Over the past two decades, there was a cultural reorientation of U.S. strategic thinking: the war is no longer defined solely in terms of pure military confrontation, but is also using nemilitaristskih, information and psychological methods, called "psychological warfare" or "cultural war."
These methods have a long history. The American military strategist Liddell Hart prior to the Second World War (1) has developed a strategy of indirect approach. U.S. and British forces used "psychological techniques" against Germany in World War II and later they were used to reformat the German mentality. After the war, the CIA and the Department of Defense established think tanks such as the Rand Corporation, Hudson Institute, Herman Kahn and others which are primarily focused on the anti-Soviet activities. These institutions were modeled with Tavistock Institute of Human Relations — British institute specializing in psychological warfare techniques.
In these centers, notwithstanding that the methods were developed alongside sociological institutions. American empirical social science, ie sociology, political science, anthropology, communication studies, etc. were developed prior to the current state of the initiative and at the expense of funding the military and intelligence agencies in the 40's and 50's of last century. (2)
Other sources of funding were the major foundations like the Carnegie Corporation, the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. In the development of these techniques have been employed such well-known research centers as the New School for Social Research in New York, Bureau of Applied Social Research at Princeton, led by Paul Lazarfeldom, Institute for Social Research under the leadership of Max Horkheimer and Theodor U.Adorno, who returned to Frankfurt in 1949 , the Center for International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Esalenovskom Institute in California, which was founded by Michael Murphy and Gregory Bateson, counterculture Center — one of the organizers of the Woodstock Festival in 1968 — they have won contracts. Particularly well-known institutions of communication sciences allocated to programs of psychological warfare.
These institutions published magazines such as "The quarterly public opinion," "American Sociological Review", "American Political Science Review," etc. Working at these institutions were experts — usually immigrants from Germany and Austria, who later earned their reputation in these areas, among them — Paul Lazarfeld, Oskar Morgenstern, Leo Lowenthal, Herbert Marcus, Walter Lipmann, Harold Lasswell, Gabriel Almond, Daniel Lerner, Daniel Bell, Robert Merton and others. These were the same experts who were later responsible for the re-education of the German population. Some of these projects have been involved in the preparation of the cultural revolution of the '60s, which was accompanied by rock music, drugs and the sexual revolution.
"Soviet Studies" in a special way have been tied to the government. Harvard Russian Research Project, headed by Raymond Bauer and Alex Inkelsom, was a joint venture between the CIA, the U.S. Air Force and the Carnegie Corporation. In 1956, a study was published under the title "How the Soviet system," which has become a textbook in the field of research of the Soviet system. (3) One of the weapons of psychological warfare were radio programs for Eastern Europe, which came out under the auspices of the CIA, "one of the cheapest, safest and most effective tool of U.S. foreign policy" — as explained later Jeane Kirkpatrick.
These were, for example, radio stations such as the "Voice of America", "RIAS Berlin", "Radio Free Europe" and "Radio Liberty" radio which was carried out in Russian and CIS languages. (4) These programs were created for the "Congress of Cultural Freedom," which was founded in 1950 in Paris and staffed by 400 employees of the CIA. (5)
The victory over the Soviet Union was partly achieved through such non-lethal methods. The strategy, according to which no provision coexistence with the Soviet Union, and was aimed at the collapse of the Soviet system has been carefully designed by the Reagan administration in 1982. (6) The plan called for seven strategic initiatives, including the fourth item figured psychological warfare aimed at the formation of fear, uncertainty, loss of orientation among the nomenklatura, and among the population. (7) This war was fought not only against communism, but against Russia, which is directly and unequivocally Brzezinski: "We destroyed the Soviet Union, we just destroy Russia." "Russia in any case, the country, without which you can not do." "Orthodoxy — the main enemy of America. Russian — vanquished state. It will be divided and placed under guardianship." (8)
In 1990, Joseph Nye, a Harvard professor, a member of the Council on International Affairs and associate Zbigniew Brzezinski outlined the methods described above by the term "soft power" and "smart power" — a term derived from the same roots as the term "social engineering." (9)
In 2005 he published a book called "soft power. Means to Success in World Politics", which pointed out that America has become an attractive destination due to cultural and political ideals. Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC — the neoconservative think tank, the Board of Directors which included Zbigniew Brzezinski and Henry Kissinger, who in 2006 founded the Commission on "Smart power", spearheaded by Joseph Nye and Richard Armitage. In 2009, the Commission issued a memorandum "More intelligent and secure America," whose goal was to enrich the methods of American influence in the world of "soft" methods. (10)
The first successful application of a new strategy: Restructuring
For the first time, these new methods were used as a strategy to Perestroika came to power, Mikhail Gorbachev. The restructuring was a positive aspect — namely, the restoration of freedom of opinion and movements, but along with it was a tool of Western influence. (11) In the framework of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the increased range of the group that moved to the Western position and was aimed at introducing Western neo-liberal system.
The true architect of perestroika was Alexander Yakovlev, since 1985, the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in the concept, which was in the 50s in Washington, and has since become an advocate of neo-liberalism, in which he confessed to me at the symposium, which was held in Vienna on November 9, 2004 . People like Yegor Gaidar, Grigory Yavlinsky, Boris Nemtsov, Viktor Chernomyrdin, German Gref and Anatoly Chubais, belonged to the same group. With the help of these people Yakovlev created in the USSR fifth column, which to this day hits the strings. Boris Yeltsin was also a man of Americans being recruited directly in September 1989 by the American Congress, when he visited the United States at the invitation of Esalen Institute, which carried out the Soviet-American exchange program since 1979. With their help, he was able to come to power in 1991. (12)
Thanks to the intervention of George Soros Gorbachev became a member of the Trilateral Commission, which met in January 1989 conference in Moscow with the participation of Henry Kissinger and Valery Giscard d'Estaing.
Western cultural influence of the organization in Russia
In the era of perestroika were again allowed the Lodge (Masons unification) and guiding their organization. (13) At the request of Henry Kissinger in May 1989, Gorbachev allowed the establishment of the Moscow Lodge of B'nai B'rith (B'nai B'rith — one of the most famous and oldest Jewish organizations with offices in 40 countries and approx. Trans.). Since then, the Russian Grand Lodge of England, France, America, etc. opened about 500 lodges. At the same time, politicians, businessmen and professionals were created more open organizations, clubs, committees and foundations that had nothing to do with rituals, but shared principles Lodges. At the moment in Russia there are several thousand practicing members of Masonic lodges, which are involved in the rituals, but in addition there is a "masonnerie blanche" — White Masonry, numbering in the tens of times more members who do not participate in the ceremonies, but accept and operate under the principles of the leadership of the Masonic fraternity. Such organizations are the Magisterium club (Teachers' Club), Rotary Club, Lions Club, the Soros Foundation, etc. They consider themselves to be members of the elite, endowed with special rights on the board. (14)
Russian PEN Center — another progressive organization that was founded to manage the literary community. Its members were well-known writers and poets such as Bell Ahmadullina, Anatoly Pristavkin, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Vasily Aksenov and Viktor Erofeev.
Foundation "Open Society" was founded in Moscow in 1988 by George Soros, was the most powerful mechanism of destabilization and destruction against the backdrop of the 1990s. Soros sent his work to change the outlook of people in the neoliberal, the adoption of the American way of life and education of young Russians in the United States. Soros Foundation funded the Russian periodicals and award special scholarships for the promotion of literature. (15)
Under this program, the Foundation published textbooks that Russian history was presented in the neoliberal, cosmopolitan sense. In September 1993, the same period when the Russian parliament was shot, I had the opportunity to attend the award ceremony at the Ministry of Education of Russia. George Soros was presented awards authors of textbooks on Russian history and literature, and the Minister of Education of Russia Yevgeny Tkachenko so designated purpose of the new textbook: "This is done to break down the Russian mentality."
Program of the Soros Foundation in the field of culture were so diverse that almost all the non-governmental sector depended on the sponsorship of the "Open Society". Institute for Human Sciences (IWM), founded in Vienna in 1983 and is also supported by Soros, contributed to the reform of the education system and universities in Russia and in the post-socialist countries. In the period from 1997 to 2000, the Foundation has disbursed 22,000 scholarships in the amount of $ 125 million. (16)
Next American "think tank" — a National Endowment for Democracy (NED), founded in 1982 by Reagan, which in turn finances the organization of the American Democratic and Republican parties, as well as their representation in Moscow. First of all, it supports private media and pro-Western political parties and movements. Budget decision NED accepted by the U.S. Congress in support Department of State. Such prominent politicians like John Negroponte and Otto Reich, Elliot Abrams are members of the Executive Committee of the NED, and it is nothing but a continuation of the CIA operation by other means.
Among other things, the following Russian NED funded organizations (2005): Association of historical education and protection of human rights "Memorial", the Moscow Helsinki Group, the Sakharov Museum, "Mothers for Peace in Chechnya", "Society of Russian-Chechen Friendship Society", "Chechen Committee for National Salvation "(a total of 45 organizations within one year). (17)
The Carnegie Moscow Center was founded in 1993 as a division of the Carnegie Foundation for the maintenance of international peace. This fund was established in 1910 by Andrew Carnegie as an independent research center on international relations. Experts interested in the Moscow Center of the most important issues of Russia's domestic and foreign policy, and collect information on the problematic points of the country. The Center publishes anthologies, monographs, periodicals, and reference books, as well as the quarterly magazine "Pros and Cons" Serials "Working Papers". The center also regularly holds lectures and conferences.
The Fund is financed by major companies such as BP, General Motors, Ford, Mott, and Soros, Rockefeller, the Pentagon, the State Department and the British Foreign Ministry. Currently the Foundation is headed by Rose Gottemoeller (Rose Goettemoeller), a former employee of Rand Corporation (Rand Corporation), which currently holds the position of Deputy Secretary of State.
Russian business representatives on the supervisory board are Peter Aven, Sergei Karaganov, Boris Nemtsov and Grigory Yavlinsky and Yevgeny Yasin, President of the Moscow School of Economics. Prominent members are Dmitry Trenin, also working for Radio "Free Europe" and Radio "Liberty", and Lilia Shevtsova. Both of them are regularly invited to the West to tell people that Russia restricts democratic freedoms. Research Center is widely used by Russian political circles and in the West. The work is supported by the Moscow Center, headquartered in Washington, DC through the "Russia and Eurasia Program" (REP). (18)
Fund "Freedom House" (Freedom House), founded in 1941 on the initiative of Eleanor Roosevelt, who came from the struggle against isolationism in the United States. Its official purpose was to fight against national socialism and communism, but today it is financed by Soros and the U.S. government. In the 1990's «Freedom House» established offices in almost all the countries of the CIS and founded the American Committee for Peace in Chechnya "(members: Brzezinski, Alexander Haig, James Woolsey — former head of the CIA). Today, the best-known project is the "Freedom in the World" (Freedom in the World), which conducts an annual review of all the countries in the world since 1972, and divides them into "free", "partly free" and "non-free" state. (19)
In 1992 in Moscow, and later in 52 Russian cities were founded by Russian subsidiaries of the Rockefeller Foundation, "Planned Parenthood Federation." Fund tried to introduce the subject of "sex education" in all Russian schools, a subject that was actually aimed at the destruction of the family and re-education of people in accordance with the ideal of a "new man." This project is not successful, because of the resistance came Ministry of Education officials, teachers, parents and the Orthodox Church, and was dismissed in 1997 at a conference of the Russian Academy of teacher training. (20)
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the West are considered as components of civil society. In the case of Russia, they have nothing to do with the structure of direct democracy, but the agencies are funded and managed the West.
Western influence on the education system and the media
An important long-term goal of Western lobbying ("lobbying" — to exercise pressure on the public authorities, the leadership of anything, and so on in the decision-making process in the interests of a particular group (economic, political, national, etc.) — a comment . Trans.) were the system of secondary and higher education. After the 1991 coup centralism and Marxist ideology was undermined by Western consultants.
In 1992, the Education Act and the Constitution of Russia from 1993 have undergone profound reorientation of the education system in line with the Western democratic model neoliberal paradigm. This included the introduction of elements of a free market in education and building civil society. (21)
Providing loans western system of education was closely linked to its conformity with the requirements of donors. Thus, the education system has been converted in accordance with the neo concept. Was created by the non-governmental sector to expensive private schools. Private schools and universities began to focus on profits and demanded fees. The education system has been given to the economic requirements of the research PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment — approx. Perevodika.ru) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Many schools in rural areas have been closed because they were not "profitable." Today, many children are not in school, or drop out. According to a report by UNESCO, one and a half million children in Russia were not attending school in 2000. Widespread drug abuse among high school students — a phenomenon that has not previously been known. (22)
The most important reform after a change of course in 1989, according to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, was the reform of higher education. They also developed a program for its restructuring in accordance with the Anglo-American model. In 2004, legally entered the Bologna Declaration: ie transfer to four-year bachelor's degree and the following year MA, and entered administration with the president and the Advisory Council for Universities, whose members include representatives of business. Many Russian experts in the field of education believe this destruction of the traditions of Russian universities, because the learning process is reduced to the simple passage of information. 40% of the approximately 1,000 colleges and universities in today's Russia, where she learns a new elite, are privately owned, and many of them are based West. (23)
Another sector which is steadfastly nablyudet West, is the media who have gone through major transformation after 1991. After 1991, as a result of neo-liberal reforms the media have been privatized and passed into the hands of oligarchs or foreign countries. Many TV stations, newspapers and magazines were transferred to foreign owners, such as Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, which together with the "Financial Times" publishes one of the most famous Russian financial newspaper "Vedomosti", as well as the largest advertising company News Outdoor Group, which operates approximately 100 cities in Russia. Bertelsmann Inc., Which owns Europe's largest television network RTL, manages the All-Russian channel Ren TV. (24), the Bertelsmann Foundation, founded by Reinhard Mohn in 1977 and now being one of the most powerful analytical centers in the European Union cooperates with the Moscow Gorbachev Foundation with its subsidiaries in Germany and the USA.
In the Yeltsin era, the media were almost entirely in the hands of a new oligarchy, which is closely related to the Western financial centers. Gusinsky owned the largest television network NTV, Boris Berezovsky and controlled a number of newspapers. When Putin began to stabilize the Russian state, the most urgent task was to regain control of the media, as otherwise the government would have been overthrown.
Last but not least — is the fact that popular culture — rock concerts, Internet, private television programs kinodvortsy, discos, music CD, DVD, comics, advertising and fashion — almost the same as in the West.
The aim of U.S. strategy is the introduction of the Western system of values in Russian society.
The Russian state had to be de-ideologized. In the 1993 Constitution, the national ideology was disavowed as a sign of totalitarianism and prohibited by Article 13. (25)
The official Soviet ideology was based on materialist philosophy, but it also included elements of the national idea and has been the foundation on which rested the unity of the state, which, after the ban has lost value orientations and the national idea. The ideological vacuum was filled with Western pop culture.
U.S. cultural offensive is aimed at creating a multicultural Russia, that is cosmopolitan, pluralistic and secular society in which dissolves evenly Russian national culture. The people, that is a community of citizens with their common history and culture, to be transformed into a multi-ethnic population.
The resistance of the Russian state and the intelligentsia
Beginning in 2000, President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin launched the concept of the State, in particular, the strengthening of the state, including partial recentralization, the transition from the multinational to the national-oriented understanding of the Russian state, and has a tendency to provide the Russian Orthodox Church and the privileged position of religion in State.
In April 2001, the national energy company "Gazprom" has gained control over the NTV channel. Daily newspaper "Today" has been closed, the chief editor of the weekly magazine has been fired. Boris Berezovsky's TV channel TV-6 was closed in January 2002, Berezovsky and emigrated to England.
In September 2003, an oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky was trying to gain control of the liberal weekly newspaper "Moscow News" in order to support the liberal opposition party "Union of Right Forces" and "Apple" in the upcoming election campaign. His political activity has become an important basis for his arrest in October 2003. These measures were necessary because otherwise the oligarchy managed to get control of the government through the influence of the media. The three most important television stations — ORT, NTV and Russia, as well as much of the print media today are controlled by national companies ("Gazprom" and "VTB") or directly by the state (RTR).
The oligarch Vladimir Potanin continued to control the daily newspaper "Izvestia" and "Komsomolskaya Pravda". Currently, "Novaya Gazeta" (controlled oligarch Alexander Lebedev and former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev) and the daily newspaper "Vedomosti" (project "Wall Street Journal" and "Financial Times") are considered independent of the government media. (26) Since 1993, according to statistics, in Russia 214 journalists have been killed, while 201 journalists were killed during the Yeltsin and 13 — since joining Putin's office, most of them — in his first term of office, during the same period, the second was killed only three journalist. (27)
National Doctrine of Education in 1999 and in 2001 the concept of reviving the national and patriotic idea in the ideological sphere. The shift towards the imperial values supports the postulate of conservation benefits of the educational system of the Soviet Union. Private schools and religious academies by the Russian Orthodox Church and officially recognized in 2007, received preferential treatment. In the curriculum, introduced new items, such as compulsory military training, and from 2007 — "Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture". (28)
One of the ways of the culture war was a campaign of the Western media against Russia, which lasts for over ten years, especially after the arrest of Khodorkovsky in 2003, and the slogan of the campaign is: "Russia on the way back to the Soviet system." Another example is the so-called persecution of progressive artists, which, as mentioned, is to remove the blasphemous and pornographic works with public exhibitions. These works were mainly provocation on the part of NGOs financed by the West. Sakharov Center, whose goal is the implementation of an open society, and in 2003 he organized an exhibition entitled "Caution! Religion ", which showed a blasphemous and anti-Christian artifacts. In this regard, the Duma demanded that prosecutors take action against the management of the center. In 2005, the organizers of the sentencing.
In 2005, the government introduced a new national holiday on November 4, celebrated a few days before the old anniversary of the October Revolution. However, this time celebrating the victory over the Polish invaders in 1612 and the end of the Time of Troubles. In 2006, a new law on non-governmental organizations, in accordance with which they all had to be re-registered and financed from abroad was brought under better control. In early 2008, all regional offices of the British Council, with the exception of the Moscow office were closed for anti-Russian activities. (29)
In contrast to the time of perestroika and the Yeltsin era, after the NATO attack on Yugoslavia in 1999, the Russian intelligentsia, for the most part moved away from the neo-liberal views and become more national-patriotic-oriented. Writers, artists, filmmakers and theater people today, for the most part, are patriots and are supported by the Kremlin. The government also controls the political reporting of the media, especially on television, but less than in the newspapers.
The main figure of the traditionalists was formerly Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who, however, has been criticized for its insufficiently critical attitude toward the West. The leading group of traditionalists to date are "firmly-standing-on-earth people" [pochvenniki]. They are Orthodox Christians, but see the Soviet period in the traditions of Russian history. Their ideology — rural writers such as Valentin Rasputin and Vasily Belov, Viktor Astafev. In magazines "contemporary", "Moscow" and "Young Guard" patriotic ideology thoroughly developed in the 1970s and 1980s.
Fund historical perspective, which is headed by former Duma deputy Natalia Narochnitskaya, and represents a patriotic and Christian program has a series of publications "Links", Internet magazine "Century" and organizes lectures and conferences. The national-patriotic intelligentsia discusses fundamental changes to the system, the planning of a strong state and closure. Federation of creative artists, such as the Union of Writers, Artists' Union, the Union of Cinematographers have at their disposal cultural centers, galleries, cinema and organize a dense program of activities. In Moscow, 150 theaters, opera houses and concert halls that primarily perform classical performances and concerts. Director's statement of abstract art and atonal music programs are the minority. (30)
Austria and Germany for the Russians seem positive, primarily because the old German culture is seen in a positive light. The Russians have an idea of this even from the past, but in reality they do not know what is happening in Germany. Alexander Solzhenitsyn expressed his hope that Germany could become a bridge between Russia and the rest of the world as Germany and Russia feel mutual attraction for each other. (31) However, the German media paint a distorted picture of Russia and wrote that Russia is on the way back to the Soviet system and that the neo-liberal intellectuals fiercely oppose it. As an example, they cite a pornographic website Viktor Erofeev, who was invited to Germany magazine «Die Zeit». (32) But the key question for Russia today is not whether it will be a new communist dictatorship, but rather, whether there is a "dictatorship of relativism" in the Western style or a Christian society. (33)
Renewal of the Church
The decisive resistance to Westernization is now assisting Russian Orthodox Church, which is an anti-modernist and traditionalist. Christianity stands for traditional values, such as marriage, family and motherhood and rejects homosexuality. Church full of mostly young and very young people. Most young people are Orthodox Christians and cnova married in the church. There are over 100 million believers, 30,000 priests and 600 monasteries. In the Theological Academy in Sergiev Posad high competition — four applicants per place, and it is fully equipped with the students. There are Orthodox radio stations, publishing houses, a number of magazines, the institute of chaplains in the military, hospital and prison ministry, and religious education in schools de facto has been restored for the first time since 1917.
According to surveys, 70% of Russians call themselves religious. (34)
In 2007, the Russian Orthodox Churches and the Vatican decided to resume negotiations in order to resolve their centuries-old differences. Metropolitan Hilarion (Alfeyev), bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan of Volokolamsk, Vicar of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Chairman of the Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate and permanent member of the Holy Synod, the former Bishop of Vienna and Austria, said that "we are allies and encounter the same problem of aggressive secularism. " (35)
Orthodoxy is called "religion of the majority" in Russian. November 4, the day of the Russian state, I was able to observe an unusual parade on Red Square. The patriarch was in the front row, the leaders of Islam, the Jewish community and Buddhists in the second of what was to be a visible symbol of "Patriarch is the Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church, the largest in Russia. It unites Orthodox believers and promotes cooperation of religious communities. Patriarch is the spiritual leader of all people, not just the Orthodox. " (36)
At present, Russia is in a state of crisis, which first manifested itself not only in the monetary and financial system, but also in the cultural sector. His deep reason lies in the fact that a secular society, being a pluralistic, do not provide people with real feelings and outlook in life.
Russia does not need a "selfish and materialistic culture" of the western society, but the need for a universal national ideology, which includes all aspects of human life, the developing countries and prevent the dangers that threaten the livelihood of the people. (37)
"Revised Version" [reboot] Russian-US relations over the past two years, however, did not change the long-term anti-Russian orientation of U.S. policy, and nothing prevents the CIA to operate in Russia is more active than ever. After Obama's visit to Moscow State Hillary Clinton also stressed that the United States continues to adhere to his idea of the absolute world leader.
Sooner or later Russia will face a choice: to develop a sovereign state, which closes its borders and prevent the erosion of its culture, or surrender and become the province of the West.
1 Basil Liddell Hart, Strategy: The Indirect Approach, 1st ed. 1929, 2nd ed. 1954
2 Christopher Simpson, Science of Coercion: Communication Research and Psychological Warfare, 1945-1960, New York, Oxford UP 1994, p. 4
3 Simpson, Science of Coercion, p. 87
4 A. Ross Johnson, R. Eugene Parta, Cold War Broadcasting: Impact on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Woodrow Wilson International Center, Washington 2010
5 Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War, London 1999, dt. Ausgabe: Wer die Zeche zahlt … Der CIA und die Kultur im Kalten Krieg, Berlin 2001; Simpson, Science of Coercion, p. 68
6 Peter Schweizer, Victory: The Reagan Administration's Secret Strategy That Hastened the Collapse of the Soviet Union, New York 1994
7 SG Kara-Murza, AA Aleksandrov, MA Muraškin, SA Telegin, Revolucii na eksport [Revolutionen für den Export], Moskva, 2006
8 Quoted from: VIJakunin, V.Bagdasarjan, SSSulakšin, Novye technologii bor'by s rossijskoj gosudarstvennost'ju [New Technologies in the Fight against the Russian State], Moskva, 2009, p. 50
9 Joseph Nye, Bound to Lead: the Changing Nature of American Power, Basic Books 1990; Joseph Nye, Transformational Leadership and US Grand Strategy, Foreign Affairs, vol. 85, No. 4, July / August 2006, pp. 139-148
10 Richard Armitage, Joseph S. Nye, A Smarter, More Secure America, CSIS Commission on Smart Power, 2009
11 Peter Schweizer, Victory: The Reagan Administrations's Secret Strategy That Hastened the Collapse of the Soviet Union, New York 1994
12 This can be read in the official Yeltsin biography written by Wladimir Solov'ev and Elena Klepikowa, Boris Yeltsin: A Political Biography, 1992. After having heard Yeltsin in a Congressional committee, David Rockefeller said: "This is our man!"
13 OA Platonov, Rossija pod vlast'ju masonov [Russia in the hands oft he Freemasons], Moskva 2000, S. 35.
14 Platonov, Rossija, p. 3.
15 Platonov, Rossija, p. 15.
16 Jakunin, Novye techologii, S. 81.
17 Jakunin, Novye technologii, S. 90
18 Jakunin, Novye technologii, S. 94f.
19 Jakunin, Novye technologii, S. 92.
20 www.pravda.ru 03/19/2008.
21 Gerlind Schmidt, Russische Föderation, in: Hans Döbert, Wolfgang Hörner, Botho von Kopp, Lutz R. Reuter (ed.), Die Bildungssysteme Europas, Hohengehren 2010 (= Grundlagen der Schulpädagogik, vol. 46, 3rd ed.), P. 619.
22 Schmidt, Russische Föderation, p. 635.
23 Schmidt, Russische Föderation, p. 632.
24 Pierre Hillard, Bertelsmann — un empire des médias et une fondation au service du mondialisme, Paris 2009, p. 27.
25 "1. In the Russian Federation ideological diversity shall be recognized. 2. No ideology may be established as state or obligatory one. "Art. 13 of the constitution of the Russian Federation, December 1993.
26 A. Cernych, Mir sovremennych media [The world of current media], Moskva 2007.
27 Roland Haug, Die Kreml AG, Hohenheim 2007.
28 Schmidt, Russische Föderation, p. 639.
29 Das Feindbild Westen im heutigen Russland, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin 2008.
30 Vladimir Malachov, Sovremennyj russkij nacionalizm [The current Russian nationalism], in: Vitalij Kurennoj, Mysljaškaja Rossija: Kartografija sovremennych intellektual'nych napravlenij [The reflecting Russia: Cartography oft he current intellectual mainstreams], Moskva 2006, p. 141 ff.
31 Interview with Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Der Spiegel No. 30, 23/07/2007; Marc Stegherr, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Kirchliche Umschau, No. 10, October 2008
32 Nikolaj Plotnikov, Russkie intellektualy v Germanii [Russian Intellectuals in Germany], in: Kurennoj, Mysljaškaja Rossija, aaO, p. 328.
33 Westen ohne Werte? Gespräch mit Natalja Alexejewna Narotschnizkaja, Direktorin des russischen Instituts für Demokratie und Zusammenarbeit in Paris, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Nr. 51, 29.02.2008.
34 Jakunin, Novye technologii, p. 196ff.
35 Interview in: Der Spiegel
36 Der Spiegel, Nr. 51, 14/12/2009.
37 Pope Benedict XVI Encyclic «Spe salvi», Rome in 2007, in which he talks about a «dictatorship of relativism»; Jakunin, Novye technologii, p. 174f.
Peter Bachmeier, Austria, 2010.