We offer our readers an article written by Edwin Black — author of the books included in the list of best-selling newspaper "New York Times": "Ay-Bee-Em and the Holocaust" and the just released "The war against the weak" ("Four walls, eight windows" ).
Hitler turned into a living hell of a continent and killed millions of people in search of the so-called "master race." The world was mad Fuhrer and poorly understood the motives that drove them. However, the concept of superior race — white-skinned blonde with blue eyes — was formulated not to them, this idea was developed in the United States, the American eugenics movement in the two to three decades before Hitler. Not only developed, but also tested in practice eugenics forcibly sterilized 60,000 Americans, thousands of forbidden to marry, thousands forcibly evicted in the "colonies" and killed countless people in ways that are still being studied.
Eugenics — American racist pseudoscience, aimed at the destruction of all people, except those who meet the specified type. This philosophy has developed into a national policy by the laws of forced sterilization and segregation, as well as marriage restrictions, enacted 27 states.
In assessing the intellectual ability of people to be sterilized and the preparation of test to determine the level of intelligence into account knowledge of American culture, not a real knowledge of the individual or the ability to think. It is quite natural that such tests have shown the majority of immigrants lower results and were found to be quite normal in terms of intelligence. It is absolutely not taken into account the impact on human society and the environment.
It should be noted that not only studied the characteristics of the members of one family, but there have been attempts to identify traits that are transmitted by inheritance within the ethnic group. Thus, the eugenicists identified as a good blood — the blood of the first American settlers who arrived from Northern and Western Europe. They are, in the opinion of the eugenicists have innate qualities such as love of science and the arts. While immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe have less favorable set of features.
All this contributed to the introduction of restrictive laws for visitors to the United States and laws against mixed marriages between people of different races and nationalities. Otherwise, as claimed by the eugenicists, the probability of damage to the American blood.
But the most radical political act evgenisticheskogo trend became an official permit sterilization. By 1924, there were 3,000 in the United States forcibly sterilized. Forced sterilization were mostly prisoners and the mentally retarded.
In Virginia, the first victim of forced sterilization was a seventeen year old girl — Carrie Buck. In 1927, she was accused of bad heredity, and thus contamination of the American race. The basis for the charges in an unhealthy Carrie heredity was the fact that her mother was in an insane asylum, and the girl herself had a child out of wedlock. Her child was considered a sociologist of ERO and a nurse of the Red Cross on subjective impression abnormal. However, when the daughter of Carrie Buck went to school, it became clear that it did not lower the ability of the ordinary, and she learned very well.
Case Carrie Buck was the precedent for the sterilization of 8,300 residents of Virginia!
Moreover, the development of ERO used by Nazi Germany. In 1933, American-style Hitler's government passed a law on sterilization. This law is reprinted here in the U.S., "Eugenics news." On the basis of the law in Germany were sterilized 350 thousand people!
Not surprisingly, the head of the ERO in 1936 received an honorary doctorate from the University of Heidelberg for the "science of racial cleansing» («the science of racial cleansing»).
Hitler had diligently studied the American eugenic laws and arguments and sought to confirm the rights of racial hatred and anti-Semitism, giving them medical reasons and to provide a pseudo-membrane. Eugenics would not have moved farther strange conversations, they do not bear a strong financial support on the part of philanthropists, mainly Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad business.
They were part of the league of American scientists from universities such as Harvard, Princeton and Yale (approx. this is how we know the card slot of the Masonic ideology, is grown loyal to the cause of politicians and scientists), The walls of which were falsified and manipulated data in the name of racist eugenic purposes.
Carnegie Institution stood at the cradle of the American eugenics movement, creating a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island. Here, millions of cards were stored with the data of ordinary Americans, lets you plan methodical likvdatsiyu families, clans and nations. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated among U.S. lawmakers, social services and associations of the country.
Of the Harriman railroad treasury funds were transferred to local charities — for example, in the New York bureau of industry and immigration — which were allocated to the Jewish and other immigrants from the general population for their subsequent deportation, imprisonment in jail or forced sterilization.
The Rockefeller Foundation assisted in the creation and funding of the German eugenics program and even funded the research monstrous Josef Mengele at Auschwitz. Subsequently, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institute, Laboratory of Cold Spring Harbor and the Max Planck Institute (the predecessor of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute) provide unlimited access to information and helping to carry out investigations.
Long before coming to the problem of leading American philanthropists, eugenics was born thanks to scientific curiosity in the Victorian era. In 1863, Sir Francis Galton developed a theory: if the talented people will enter into marriage only with talented people, their offspring will be noticeably better.
At the turn of 19-20 centuries, Galton's ideas were brought to the United States, when they were rediscovered Gregor Mendel's laws of heredity. Supporters of U.S. eugenicists believed that the concept of Mendel explaining color and size of peas and cattle, is applicable to the social and intellectual nature of man. At the beginning of the 20th century, America reeled under the impact of mass immigration and of widespread racial conflicts. Elitists, utopians and progressives, driven by hidden race and class tendencies and at the same time the desire to improve the world, Galton's eugenics turned into a repressive and racist ideology. They dreamed of blue-eyed whites inhabit the planet by people of Nordic type — tall, strong and talented. In the course of this work they set out to turn off the life of blacks, Indians, Hispanics, East Europeans, Jews — heap living people with dark hair, the poor and the weak. How are they going to achieve this goal? By identifying the "defective" family branches and condemning them to lifelong segregation and sterilization for the destruction of entire bloodlines. Program had a maximum deprivation of reproductive capacity "unsuitable" — recognized weak and standing on the lower levels of development.
In the 1920s, scientists at the Carnegie Institution of eugenics established close personal contacts with the German Nazi eugenics. In 1924, when Hitler wrote his "Mein Kampf", he often quoted the provisions of the American eugenic ideology and openly showed his good knowledge of American eugenics theorists and their phraseology. He proudly announced to his supporters that is committed to the American eugenic legislation. Hitler's struggle for a super-race turned into a frantic struggle for the superior race, in terms of American eugenicists when to replace the notion of "Nordic" came "Germanic" or "Aryan." Race science, racial purity and racial dominance — that was the driving force behind Hitler's fascism.
The Nazi doctors have turned to backroom generals in the war against Hitler Jews and other Europeans recognized inferior race. They developed science, invented eugenic formulas, and even personally selected the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination. In the first decade of the Reich eugenics across America unanimously welcomed Hitler's plans, seeing them as the consistent implementation of its decades of research papers.
The point, however, is not limited to the support of scientists. America has funded and helped develop the German eugenic institutions. By 1926, Rockefeller donated 410,000 dollars (4000000 modern "green") on the work of hundreds of German researchers.
In May 1926, for example, Rockefeller paid the $ 250,000 the German Psychiatric Institute, which became Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. One of the leading psychiatrists of the Centre Ernest Rudin later became its director and is considered by many to be the architect of Hitler's medical system suppression. Back in the scientific complex was Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research. A grant of U.S. $ 317,000 has allowed the institution to build the main building and to become the center of national racial biology. Over the next few years, the institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.
Brain Institute — also headed by Rudin — became the main laboratory and testing ground for deadly experiments and research conducted on Jews, Roma and members of other nations. Since 1940 thousands of Germans from nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals and other custodial facilities were systematically choking gas. In total, were killed between 50,000 and 100,000 people.
A particular target of financial assistance from the Rockefeller Foundation was the Institute of Anthropology, human heredity and eugenics Kaiser Wilhelm in Berlin. If the American eugenics for decades only sought to get their hands on the twins for research in the field of heredity, the German Institute was able to carry out such research on an unprecedented scale.
At a time when Rockefeller made his donation, head of the Institute of Anthropology, human heredity and eugenics was Otmar Freiherr von Vershuer (Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer), star of American eugenics circles. In the first years in office Vershuera funding Instiuta anthropology Rockefeller was conducted directly and through other research programs. In 1935 Vershuer left the Institute to create a eugenic center in Frankfurt. The study of twins in the Third Reich went brilliantly with the support of the government, which has issued a decree on the mobilization of all twins. Around the time Vershuer wrote in "Der Erbartts" eugenic medical journal, edited by himself, that the German war will lead "to a total solution of the Jewish problem."
May 10, 1943 Vershuera longtime aide Joseph Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Mengele Twins selected the right of the transports arriving in camp, conducted brutal experiments on them, writing reports and sending them to college Vershuera for analysis and synthesis.
As reported in the "San Francisco Chronicle» («The San Francisco Chronicle») in 2003:
"The idea of a white, blond, blue-eyed Nordic race prevailing before Hitler was born. The concept was created in the United States, and cultivated in California, decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenicists played an important, although little known, role in the American eugenics movement for ethnic cleansing. "
Eugenics — pseudoscience, which set itself the goal of "improvement" of humanity. In its extreme, racist form, this meant the destruction of all the "unfit" people, save only those who met a Nordic stereotype. The ideas of this philosophy were enshrined in the national policy of forced sterilization laws, segregation and restriction of marriage. In 1909, California became the third state of the 27 countries where the laws are. As a result, practice eugenics forcibly sterilized about 60,000 Americans, thousands were denied marriage with their chosen, thousands were forced into "colonies" and a large number of people were exposed to prosecution in ways that are now being investigated. Before World War II, almost half of coercive sterilizations were performed in California. And even after the war in the state carried out a third of such operations.
California was considered the center of the eugenics movement in America. In the early 20th century in the California eugenicists included potent but little-known scientists rasovedy. Among them were: the Army venereal disease specialist Dr. Paul Popenoe, citrus magnate Paul Gosney, Sacramento banker Charles Gete, as well as members of the Board of Charities and Corrections, and California State Board of Regents of the University of California.
Eugenics and would by and large an unusual topic of conversation in the living room if it is not so generously funded the largest philanthropic organizations, especially the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the company «Harriman railroad fortune». All they have collaborated with prominent American scientists from such prestigious universities as Stanford, Yale, Harvard and Princeton. These scientists supported the theory of race and eugenics itself, and then fabricated and distorted the evidence in favor of racist eugenic purposes.
In 1904, the President of Stanford University, David Starr Jordan, in his message, "Blood Nation" introduced the concept of "race and blood." University scholar declared that human qualities and position (eg, talent, and poverty) are transmitted by blood.
The company «Harriman railroad fortune» paid to local charities (for example, «New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration» for assistance in finding the Jews, Italians, and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities, their deportation, restrictions on movement and forced sterilization .
Almost all spiritual guidance and materials of political campaigning for the eugenics movement in America came from California's quasi-autonomous eugenic societies, such as «Pasadena's Human Betterment Foundation» and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated much of their activity with «Eugenics Research Society in Long Island» . These organizations (which functioned as part of a closely knit network) published racist eugenic leaflets and pseudo-scientific magazines "eugenics News» (Eugenical News), «Eugenics» (Eugenics) and promoted Nazism.
The most common tool of genocide in the United States was a "lethal chamber" (better known as the gas chamber local government). In 1918, Popenoe, the Army venereal disease specialist during World War II, co-authored a widely popular textbook "Applied Eugenics» («Applied Eugenics»), which argued that "from a historical point of view, the first method, which speaks for itself , there is the death penalty … Its value in keeping the purity of the race should not be underestimated. " The tutorial also has a chapter dedicated to the "selectivity of death" that "kills the individual environmental factors (such as excessive cold, bacteria or physical disability)."
Breeders of eugenics were convinced that American society is not yet ready to use the organized killing. But many mental institutions and doctors practiced improvised their own lethality and passive euthanasia. At a clinic in Lincoln, Ill., arriving patients fed with milk from cows infected with tuberculosis, suggesting that genetically pure individual would be immune. From 30% to 40% of annual deaths accounted for Lincoln. Some doctors practiced "passive evgenotsid" over each of the newborns. Among the other doctors in mental hospitals was spread negligence, often resulting in death.
Even the Supreme Court of the United States supported the approach of eugenics. In 1927, in his infamous decision of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "It would be better for the world if we do not wait until the generation of degenerates drown us in a crime, and not allow them to enjoy their dementia when society can prevent the reproduction of those who are not suitable for this purpose. Three generations of degenerates enough. " This decision paved the way for forced sterilization and persecution of thousands who were considered inferior. Later, during the Nazi Nuremberg trials quoted Holmes' words as their justification.
Only after eugenics was strengthened in the U.S., a campaign by planting it in Germany. In no small measure contributed to this California eugenicists who published booklets idealizing sterilization and circulated them to German officials and scientists.
Hitler learned the laws of eugenics. He tried to legitimize his anti-Semitism, bringing it under the medicalisation and giving it an even more attractive pseudo-scientific form of eugenics. Hitler was able to attract a large number of followers among the rational Germans, saying that engages in scientific research. Racial hatred Hitler was born in his mind, but the ideological foundations of eugenics, which he received in 1924, were formulated in America.
In the 20's eugenics scientists at the Carnegie Institution have developed a deep personal and professional relationships with Nazi eugenics. In his book "Mein Kampf» («Mein Kampf»), published in 1924, Hitler referred to the ideology of the American eugenics, demonstrating in-depth knowledge of it. "Today, there is one state" — Hitler wrote — "in which at least some noticeable progress toward a better conception (of immigration). Of course, this is not our exemplary German Republic, and the United States. "
At the dawn of the Reich welcomed the achievements of the American eugenics of Hitler and his plans as the logical culmination of his many years of research. California evgenikipereizdavali Nazi propaganda materials for dissemination in the United States. They also organized the Nazi scientific exhibits, such as the exhibition at the Art Museum of Los Angeles County in August 1934, the annual meeting of the American Association for health care workers.
In 1934, when the number of sterilizations in Germany exceeded 5,000 per month, the leader of California eugenicists Ch M Gete on returning from Germany with admiration told one of his colleagues: "You will be interested to know that your work has played a huge role in shaping the views of a group of intellectuals behind Hitler in his landmark project. Overall I felt that their views are very susceptible to American influence … I want my friend to my whole life you remembered that gave impetus to the development of the great government, managing 60 million people. "
In addition to providing a plan of action, the United States has funded research institutes dealing with eugenics in Germany.
Since 1940, the beginning of regular gas persecution of thousands of Germans forcibly removed from their nursing homes, mental institutions and other custodial places. It has been systematically killed between 50 000 to 100 000.
Leon Whitney, executive secretary of the American Eugenics Society, declared of Nazism, "While we are cautious, the Germans call a spade a spade."
Special favors from the Rockefeller Foundation used the Berlin Institute of Anthropology, human heredity and eugenics of the Kaiser Wilhelm. For decades, American eugenicists were in need of twins, to conduct research on heredity.
Now the institute was ready to undertake such research on an unprecedented level. May 13, 1932, the Rockefeller Foundation in New York dispatched a radiogram to its Paris office: "June meeting EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE NINE THOUSAND DOLLARS FOR THREE-YEAR PERIOD FOR THE INSTITUTE Anthropology of the Kaiser Wilhelm TWINS FOR RESEARCH AND IMPACT OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN germplasm future generations."
Period charitable donations Rockefeller fell on time management institute Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer (Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer), the famous personality in the eugenic circles. Rockefeller continued to fund the institution at the beginning of the leadership of Fershuera as the basic direction and via other studies. In 1935 Verschuer left the Institute to create a rival eugenic Institute in Frankfurt. About this event was publicly announced in the American eugenic press. Supported by government decrees in the Third Reich have been intensively conducted experiments on twins. Verschuer wrote ensured that his eugenic medical journal "Der Erbartst» (Der Erbarzt), that the war in Germany, "once and for all solve the Jewish problem."
In the words of Michael Crichton (Michel Crichton) in 2004: "Her supporters were also Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill. It endorsed the Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis, who ruled in her favor. It was supported by Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, activist Margaret Sanger, a botanist Luther Burbank, Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University, novelist HG Wells, the playwright George Bernard Shaw, and hundreds of others. Supported Nobel laureates. Research supported by the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations. To perform these studies was established research complex at Cold Spring Harbor, important studies were also conducted at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford and Johns Hopkins University. Laws to combat the crisis have been adopted in states from New York to California.
This effort was supported by the National Academy of Sciences, the American Medical Association, and the National Research Council.
They said that If Jesus was alive, too, would support this program.
Ultimately, research, legislation and public opinion on this theory lasted for almost half a century. Those who opposed this theory, ridiculed and called reactionary, blind or just ignorant announced. But what is surprising in terms of our time, is the fact that there were very few who resisted.
There was a plan — to identify mentally disabled people and stop them from breeding by isolation in institutions or sterilization. They agreed that the mentally defective mostly Jews, and many more African Americans and foreigners.
Such views were widely supported. HG Wells spoke against "ill-trained crowds inferior citizens." Theodore Roosevelt argued that "society has no right to allow degenerates to reproduce their kind." Luther Burbank demanded "to prohibit criminals and give birth to weak-willed." George Bernard Shaw said that only eugenics save mankind.
American eugenicists were jealous of the Germans, since 1926 they seized the lead. The Germans were remarkably successful. As usual they brought home "mentally retarded" and questioned them one by one, and then sent to the back room, which essentially served as a gas chamber. There's people poisoned by carbon monoxide, and their bodies were transported to the crematorium, located on private property.
Over time, the program has grown into a broad network of concentration camps, was located near the railroad tracks, which made it possible to use an efficient transport. These camps were killed by ten million "unwanted people".
After World War II, it was found that eugenicists did not exist and never has been. Biographies of famous and powerful of this world did not mention the interest of their heroes in this philosophy, and sometimes it is not all about remembering. Eugenics ceased to be the subject of education in colleges, although some argue that its ideas continue to exist in a modified form.
By the way it should be noted that the most active follower of eugenic science Dr. Mengele, who is notorious for his terrible experiments on human beings, including children, and even including newborn babies, after the war was carefully transferred to the United States, where he received all the necessary documents in order to move to Latin America. Where not even dare to touch the Mossad. And in 1979, he quietly and peacefully passed away from a stroke while swimming.
See also 13 creepy experiments on human beings, organized by the U.S. government