February 14. From the Atlantic to the Urals experts now count the damage to agriculture from the all-time frosts. The southern regions of Russia this year could lose half the crop of grapes. Under threat — and the collection of winter.
Record cold weather began to bring their "harvest." Experts have begun to count the losses to agriculture. Cold this winter have set their own rules on the huge territory — from the Atlantic to the Urals. In Russia the hardest hit less powerful in the southern regions. Thus, according to experts, farmers, in 2012, the country could lose up to half of the total harvest. In addition, serious damage has been done of stone fruits — apricots, peaches, plums.
Severe frost threatened and harvest of winter crops, including wheat. We tried to assess the extent of frost attack on Agriculture. With a mark of "almost exactly" the serious losses in the agricultural sector, say in six regions of the federation. On the map are marked in dark blue. This Stavropol, Kuban, Kalmykia, Astrakhan and Rostov regions. It is most worrying for the gardens.
Temperatures as low as this year, for the southerners drop infrequently. Separately isolated Dagestan. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic reports that the total cost to the industry — a few billion rubles.
Waiting for March and losses while talking with caution five regions. Among them — the Urals and Tyumen. In these latitudes, plants normally kept and minus 30 and minus 40, but more than a month there was no snow. And by the same winter crops is very important to have a blanket of snow.
Now to the specific figures. Greatest concern now winemaking. "Drink of the Gods" in Russia produced just in the Kuban and Stavropol affected. This zone is also called the "zone of risk of winemaking," which means, year on year is not necessary.
In the Stavropol region frosts destroy the grape harvest about once every 3 years. In the Krasnodar region — once in 10 years. But this winter in the Kuban cold places were the kind that will not remember even winemakers with 25 years of experience.
The loss of industry in the south of Russia could reach 30 to 50% yield. Early tests have shown a 30 percent death of fruit buds in the vineyards. For comparison — in the last season it was also 30%, but in the extreme cold in the Kuban and Stavropol last much longer, so the forecast losses increased to half of the total harvest. In the Krasnodar region — and even higher.
Meanwhile, the winemakers are now not so much worried about the current crop, but about long-term damage. The restoration of the wine farms traditionally takes years. Especially if severe frosts combined with high humidity.
Experts have identified a number of possible consequences of such a cold winter for domestic wine. This could mean, first, the increase in imports of wine. The resulting holes should be patched somehow. It is assumed also that of the manufacturers will have to uncork stocks — bring to market a vintage wine. Well, among the adverse effects — likely increase in the number of counterfeit products.
With the wine and the problems encountered in Dagestan. Such strong and prolonged cold weather service of the republic did not fix already 124 years. In Makhachkala, and 11 regions of the country operates a state of emergency. According to preliminary estimates, killed more than 10,000 hectares of vineyards, about 7,000 acres of gardens, 40,000 hectares of winter crops. Farmers are trying to find a way to save what's left. But for many the damage of frost has threatened the entire business.
In second place on the degree of damage by frost strike — stone. This apricot, peach, plum, cherry plum. Fruit trees related to pome crops such as apples, proved more resilient. And yet, the south expect 10 to 30% loss of flower buds. What impact, of course, and on the crop. The trees themselves, as shown by examination, whole, that is, the loss will not be massive. However, in a given region the situation is worse. In Astrakhan 30-degree frosts destroyed three-quarters of kidney apricots, peaches and plums.
For reference, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, in Russia now — more than 73 thousand dacha. In their use — about 1 million 200 thousand hectares of land. This is comparable to the entire territory of Montenegro.
In the Rostov region fear for the harvest of winter barley and oilseed rape. Confidently talk about how much they have suffered, can only be based on the results of special studies. They start when the temperature on the thermometer will cross zero. A complete picture should become clearer in March. However, after the cold region is actively preparing to fertilize the fields. Already signed an agreement with a major Russian producer to supply 35,000 tonnes of Selkhozkhimia.
But not only Russia counts frost damage. In Europe, too, because of the severe cold frozen ground. And the early harvest of vegetables and fruits — in question. According to the association of wholesale trade of France, some vegetables (such as leeks or lettuce) per week went up on the shelves of one and a half to two times. A Confederation of Italian Farmers loss of national agricultural sector due to the abnormal cold weather was estimated at 150 million euros. In a crisis such spending EU countries, of course, very inappropriate.