The future U.S. president Jimmy Carter in 1943, he entered the Naval Academy in Annapolis and was a freshman, or "plebeian." Life among the four thousand cadets — the inexorable punishment for minor infractions: bad, according to the seniors, table manners, for example, led to the fact that the "plebeian" eat under the table, if at all, he was given to eat.
Jimmy Carter wrote in his autobiography: "Salvation was not even at the most commendable behavior. Sometimes took on the brutal nature of the drill. Worth being branded a wimp — and cars were coming from all sides. This could only escape from the school. " No matter what a "plebeian" Carter, he was smiling. And it was painful, "plebeian" beat heavy metal trays, broom handles, massive scoops. Carter suffered beatings and for refusing to entertain their tormentors song "Marching on Georgia." Songs from it and do not poke out. Expert on the life of President Jimmy Carter's publicist John Vutin explained in 1978 what it was:
"To this day, the U.S. South, there are places, especially in the state of Georgia, where the mere mention of the name William T. Sherman (if not preceded by gross abuse) can cause a fight or threat of beatings. Of all the generals of the Union, the Confederacy invaded, they hate him more than anyone else, and has survived a century of hostility, mainly due to his "march to the sea" after the burning of Atlanta. Sherman's federal troops were east to Savannah, leaving behind ash and total destruction. It has become a legend, as reflected in the song "Marching on Georgia." Carter … did not want to say a line from this dirty ballads. "No, sir, I will not sing it," — he replied. His tormentors insisted, but he conceded. Until the end of the stay "plebeian" he was subjected to torture all the more painful. "
And for what, exactly? Midshipmen, undergraduates have not achieved only to a young man from Georgia State praised "feats" of their ancestors, who let the world, his ancestors during the Civil War.
That's it reacted sharply in the third generation, Carter on the use of a "strategy of terror" against the Americans, the strategy developed in the United States against those in Washington will determine the enemy.
At the final stage of the civil war in the United States, in 1861 -1865 years., For the white population — compatriots brought down "strategy of terror" by the time spent centuries in countless wars against the Indians.
This decision was made chief of the armies of the northerners, General W. Grant. Describing how the idea of a "strategy of terror" has come to Grant, his semi-official biographer A. Bado said, "Most of the generals in all theaters were trying to conduct operations as if they were acting on foreign soil. They sought to outmaneuver the enemy, capture the position and achieve victory pure and simple strategy. However, these methods are inadequate in the Civil War … (Grant reasoned) that want to destroy the enemy's army, and fed them the resources to put in front of every enemy compound choice — either the destruction or surrender … Slaves, stocks, crops, livestock, as well as weapons and ammunition — all that is needed for the war — weapons in the hands of the enemy, and all of his weapons to be destroyed. "
Clarifying the issue for themselves, Grant quickly turned to his faith subordinate generals. Suggestions and example.
Grant Guidelines have been unconditionally. In 1864, he ordered General Phil Sheridan: "It is desirable to turn to ashes Shenonda valley." Sheridan Grant reports on the execution of the order in a fertile agricultural region, "destroyed two thousand barns with grain, hay and stock, more than 70 mills with stores of wheat and flour to the army I drive more than 4 million heads of cattle slaughtered and distributed to the soldiers not to less than 3 thousand sheep. The local population is getting tired of war. "
General William Sherman had already apparently realized that the violation of the laws and customs of war is not decoration, therefore, forced himself explains: "The war — hell." Themes and limited. In our time, Harvard Professor M. Walzer in the study, "Just and Unjust Wars" (1980) noted: "The phrase 'War — Hell" expresses the doctrine, and not just a definition, it is a moral argument, an attempt to justify myself. " Sherman believed that he was completely innocent of all these actions. Which is it?
At the head of the 60000th Army, he passed by the states of Georgia, North and South Carolina, completely devastated vast areas, with a total area of 37 thousand square meters. miles, about equal in Holland and Belgium. Sherman's army leveled the city, starting with Atlanta. In front of the columns of troops, marching in front of about 100 km, in wagons drove related prisoners. By the way, they flew into the air, determined where the mines are laid.
That is seen as a "march to the sea" — from Atlanta to Savannah in the book "America's War" (1968) popular these days in the U.S. military historian R. Leckie: "The soldiers entered Sherman (November 15) on the rich land. Requisitioning … carts on the farm, they were loading their bacon, eggs, corn, chickens, turkeys, ducks, sweet potatoes, all that was taken away, and the evening was taken to all the brigade. Other troops were driven cattle, killing those animals, which could not take with them. Saving bullets, swords chopped pigs, horses and mules — an ax between the ears. From sunrise to sunset skinny veterans, accustomed to crumbs and corned beef, ate ham, sweet potatoes, fresh beef. As we move on Georgia Tolstel and they become smooth.
From the edge-to-edge front stokilometrovy movement dark army of smoke marked its path: burned warehouses, bridges, barns, mills and factories. Do not spare even the private home … Old men and helpless women were forced to specify caches, where they hid the silver, jewels and money. Sherman barely lift a finger to stop what was happening. "The war — the cruelty, and you can not refine it" — he explained the residents of Atlanta …
The destruction of the railways was also the purpose of the march, and this Sherman wrote: "I have personally taken care of." Strip off the rails, warmed by the fires of the sleepers, and then they were bent on tree trunks and throwing useless junk. Everywhere lay these "clips Sherman" or "tie pins Jeff Davis" (on behalf of the President of the Confederation — NY). Thus, the flow of molten lava length of 500 km and a width of 100 km, the Army Sherman reached the sea. "
Expelling from their homes the local population, Sherman wrote: "I knew that these measures will make the people of the South are two important conclusions: first, we really got down to business, and secondly, if they sincerely adhere to their slogan" Death in the last ditch, "then they will soon be presented this opportunity." Sherman reported to Grant: We fight not only with enemy armies, but a hostile people.
We must make old and young, rich and poor taste, which means the cruel hand of war. " Summing up the "heroic efforts" of his army in Georgia, Sherman in his report to President Abraham Lincoln proudly reported: damage to the state — $ 100 million, of which $ 20 million in products consumed by soldiers.
However, "Uncle Bill," as Sherman called in the army, was endowed with sufficient reason not to publicize their achievements outside of the states that have experienced its "strategy of terror." He hated journalists, these "newsboys," he used to say that "pick random words excite envy and cause untold damage." Description of this campaign, we are required to book a staff officer Major Sherman J. Nichols, of course, patriot army. So during the "march to the sea" was not only tested on a large scale "strategy of terror", but also laid the foundations of her companion principle — keep your mouth shut about the atrocities and crimes of the U.S. military.
However march Army Sherman and follow-up of the U.S. government in the south of the country to remember. The U.S. ambassador to Germany in the mid 30s., After hearing complaints Nazis on the Treaty of Versailles, literally exploded. According to Ambassador Dodd's agreement "not so bad compared to the fact that the United States imposed on the defeated South in 1865-1869 gg. and that led to the oppression of fifty of the area, more severe than all the hardships that befell Germany. "
Famous American military theorist R. Wigley, creating chubby works about U.S. military strategy in 1981 in the next volume "Generals Eisenhower," pointed out the continuity of action of the Pentagon in 1943-1945. overseas, similar to that done with Grant accomplices in the years 1864-1865. in his country: "The Civil War shaped the concept of conducting a major war the U.S. Army so that it had a profound effect on the conduct of its World War II … It was enacted legacy of the Civil War, with its emphasis on brute force. The proper way to victory in the broader war was elected course of action of the Union Army — use superior military power, as did Grant, to destroy the armed forces of the enemy and destroy enemy of economic resources and the will to win that made the generals William T. Sherman and Phil Sheridan -The ultimate goal — a victorious America imposes its political objectives defeated. " The very respectful references to Sherman and Sheridan, comparing them with Grant show anyone in the U.S. military science tied for first place as a prolific strategists.
As to the military effectiveness of the "strategy of terror" Sherman, it estimates at this point are contradictory. The fact that the destruction of resources in the South was a giant (General F. Sheridan loftily said: "Even the crows have to carry your food"), is beyond doubt. However, the "march to the sea" Sherman was possible only because the military forces of the Southerners had either been destroyed or pinned down in the other theaters. Sherman fought against the civilian population. Yet in another book — "How to fight the United States" (1973) by R. Wigley said: "Sherman's march on Georgia and both Carolinas fascinates military experts in the U.S. and abroad, admiration for him has not diminished, but increased in the twentieth century When … new military technology — the internal combustion engine on the aircraft and the tank seemed to be opened up new opportunities for the implementation of the strategy of the Sherman admiration for him grew even more. If Sherman possessed aircraft, he would be able to actually deprive the Confederate Army of economic resources necessary for the conduct of the war, at the same time undermining the morale of the people. "
Leaving aside the hypothetical "if", it should be emphasized: the genesis of the now current U.S. military doctrine — this is war 1861 -1865 years. In a special study of British military under the editorship of J. and J. Beckett Pimlota "The Armed Forces and modern counterinsurgency action" (1985) categorically states: "The doctrine of the U.S. Army dates back to the civil war of the sixties of the last century." Of course, first of all to the head, which she wrote in the blood of General Sherman with his thugs.
Among the most attractive to the U.S. military sides of the "strategy of terror" — its "cheapness", ie, their own losses are not de no comparison with the enemy. It is, in all probability, was an important fact for those who are motivated to take "strategy of terror" for execution in the U.S. Armed Forces. But in reality?
During World War II the United States implemented the "strategy of terror", of course, sample the tanks "Sherman" — their task is not beyond the scope of conventional warfare — and strategic bombing. Their command of the aircraft and the results of outside observers, in stark amateurs. But researchers are judged competent way, stressing that Nazi Germany was defeated by no means "a strategy of terror." The same R. Wigley rightly pointed out, the Second World War was a coalition, and if the loss of the Western allies' limited tolerant sizes, it is explained, and the victims of a violent struggle Russian. " At the same time, civilian casualties from these bombardments were such that "the impact of the war was much more violent than the Sherman could do."
According to official figures, the bombing of occupied France aircraft Western allies were 67,068 dead and 75,660 maimed. Mainly from American bombs, for U.S. aircraft bombed from high altitudes and often on the area. John Fuller, an English military theorist, soon after the war concluded, "The strategic bombing. Germany, until the spring of 1944, were wasteful and fruitless enterprise. Instead of reducing the war, they only delayed it, for demanding excessive consumption of raw materials and labor. " The very air offensive did not spare epithets Fuller, "return to the wars of primitive savagery committed by Britain and the United States." Untold resources wasted on strategic bombing, in effect been abandoned to the wind. The objects of the air offensive was relatively small in the country, with a high population density — Germany and Japan. The Soviet Union occupies one sixth of the Earth's land! Had good reason to fall into the most painful reflection properties: implement a "strategy of terror" in such areas seemed completely unrealistic. The emergence of nuclear weapons has caused fierce enthusiasm in Washington — finally had a means of defeating the "enemy", what determined the Soviet Union, American politicians and strategists at the turn of war and peace.
Since August 1945, when they were turned into ashes of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, millions of words have been said and written about this heinous crime, which, however, is a great way fit into the American military tradition. In any case, the use of atomic weapons against the civilian population did not cause any undesirable for the powerful emotions of those who are entrusted to the armed might of the United States, — the officer corps of the U.S. armed forces. Tom clearest declaration splendidly balanced state of mind then and to this day the officers, who brought on the wings of B-29 bombers mega-death to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the 40 th anniversary of the atomic bombing — in 1985 the most common in the U.S. political weeklies published extensive reviews of the collective over the incident Aug. 6, 1945
"Newsweek" headlined the material in its issue of July 29, 1985 "Living with the Bomb. On the first generation of the atomic age. " Reporters were told how Colonel P. Tibbetts gathered bomber crew, which was to burn Hiroshima, young officers who have gained combat experience in the bombing of German cities. 23-year-old navigator Maj. T. Van Kirk, almost the same age as his striker, a pedant and akkuratist T. Furby. Approximate grocer's son 29-year-old family-Tibbets commanded to write to the nose of the aircraft's mother's name — Enola Gay.
The crew trained for nearly a year in the U.S., and finally their squadron relocated to the island of Tinian, from which U.S. bombers raided the Japanese cities. When it came time to do the job, soldier Enola Gay showed photos of atomic testing in the New Mexico desert. They have a clear idea of what they will be. Furby ordered to tidy the plane, meticulously follow the suspension of the atomic bomb in the compartment.
At 2.45 local time Tibbets lifted the plane and took him to Hiroshima. Around 8.15 Furby alerted the crew: "I see Bridge", one of the 81 bridges Hiroshima aiming point. All remembered the plane, as in France, they dropped their bombs are very approximate. Van Kirk checked through a bombsight. At 8.15 a bomb went down. Furby nodded — almost on target. The explosion was followed by a 250 meters away. Heavy bomber shook from shock waves.
"On the plane there was silence. The city was gone. Remained swirling cauldron ghoulish black smoke. On the border of his blazing fires, and rose up a cloud, which, according to Tibbets was like not a mushroom, and undeployed parachute. "My God, — said the co-pilot B. Lewis — see how this son of a bitch is growing!" Smoke plume reached an altitude of aircraft — 10 miles and all sought skyward. Tibbetts lit his pipe. They started a kind of game — how far from Hiroshima longer visible this column of smoke. The tail gunner was the last person who saw it. Van Kirk figured: from Hiroshima flew at 363 mph. "
Reporters from the "Newsweek" Van Kirk questioned in detail about his later life. He quickly separated from military service and from 1950 he worked in the sales department of the Dupont Corporation, "a born huckster, charming smile, voice narration, self-confidence, brought from the war with the Order." Corporation has paid him well for the faithful, a 35-year service.
"He says almost nothing about the atomic bomb — said his secretary in the sales department of Du Pont in the suburbs of San Francisco. — It essentially says, he does not care about those conversations. "
"Newsweek" wrote: "Van Kirk is not repentant about the day when his life changed over Hiroshima. Under the same circumstances, in his opinion, he would have done the same thing. He knows that the bomb debate almost from the moment they dropped it.
He Tibbetts and Ferb are rare at gatherings 509th Squadron mixed. Far from remorse prevent them from seeing more often, they just feel better among friends, with whom fought in the European theater, and remember what. They believe the media attention to the deplorable drunken ravings Claude Izerli, Pilot meteorological aircraft flown Hiroshima, prompting to think as if they are all mentally set off. This is not the case. Tibbets successfully runs the airline in Ohio, Furby very profitable trades in real estate in Florida, their life, as the life of Van Kirk, the bomb was not poisoned. "Damn it — as if they expressed the general opinion of all the Furby, pressed the wrong button — this was the case. I made it. "
Yes, says Van Kirk, it was a matter that should be considered in the context of war, an act of war in the interests of its completion, it culminated in a historic success, and they — are heroes. Of course, to this day heard accusations, sometimes anti-nuclear movement activists tinkled them at night, soliciting to Enola Gay crew members expressed regret. They did not express. Their conscience is clear, they are sleeping peacefully. When someone asked Van Kirk, worried whether his guilt or bad dreams, he smiled and shook his head. When he returned to the task, then a snack, drink a few bottles of beer, and slept for the next 40 years have not spent a single night without sleep over the bomb. "
The magazine "Yu S. News and World Report, "August 5, 1985 an article titled" Heroes. The outstanding valor in war and peaceful life in the world "by enclosing the Tibbets biography. From the epochal events — nuke "on earth 80 thousand people have died, 80 million people were injured and 62 thousand buildings destroyed Hiroshima. An hour after the bomb was dropped, the crew of Enola Gay arranged lunch on the way back to Tinian. They dictated their impressions of what he saw in the recorders.
To this day, Tibbets, who is 70 years old, does not know what happened to those records. But he knows why many Americans believe that he and his crew have since reportedly suffering from alcoholism and various psychoses. Tibbetts says:
"Russian propaganda portrays me in a distorted form. Efforts are being made to discredit us, to make the world believe that the United States could find only madmen to do what we did. I can assure you only one. No one is then in my plane did not suffer from mental disorders or spent at least one night without sleep over done.
I served in the Air Force 30 years and retired general. The next 15 years I worked in the aviation company in Columbus, Ohio, and is now its president … "
Nikolai Nikolaevich Yakovlev
From the book: War and Peace in the American Traditions of militarism in the United States. 1989
See also The shooting of peaceful demonstrations in the United States