Create something that is not

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There is such a thing as a technological limit, the ideological and evolutionary dead end, when all the reserves are chosen, all that can be improved — improved and ruthlessly saw off all unnecessary "grinder". We are faced with this every day. Sometimes you just do not notice, thinking that it was always, and sometimes walking in circles we take to be a technological breakthrough (thanks to marketers). Thousands of years of evolution and not led us to the creation of a universal dining forks, and processors in personal computers have long ceased to amaze our imagination to its speed and flaunted in — basically, the number of cores. Sooner or later, every technology comes to the state when the money in her tumble, but with dedication as — not that much.

Graf.1
Out of this situation, two — to leave everything as it is and take it easy with the thought that it is better not. Or … Or looking for new ideas! The new technological concept could radically change the situation in science or in the market almost instantly! — Vacuum tubes -> semiconductors — propeller planes -> jet — ink pens -> pen;
That is, the principle or ideology of the process does not change. In the example of a ballpoint pen, we also plot the colorant on the paper. But began to use a different technology and the working material. As a result, for some 20 years, the fountain pen ink disappear as a class. Of course, it would be interesting to find out, and not being prepared to once a technological breakthrough here right now? Whose head and in which the laboratory is the idea, ready to turn the unshakable? Is it possible to get to the processor silicon substrate with a thermal conductivity twice as high as the existing? Can I get a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor and its equipment would not even be "fonit?" Rosatom specialists from Novouralsk Scientific Design Center give a definite answer — it may not be in the laboratory and on an industrial scale. — It's all in the approach — explains one of the leaders of NNKTS Sergei Hamsters. Take, for example, is pure lead. From the point of view of chemists, metallurgists and engineers — yes, that is a pure metal. From the point of view of nuclear — it's a real mix of isotopes. What's there not only are mixed. Each of the isotopes in their physical and chemical properties may differ from their "colleagues" at times. It is necessary to distinguish isotopes with required properties, and we will get unique content.
For more than six decades in the enterprises of the former Minsredmash, now a state corporation Rosatom, and the fuel company TVEL successfully developed a unique technology for isotope separation. Started to produce weapons-grade uranium, today they are the basis of nuclear energy is not only the CIS, but also in many Western countries.
— Uranus is only the tip of the iceberg — continues Sergey G. — now we come to the level of technology, when in a position to produce on an industrial scale and hundreds of thousands of tons of isotopically pure materials. And knowing their properties, it is easy to guess how they will be in demand industry. Studies show that the thermal conductivity of silicon stable isotope 28Si to two times the thermal conductivity of silicon natural isotopic composition. For manufacturers of processors, it is a dream, not silicon. As the nuclear industry, the transition of the zirconium 90 will give an economic effect with more zeros. The fact that the 90Zr isotope has a very small capture cross section for thermal neutrons. Even the preliminary estimates show that fuel rods with a snap of such zirconium will last longer than a quarter of the time. Can you imagine how much it in rubles, a few months when the plant is working on a "free" fuel? The average nuclear power plant with four units of 1000 MW PWR spent fuel approximately 1,040,000,000 rubles / year. And that's not even taking into account the ease of spent nuclear fuel.

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  • 279290e2579bfda8b87a3b14f6356f0a-big

There is such a thing as a technological limit, the ideological and evolutionary dead end, when all the reserves are chosen, all that can be improved — improved and ruthlessly saw off all unnecessary "grinder". We are faced with this every day. Sometimes you just do not notice, thinking that it was always, and sometimes walking in circles we take to be a technological breakthrough (thanks to marketers). Thousands of years of evolution and not led us to the creation of a universal dining forks, and processors in personal computers have long ceased to amaze our imagination to its speed and flaunted in — basically, the number of cores. Sooner or later, every technology comes to the state when the money in her tumble, but with dedication as — not that much.

Graf.1
Out of this situation, two — to leave everything as it is and take it easy with the thought that it is better not. Or … Or looking for new ideas! The new technological concept could radically change the situation in science or in the market almost instantly! — Vacuum tubes -> semiconductors — propeller planes -> jet — ink pens -> pen;
That is, the principle or ideology of the process does not change. In the example of a ballpoint pen, we also plot the colorant on the paper. But began to use a different technology and the working material. As a result, for some 20 years, the fountain pen ink disappear as a class. Of course, it would be interesting to find out, and not being prepared to once a technological breakthrough here right now? Whose head and in which the laboratory is the idea, ready to turn the unshakable? Is it possible to get to the processor silicon substrate with a thermal conductivity twice as high as the existing? Can I get a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor and its equipment would not even be "fonit?" Rosatom specialists from Novouralsk Scientific Design Center give a definite answer — it may not be in the laboratory and on an industrial scale. — It's all in the approach — explains one of the leaders of NNKTS Sergei Hamsters. Take, for example, is pure lead. From the point of view of chemists, metallurgists and engineers — yes, that is a pure metal. From the point of view of nuclear — it's a real mix of isotopes. What's there not only are mixed. Each of the isotopes in their physical and chemical properties may differ from their "colleagues" at times. It is necessary to distinguish isotopes with required properties, and we will get unique content.
For more than six decades in the enterprises of the former Minsredmash, now a state corporation Rosatom, and the fuel company TVEL successfully developed a unique technology for isotope separation. Started to produce weapons-grade uranium, today they are the basis of nuclear energy is not only the CIS, but also in many Western countries.
— Uranus is only the tip of the iceberg — continues Sergey G. — now we come to the level of technology, when in a position to produce on an industrial scale and hundreds of thousands of tons of isotopically pure materials. And knowing their properties, it is easy to guess how they will be in demand industry. Studies show that the thermal conductivity of silicon stable isotope 28Si to two times the thermal conductivity of silicon natural isotopic composition. For manufacturers of processors, it is a dream, not silicon. As the nuclear industry, the transition of the zirconium 90 will give an economic effect with more zeros. The fact that the 90Zr isotope has a very small capture cross section for thermal neutrons. Even the preliminary estimates show that fuel rods with a snap of such zirconium will last longer than a quarter of the time. Can you imagine how much it in rubles, a few months when the plant is working on a "free" fuel? The average nuclear power plant with four units of 1000 MW PWR spent fuel approximately 1,040,000,000 rubles / year. And that's not even taking into account the ease of spent nuclear fuel.

  • Zirconium_crystal_bar_and_1cm3_cube
  • Zirconium_crystal_bar_and_1cm3_cube


Of course, we are now at the very beginning, and a lot of difficulties to be resolved. Centrifuge separation production implies that the working substance in the cascades of centrifuges is in a gaseous state. In the case of uranium hexafluoride is his, and for new items such connection has yet to be found. Rather, it is necessary to determine the order of volatile substances which have optimum performance. This must be done at the beginning, because then no longer be able to change the process chain. Here we already have gidroborid zirconium. But the fact that he is the best. What if tomorrow we find something more suitable. There must be 100% confident.
Another complication — a consumer, its technology base. Is he capable of our isotopically pure materials do isotopically pure product? We have to get the same output of silicon with a purity of 99.9999%. This means that impurities were not more than one atom per million. And in the same "clean" should have the final product. About 10 years ago, chip maker AMD has received from Isonics Corp. batch of wafers to the base material which was not pure silicon and its isotope silicon 28. While harvesting transformed into a finished processor, this silicon "managed to" pick up unwanted isotopes of technological equipment. Just a few atoms of a "dirty" chemical glass, and all the crystal lattice can not enter into resonance, and hence the conductivity of a record can be forgotten. The same goes for nuclear reactors. Zirconium to function effectively, the reactor itself must also be "clean." But again, there is no unsolvable problem if there is a prospect to pass the technological gap, ie not improve the old and apply new, previously did not exist.

Now, scientists and engineers engaged in NNKTS scientific investigator's work on this in the length of the process chain, in some areas are moving from research to OCD. Enormous scope of work, and therefore are connected leading experts, primarily chemists from Novosibirsk, Perm, Kirovochepetska and Sankt-Petersburg. And if all of our plans can be completed, it will be a real mystery to archaeologists of the far future — jokes Sergei Hamsters — they will find our little piece of metal isotope-shifted and are firmly convinced that the Earth by aliens flew. After all, what do we do — we are in the earth do not exist.

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