Islands in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific takes more than one-third of the entire surface of the globe, and rightly called before the Great. On its vast area there are large volcanic coral islands that rise from the depths of 4 000-6 000 meters.
The most significant of the archipelagoes of the Pacific Ocean are Hawaii. Main group there are eight islands, whose total area is nearly 17,000 square kilometers. All of them are mountainous and have resulted from volcanic activity is taking place in different geological periods.
In the eastern part of the archipelago, and now from time to time can still be seen enormous volcanic eruptions. On the island of Hawaii, the largest, is an extinct volcano Mauna Kea (4214 m above sea level). This is the highest point on the islands of the Pacific.
Due to the differences in age basalt covers the islands were in varying degrees of weathering and erosion. Mountain steeps and chutes then right break to the sea, it left room for a small coastal plains. In the sea along the coast in places stretch coral reefs.
Hawaii lies in the tropical zone. Most of the year blow northeasterly trade winds that bring heavy rainfall and cool. Cool and bring the cool California sea current. Winter — in December and March — the trade winds to move south, and in Hawaii often blow warm southerly and southwesterly winds.
The combined effect of winds and ocean currents leads to the fact that the climate in Hawaii Marine, not so hot, as in most tropical countries, and surprisingly smooth. Since conducted meteorological observations in Honolulu — Hawaii's main city — never been registered temperatures below + 11 ° C and above +32 °.
Differ significantly, the climatic conditions of the northern and eastern (windward) and the southern and western (leeward) side of the island. The first usually get 1500-6000 millimeters of rainfall, the second is 3-6 times less. Windward slopes are covered with a dense network of high-water rapids of rivers and lush tropical forests. On the leeward side of the river a little, and they are often dry. Among the dominant ground cover only here and towering coconut palms, sometimes desolate landscape has character. But with irrigation on the leeward coast and in the interior of the islands are created very favorable conditions for the extensive development of tropical agriculture. Are favorable and fertile soil krasnozemnye formed by pulverized volcanic lavas.
The lack of tropical heat and moderate rainfall, especially on the leeward shores, only make the climate of Hawaii healthy. There are quite unknown tropical diseases such disastrous in equatorial Africa and the Amazon basin.
Picturesque landscapes, lush vegetation of the original, excellent conditions for the development of tropical agriculture — all of this has meant that many travelers called Hawaii "paradise on earth".
(One of the first visit to Hawaii (Sandwich Islands) in 1821 Russian voyage around the globe M. Vasilyeva and GS Shishmareva. Recorded in the journal of the expedition: "The excellent climate Sandwich Islands, We have found in abundance on the add everything you need to refresh the navigator in a short time "(A. Lazarev. Memoirs of military sloop sailing" Well-intentioned "in the Bering Strait and around the world for the discovery in 1819, 1820, 1821 and 1822, respectively. Geografgiz, 1950, page 396)).
But this paradise invaded capitalism, and he brought untold suffering to the local population.
Hawaii before colonization
Until the last quarter of the XVIII century, the population of Hawaii led relatively isolated existence. Hawaiians, or Kanak — Polynesian people — athletic build, with bronze skin color and jet-black, hair. Before the advent of the colonialists among Hawaiians dominated by the feudal system. The farm had an almost natural character. Circulation of money was not there. The main occupation of the population were farming and fishing, and in that and other Hawaiians have made great art.
The Hawaiian Islands are located crowded: with the exception of Kauai Strait (between the islands of Oahu and Kauai) with a width of up to 100 kilometers, in all other straits from one island to another is seen, is nearby. Hawaiians-skilled sailors. They set up a court of original design — canoe — and boldly went to them, not only within the archipelago, but also have made long trips to the other islands of Polynesia.
By creating a network of artificial irrigation, Hawaiians have made significant development of agriculture, although primitive in nature used for tillage implements. It meets the basic needs of the population. To power the Hawaiians used primarily rich in starch taro (taro), and breadfruit, sweet potatoes, coconuts. Animals, except swine, Hawaiians have not.
Hawaiian life in many ways not like the life of European and Asian nations. The Hawaiians were not aware of iron, had no written language. But at the same time, in many areas of culture they have achieved considerable results. It was a physically healthy, morally-strong, resilient and talented people. "This nation has the extraordinary ability" — said the famous Russian explorer VM Golovin, who visited Hawaii in 1818.
Politically, the archipelago was not united. It had several small feudal states. Only after the colonizers strongest lord Kamehameha, who received from the Europeans and the Americans weapons failed in 1810 to unite under his rule all the islands and become their king.
"The opening of" Hawaii "
In the XVI century, came to Hawaii individual ships of Spanish explorers who sailed the Pacific Ocean. The Spaniards at the time everywhere looking for gold and silver, but then they were not, and Hawaii Spaniards were not interested. Soon these random visits to the islands altogether forgotten.
In 1778, Hawaii again "discovered" the English navigator James Cook and named them after the English naval minister Lord Sandwich — Sandwich Islands. But Hawaiians refused to recognize it imposed on their land title. In the end, the bourgeois and geographers were forced to recognize the local name — Hawaii.
James Cook discovered Hawaii, when sailed north to the Bering Strait in search of a northwest passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Swimming was unsuccessful, and Cook returned to Hawaii. Here he was killed by the natives.
At the end of XVIII century, vigorously develop the Pacific trade. Following Cook to the Hawaiian shores are often pester European and American ships. Major British colonial interests lay far from Hawaii. Therefore, the British did not show a great activity for learning islands. islands. But Hawaii is very interested in American business men, while ESTABLISH its trading operations in the Pacific.
Since 1784 began the fur trade between the U.S. and China. In this trade Hawaii used as an interim maritime station. Here, the crew of the American ship to stock up with fresh water, resting after a hard hunting for fur animals and swimming in cold northern waters. Their parking commemorates drinking, violence against the natives robbery.
At the first visit to Hawaii American businessmen have noticed that the slopes are covered with thickets of sandalwood incense wood is highly prized in China. The colonizers began ruthlessly destroy valuable forests, no regard for the interests of the local population. By the end of the 20-ies of the XIX century, sandalwood forests in Hawaii is almost gone.
But by this time the Hawaiian Islands once again attracted the attention of capitalists. In the northern part of the Pacific Ocean began to develop large-scale commercial whaling. Hawaii became his base. Visit the island of American writer Mark Twain wrote that in 1853 there were produced 4,000,000 gallons of whale oil and 2 million pounds of whalebone. But since 1854, began the decline of whaling. He was due to a sharp decrease of whale stocks as a result of predation, as well as the displacement of whale oil (such as lighting material) kerosene.
Later, at the behest of Hawaii's economy is the American colonists again changing its face: it begins the development of sugar cane and pineapples.
Hawaii captured Americans
Since the end of the XVIII century in the Bay Hawaii came the ships of many countries. In particular, they visited Hawaii remarkable Russian sailors, IF Krusenstern, Yu Lisyansky, VM Golovin, OE Kotzebue and others. Russian merchants in exchange for salt, sugar, molasses and coffee brought to Hawaii (from Alaska) Sitka pine.
But in the 20's of last century in Hawaii had the first batch of U.S. missionaries. Under the guise of Christianity, they began to seize their hands on the best land, trade and the economy in general islands and ruthlessly exploit the local population. From the ranks of American missionaries left many dealers whose descendants now dispose of all economic and political life in Hawaii.
The U.S. government has from the outset been actively supporting American businessmen. Already in 1820, U.S. President appointed permanent representative to Hawaii "for commerce and navigation." Since 1825, the U.S. government has annually send warships to Hawaii to "protect American interests". In 1826, the American captain Gunnery Keytsbi John's Hawaii government has imposed the first unequal treaty.
Opening in 1848, the California gold and the subsequent settlement of the Pacific coast of the United States have reinforced interest in the American aggressors to Hawaii. The power of Hawaiian kings became more elusive as they were forced to obey the dictates of American businessmen and the military. But this situation does not suit the American capitalists.
In 1893, U.S. residents in Hawaii staged "rebellion" against the royal power, immediately supported by paratroopers from the American warships. With the help of American bayonets Hawaiian queen was forced to abdicate and declared the country a republic. President was one of the descendants of American missionaries, later "Pineapple King" Dole. The first step of the new "national" government has been sending delegations to the United States with a request to "join" the islands.
The turning point was 1898, when the United States declared war on Spain in order to capture its colonies. In the same 1898 Hawaii officially been declared possession of the United States. Once upon a free and independent country has become an American colony.
The destruction of the Hawaiian people
Infectious diseases introduced by Europeans and Americans on the island, violence and brutality of the colonialists led to the extinction of the local population.
James Cook identified the population of Hawaii at about 400,000 people. In 1832, the first census of the population in Hawaii has taken into account all only 130,000 inhabitants. By 1866 the number of indigenous population of the islands was reduced to 63 thousand. According to the last census in 1940, Hawaii had only 14,000 pure Hawaiians and 50,000 persons with a mixed population.
In fact, the Hawaiian people is almost completely destroyed. Among his few remnants of the process of extinction continues. For example, in 1946 at 1,000 Hawaiians accounted for only 18 births and 32 deaths. This is the basic rule of the results of American colonizers in Hawaii.
Along with the physical extermination of the Hawaiian people are the remnants of his violent Americanization. The schools are taught exclusively in English.
The church, the army, sports and other social organizations are primarily targets the "Americanization" of the population. An original and very interesting culture of Hawaiian people, their language, literature, music disappear. The U.S. imperialists are doing everything possible to make all the people of Hawaii in standardized Americans.
Indigenous people of Hawaii as a result of the American colonists quickly died out. Meanwhile, since the middle of the XIX century sugar plantation needed in the workforce. Planters have decided to import cheap labor from abroad. In 1853, Hawaii was brought to the first batch of Chinese coolies. Until 1866, there were already delivered more than 30,000 here. These were not wage earners, and the original slaves who bought their parents and relatives and forcibly transported to the islands. On the plantations we have created a back-breaking mode. Since the late 70's in Hawaii began bringing the Portuguese from Madeira and the Azores, then the Japanese, Koreans, Puerto Ricans, Filipinos.
In 1948, in Hawaii, there were 176,000 Japanese, 54,000 Filipinos, more than 30,000 Chinese, 7,000 Koreans. In recent years, increased by the arrival of people from Hawaii and the United States. This is due to military construction. The total population of the islands in 1948 was 540 thousand.
Hawaii — Plantation USA
Bringing many tens of thousands of cheap workers from different countries contributed to the rapid development of the plantation economy in Hawaii. From the middle of the XIX century, one after the other appear sugarcane plantations. Under constant heat with sufficient watering cane stalks in a single season reaching a height of several meters. They then break out of them and boil the sugar. Hawaii now account for about 3 percent of the world collection of sugarcane. Almost all sugar produced here is exported in the form of raw sugar in the United States and already there is refined. For the needs of the Hawaiian population refined partly imported from California. Sugar plantations and mills owned by 30 companies whose shares are in the hands of Hawaiian-Californian nobility. These companies are closely linked with the powerful monopolistic associations in the metropolis, in the first instance with the California companies.
Since 1901, developing countries and other plantation crops — pineapples. This is a small plant, its fruit weighs 3 to 4 pounds. It has a delicate sweet-sour taste and pleasant smell. Manufacture of canned pineapples and squeeze out the juice. Canned juice and also exported to the United States. At a cost of production, this relatively young branch of Hawaii's economy has caught up with the sugar industry. The concentration of capital expressed here even more sharply: All Pineapple plantations and canneries owns 13 powerful companies.
Sugar cane and pineapples occupy 96 percent of the total cultivated area. Some value has more coffee. As for food crops and livestock serving the needs of the local population, they now play a negligible role, since these sectors are assigned remote, poor land. Sugar and Pineapple "kings" captured not only all the best land, but all the water needed for irrigation. Almost all of the food for the people of Hawaii are imported from the United States. In addition, canned pineapple and sugar mills in Hawaii there is no other industry. All manufactured products are imported from the United States, too.
The prices of consumer goods are extremely high. It condemns the majority of the population in poverty and at the same time enriching the monopolies that are interested in the economic backwardness of Hawaii and in supplying them with all the necessary from the ocean. American businessmen are cashing in not only on the export of Hawaiian sugar and pineapple, but also in the supply of commodities at inflated prices.
In order to expand the sugar and pineapple plantations, American capital has made strangling all other branches of the Hawaiian economy (food crops, livestock, industry). But he was unable to achieve sustained growth and plantation crops. Corrupting influence of the general crisis of capitalism and the impact on the industry sector of Hawaii. Sugar production, which stood at an average of the years 1930-1934 945,000 tons, to 1940-1944 years decreased to 798,000 tons, and in 1945 — 1948 was only 765,000 tons. In the band entered a protracted crisis and pineapple farm. Such are the fruits of the American rule of the capital in the islands have such wonderful natural environment!
U.S. military in Hawaii
Hawaii occupy an important strategic position in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, halfway between the U.S. and the Far East. Therefore, not only businessmen but also members of the U.S. military are showing great interest in Hawaii. In an effort to dominate the Pacific, the U.S. aggressors are trying to use military bases in Hawaii, as one of the instruments of their adventurist plans.
Hawaii is not rich in good, wind-sheltered bays. Bay is the best Pearl Harbor (Pearl Harbor) on the southern shore of the island of Oahu near the capital city of Hawaii Honolulu. It is a vast, extensive bay, connected to the ocean by a narrow strait. Already in the 80's of last century, Americans have demanded that the government provide them with bay Hawaii Pearl Harbor to build it a naval base and made to sign the agreement. In 1906, around Pearl Harbor and Honolulu have launched the construction of fortifications. Use of the bay prevented the existence of exiting the bar and shallow coral reef (depth over the bar does not exceed 3 meters). In the years 1910-1911 through the bar and the coral reef was dug to a depth of 20-25 meters of channel length of 8 km and a width of 45-55 meters. Bay became available for the largest ocean-going ships. On the banks of its built docks for ship repair, fuel depots and ammunition.
In 1934, the United States flew to Hawaii for the first time a detachment of American bombers. Hawaii are not only the naval, but the military air base of U.S. imperialism.
Huge funds were allocated from the state budget of the United States to establish a military base in the Bay of Pearl Harbor. December 7, 1941 Japanese air force and navy made a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, which was then a significant part of the U.S. Navy. The Japanese managed to sink and cause serious damage to several American battleships and other large ships and destroyed 260 aircraft on the ground, while losing only 29 of their aircraft and six submarines (including 5 "babies" with a crew of two people). U.S. forces lost only killed 182 officers and 2,795 soldiers. The U.S. Navy was permanently weakened.
The success of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was due to complete the suddenness of the attack, a well-organized intelligence (Japanese do not only have a detailed plan for a military base, but also knew the parking lot every American ship, the opening hours of networking to skip to the bay of American ships, etc.), poor organization of the defense by the Americans, showed that the investigation carried out subsequently.
After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii military construction increased, the more that has brought huge profits to the monopolies. It continued on a large scale in Hawaii and after entry into the war the Soviet Union resulted in the complete defeat and unconditional surrender of Japan. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent and now (at the expense of the American taxpayer), but the construction and maintenance of U.S. military bases in Hawaii. tions in Hawaii is nearly 100,000 people. Maintenance of military bases and the vast number of military personnel has laid down a heavy burden on the population and the economy of Hawaii. One of the causes of the crisis of plantation forestry is that the Hawaiian businessmen prefer it to develop a more "lucrative job" to the war (construction of military facilities and the military service). Rabid training by U.S. imperialism of World War threw a shadow over the entire life of Hawaii.
The struggle of the masses of Hawaii
Most of the population of Hawaii are plantation and urban workers and small impoverished peasantry. Their standard of living stunningly low.
The multinational composition of the proletariat and the powerless position of indentured workers hampered the development of the labor movement in the islands.
However, in 1909 there was the first big strike of plantation workers. 7000 Japanese workers went on strike, demanding the same pay, which was at the Portuguese workers. Lack of unity with the workers of other nationalities led to the defeat of the strikers. In 1920 and 1924 there were mass strikes of workers of various nationalities.
On the workers' struggle for their existence businessmen and the U.S. administration responded to the cruelest terror among the people of Hawaii caused the fierce hatred of the American conquerors.
This situation alarmed the leaders of the American monopoly capital, when the Japanese attacked Hawaii. Alarm indicator is a book by American journalist Mc Donald's "Indignation in paradise. Social Revolution in Hawaii after Pearl Harbor ", published in the U.S. in 1944.
This bourgeois journalist was forced to admit in his book that the people of Hawaii lived "in chains" under the yoke "Devils without a conscience," "a handful of people, the word which until now has been all-powerful in Hawaii."
In the century and a half in the United States within the political boundaries developed system of unrestrained exploitation of colonial peoples.
McDonald tried to convince his readers that such a situation existed only in Hawaii until 1941. But the facts show that the situation in Hawaii, and if changed, only for the worse.
Becomes more and more difficult conditions of the masses. More vigorously they are fighting for their freedom and peace.
Already in 1946, a year after the war broke out strike of workers in the plantations, which lasted 79 days. Most of the sugar mills are not working. In 1949, five months on strike two thousand longshoremen, members of one union port workers the Pacific coast of the United States. Led the strike, ended in victory for the workers, known labor leader Harry Bridges, USA, has recently thrown in jail by agents of the U.S. monopolies.
Hawaii — the oldest colony of the United States. In fact, a half-century on the island hosts the U.S. capital. Here particularly clear what constitutes the proverbial "American way of life" that the U.S. imperialists, rattling the atomic bomb, now trying to spread to the whole world.
Professor L. Ziman