30-ies of the European powers failed to put pressure on the German President Hindenburg, and he declared the Nazi Party outlawed. And in two days everyone was allowed to kill anyone they suspected of sympathy for Hitler … I do not "revenge" comes on Purim. A "pre-emptive strike." Nowhere in these biblical texts we do not see that at first the crowd gathered thugs, then they rushed into the Jewish quarters, and there's Jewish self-defense groups have done their duty … On the contrary, "the Jews gathered to lay hands on those that despise her" (Esther 9 2). Very precise: to "desirable" — hand, for the intention — the death of …
Haman, for the sake of revenge — it was enough to put him to death. What does the tens of thousands of people? Yes, people have the right to be protected and even revenge convicted criminals. But why would continue to murder after the removal really guilty?
Imagine that the Soviet army, already defeating Nazism, on one of the days of winter 1946 has appointed an all-out raid on the Germans who had collaborated with the former regime … German communists was granted safe-conduct under the guise that they could for two days without a trial shoot in place of all those who molested him in the old days. And in the end has disarmed 75,000 Germans were executed … Is this mayhem would also be considered morally perfect?
Well, let revenge, even retribution … But what have the children? Children with a sword in his hands and did not take the ditch did not dig … I have no doubt that apolegety Purim in other situations are not averse to talk about the "tears of the innocent tortured child." But then that is not the same as appears in his desire to step aside those who are already the 25th century row joyfully dancing, remembering the murder (including) children (Esther 8:11)?
How can I joyfully celebrate the annual killing of 75,000 people (including children)?
Well, that today the Jewish writers are trying to make it look as if children were not killed on Purim. "Mr. Kuraev believes Purim" memory about successfully conducted the pogrom. " Proving that his thesis, Mr. Kuraev lying, and unpretentious — hoping, I suppose, that no one would condemn a lie cleric. Meanwhile, in the "Book of Esther" not a single word about the murder of Jews, women, and children — this is fiction Kuraeva deacon "(Mark Deitch. Greetings from Eichmann." Scientific research "Deacon All Russia / / Moskovsky Komsomolets. 11.05.2005).
And the murder of children Amana — and 9 months after the execution of their father (Esther 9,10)?
And Esther. 8.11 — "to destroy all the power of the people and province that would assault them, children and wives"? 1
You say that on that day the Persians attacked Jewish homes? But where ever mention about one of the Persians, that rushed to the Jews during the execution of this decree? And if they could do it, knowing about the latest royal decree (by the way — where information about the irrevocability of the king's decree? Does this law even one Persian Persian proper source of law?).
2. ? Are children and women stormed the Jewish homes, knowing that they will kill for it? If so, what did the Jews so alienated the local population until the children?
If indeed there has been a reflection of an armed attack, where is the reports of casualties among the Jews? Suffice it to recall the loss ratio of the Jews and pogroms in Kiev. The names of those killed in the scroll of Esther Persians are, and these are the names of Jewish martyrs — no. Maybe it's because of losses from the Jewish side just was not there?
Read the ninth chapter: "For the Jews that were in Shushan, on the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan, but on the prey they laid not their hand. But the other Jews that were in the king's provinces gathered themselves together, their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy and five thousand, but on the prey they laid not their hand. On the thirteenth day of the month Adar, and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness (9, 15-17).
If the Persians were attacking side, it would be logical to read "and gathered Persians who were in Shushan …". But we read — "For the Jews …"
If the attacking side were the Persians and the Jews fought back in their homes and neighborhoods, it is illogical insistence mention of non-robbery. If a man fighting off the thugs who attacked him, then it stands to reason that he did not rob. But if that person entered into someone's house and killed him deliberately unresisting citizens, then his abstinence from robbery may look worthy of special mention ("no crime with intent to rob," they say in such cases, criminal chronicles).
If the Persians were attacking side, it would be logical to expect that from them as a sign of the end will come and massacre. But the blood ceased to flow on Purim it is one-sided and the active decision of Jews themselves. They "settled down" and went to the holiday.
There is a good feature in this brazen denial of the killing of children: it means that the conscience of modern Jews condemns infanticide goyim. But there is a disturbing trait: lie for embellishment of their national history, these journalists are currently allowed.
I understand the celebration in honor of a military victory. It was an open and risk a collision, and the day of victory — it's an honest man and a holiday. But how to celebrate the day of the pogrom? How to celebrate the day of the murder of thousands of children?
Is there any other nation on earth that celebrates the day with joy, obviously unpunished massacres? There are no such counterparts? Well, let me count the rancor and those who celebrate Purim, unique.
Imagine that a group of "Russian patriots" began openly and loudly celebrate the burning of the "Judaic heretics" as a Russian national and religious holiday. What the press say?
Now, I hope, clear why Christians are concerned that the Jews were "for the second year in a first-class" in the class of the Old Testament in this class taught pretty cruel things. And if the Jews would remain with his Old Testament "Bukvarik" — that they can be waiting for a "preventive" outbursts of aggression.
This is the enormity of this "fun holiday": from generation to generation, he plays the model treatment with those Jews once deemed an enemy. No history, no progress. Growth of spiritual consciousness and morality is not. The Old Testament bloodlust not changed. Those rules are still alive. The archetype is not canceled. He continues to be regarded as a model worthy of playing (for now — the ritual and symbolic, if need be — real) Is the connection to the tradition of Purim is the fact that the Nazi war criminals (criminals really really more than worthy of punishment) were not executed as befits the military, namely hanged — as Haman and his sons? …
In this very serious distinction between Judaism and Christianity. For Christians, the Old Testament and its cruelty — is the past, which is not necessary and not possible to emulate. For the Jewish communities of the covenant did not become "old" for them he still — a role model and a guide to action. A Christian can not accept as a norm that commandment which Moses received prior to the Exodus, and which consisted of robbing houses surrounding the Egyptians. But can a Jew say that the event is for three thousand years ago it lost its literal normativity?
Blood and cruelty of the Old Testament for Christians — no more than a pedagogical measure, a temporary necessity, gone forever with the arrival of the Gospel. For Jewish communities are not temporary measures, but the eternal constants pedagogy, but the ontological norm of existence of the Jewish people. So Christians do not celebrate Purim — though this holiday is rooted in the story, which is sacred to us.
Among the lessons of Purim — the admissibility of the erection of false accusations by Israel's enemies. After all, she had slandered Esther Haman: he fell at her feet, begging for saving lives, but the king, seeing this scene, found that Haman had encroached to rape the queen. Esther did not bother to restore the truth (see Esther. 8,6-8). But the story of the events of Mordecai: "Esther, Haman plotted to kill all the people" (Esther 8,12 h). It's a direct slander: Mordecai knew that when Haman planned Jewish massacre, he did not know the nationality of Queen Esther.
Among the lessons of Purim — the lesson of resentment and revenge. And the fact that even today the Jews is remarkably long, unkind and one-sided memory, can be seen even on the news feeds, "In Jerusalem on Saturday 06/06/98 hosted a forum on the future of the works of Richard Wagner in Israel. It all started with the fact that the New Israeli Opera Orchestra perform works by Wagner refused on the grounds that the composer was an anti-Semite, besides his opus adored Hitler. The fact that the music of Richard Wagner was played in the concentration camps where Jews were sent to the gas chambers — a well-known fact. A spokesman for the Opera Ward Zimmerman said that if the musicians will persist in the unwillingness to perform Wagner, the composer's works that will be completely excluded from the repertoire. The forum had to perform two things German composer, but the concert did not take place: the singer and pianist accompanying him furious audience whistles drove from the scene "(Russian telegraph. 06.09.1998).
So that we — do not listen to Beethoven because Lenin loved him?
Among the lessons of Purim — a blessing to proactively hurt.
Three examples of the present:
"In view of the approval of the Bush administration's preventive action, as having the force of the provisions of the foreign policy and its implementation in Iraq, there are assumptions about the motives of people like Perle, Feith and Wurmser. Douglas Feith received an award from the Zionist Organization of America (the Zionist Organization of America), glorifying him as a pro-Israel activist. Namely Faith, with David Wurmser (at least initially) created the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans (Office of Special Plans), which are now considered to prepared information on Iraq's plans to create a weapon of mass destruction, and submitted it to the administration of the Vice- the president to bypass the CIA (or NSA, or the Defense Intelligence Agency). Wurmser and Feith held key positions in the structures of the national security of the United States and had a close relationship with the Institute of Public Policy, who spend close Likud line and considering the American and Israeli foreign policy goals to be equivalent. Prior to returning to the Pentagon in 2000, Faith worked in Jewish Institute for National Security (EIPNB) and occupying a position strictly prolikudskuyu Centre for Security Policy (Center for Security Policy), and Wurmser was in charge of Middle East issues at the Institute of American industry, another supporter of the Likud "(
"In the U.S. today will be released the new" National Security Strategy ", RIA" Novosti ". The strategy supports the Bush doctrine of preventive war against terrorists and hostile towards the United States of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, the newspaper "Washington Post", which the White House sent a copy of the pre-49-page document. "In case of need, based on the long-standing principle of self-defense, we can not rule out the use of force before attacks occur (in the U.S.), even while maintaining uncertainty regarding the time and place of an attack by the enemy" — the document says "(
"Israeli Supreme Court allowed the Shin Bet secret service use torture during interrogations of Palestinians suspected of committing terrorist acts in order to obtain information about the plans of extremist organizations. The court instructed Prosecutor General's Office to see to it that the interrogations were used "only the methods of moderate physical pressure '" (Torture is enabled / / Labor. 09/18/97). And more than that, "the Press Counsellor of the Embassy of Israel in Moscow Zeev Ben Arie, told the" Today "stressed the symbolic meaning of the holiday. "It was very kind of salvation: the will of the Almighty Persian king allowed the Jews to defend themselves with a gun in his hand, a preemptive strike '" (V. Sychev On Purim, decided to give sweet "Haman's ears." Since yesterday, Jews around the world celebrate one of its most happy holidays / / Today 03/12/1998. But the modern Internet Esther shall vote: "Kura — schmuck.'s all I can say, being in a fairly large amount of acquaintance with his" works. "schmuck golimye ordinary. If thoughts, settled in the head with a bad Kuraeva, judge all priests, we can safely shoot all the Orthodox Patriarchate. I had little love for the Orthodox Christians, but I think it is extremely rare Kuraeva bastard »(Ester, 2004-06-14,
But — from 2013:
January 31 Israeli Air Force attacked targets in Syria, presumably to prevent weapons into the hands of militants. The command of the Syrian army claims that the target was a military research center (
So, now Israel could bomb all the countries that do not fight with him, but it seems Israel may represent a threat to him. Try to declare Russia in its military doctrine, the possibility of "preventive wars". — Without a wave of indignation and sanctions throughout the "civilized world" can not do. But for Israel today in the world of special regulations: the world allows the Jews themselves set moral standards for themselves. Israel is above the so-called. "Human values" ("Jews were not lucky twice. First they nearly destroyed the Nazis, and then the fact of the Holocaust served as a moral justification for the Jewish chauvinism. Lessons of World War II have been learned exactly the opposite. For most civilized nations horrific losses of the Second World War were board for immunity against racism and nationalism. At the same time and on the same soil grown and strengthened ideological Jewish nationalism. Hence the moral permissibility of public appeals not to mix their ancient blood with another, to live a Jewish life. tried to be who is now in Germany to encourage Germans to live German life! Throughout the civilized world chauvinists currently recruiting supporters among the dropouts. A Jewish nationalists largely highbrow intellectuals. Jewish intelligentsia does not shun ideological nationalism "(Khmelnytsky D. Under the sonorous voice of the blood or self-conscious at the ready / / Continent number 72, 1992, p. 320)).
After all, Israel has a sacred alibi ("I do not know whether the story of Purim is based on a fact or was some sort of alibi retroactively" (Meir Shalev. Bible today. M., 2002, p. 98).
Among the lessons of Purim — Revenge of the families and children of enemies. In March 1996, after a series of bombings in Israel by suicide bombers, Israeli Prime Minister gave the order to blow up the house dead terrorists, their families evicted from there.
I will be glad to know that in the modern Jewish journalism events of Purim is no longer regarded as the archetypal. I'll be happy if I show these doctrinal Judaic texts in which contemporaries prohibited to imitate the heroes of the book of Esther. While these texts I have not seen — I have a right to believe that Judaism book of Esther is seen as a role model.
Purim — a holiday beating enemies. Who are the enemies of the Jews? Only if the unfortunate countrymen Amana? In the opinion of Josephus, the decree of Artaxerxes to destroy all the Jews caused a nationwide joy "when the decree came to all the cities of the country, everyone is very happy forthcoming on the specified day of the massacre of the Jews" (Josephus. Antiquities. Pr. 11, Ch. 6 , 6). In the Bible, this detail is not. So, according to Josephus, that of a) general regulatory response should be a way to hit the goyim to Jews, and b) the Jews should live and act, suggesting it was a reaction.
In the medieval "Dispute Nachmanides' Jew interprets Psalm," The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit at Mena dondezhe I make your enemies a footstool for your feet. " Jew agrees that this is the Messiah. And says, "God and the Messiah will help until I put all the people in his footstool, for they are all his enemies — they enslave him, they deny his coming and his power, and some of them have established themselves another messiah" (Dispute Nachmanides. Jerusalem, Moscow, 1992, p. 48). And closer to our times and places of the Rebbe Elimelech of Lezhajsky falsely accused all the non-Jewish humanity: "People hate Israel" (quoted in Desk I. The attitude toward non-Jews Hasidic / / Parallels: Russian-Jewish literary-historical and bibliographical Almanac. № 2-3. — M., Jewish Book House, 2003, p. 57).
So, in the history of Jewish thought is for, who believes that all people — the enemies of the Jews. And "everything" — hence, Christians, and not only the "descendants of Amalek" or idolaters. By the way, the two just quoted Jewish author living in a Christian environment, and yet told her firmly-totalitarian formula hatred.
So why are the people in whose history has been so much suffering, the people who survived the many pogroms, he stubbornly celebrates one pogrom, which in antiquity was able to arrange it yourself? Why is it so obvious double moral standards allow themselves to Jews in relations with other nations?
"Recently, I went to an antique shop in one of the Arbat lanes. Suddenly I heard a saleswoman book department with the characteristic appearance of Gogol became curse for anti-Semitism. I stood up for the beloved writer and heard that I, too, such as an anti-Semite, like Gogol.
Then the saleswoman ehidnenko so asked,
— What will you do with the Jews, if you come to power?
— The same thing as with the Russian Jews.
— Fascist! — Suddenly shrieked hysterically saleswoman — Murderer! Executioner! Bastard!
At first I was taken aback, but then he laughed … Alexander Medvedev, Moscow. "
See also Purim — the Jewish holiday in memory of the massacre of their subjects arranged the Persian Empire