"Co-operation: the agreement with Hitler in Hollywood", a book of Australian istorikaBena Urvanda working at Harvard, will hit bookstores in November, but now it has become one of the most talked about in the United States and Europe. The author argues that the ten-year work in the American and German archives has allowed him to find previously unknown documents showing numerous instances of cooperation with major Hollywood studios government of Hitler in the thirties of the last century.
"I did not invent the word" cooperation ", — said Ben Urvand told the London newspaper Guardian. — I took it out of the documents stored in the archives. Moreover, in German and in U.S.. The word is regularly used to describe the relationship between Hollywood and Germany. "
"Roman" between Hollywood and fascism began in 1930, three years before Hitler came to power. The Nazis have prepared a hearty welcome filmuLyuisa Milestone "on the Western Front." On the orders of Joseph Goebbels Brownshirts blasted in cinemas showing films shot on the novel by Remarque, with fetid gas bombs and released white mice. Faced with such a reception, director of the film studio Universal Pictures Carl Laemmli, incidentally, himself a Jew, born in Germany, has agreed to remove a scene allegedly insulting the national dignity of the Germans.
Already by 1932, under pressure from the Nazis were preparing to seize power in Germany, a law was passed. He let revoke a license to operate in the country Motion Picture showing pictures that damages the image of Germany. Moreover, it was about the show, not only in Germany, but all over the world.
Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were not the only leaders who understood the importance of the movie. Adolf Hitler was also a fan of cinema. The leader of the Third Reich love movies with strong characters. The list of his favorite paintings were listed Hollywood film "Lives of a Bengal Lancer" (1935) with Gary Cooper in the title role, and "Queen Christina" (1933) with Greta Garbo. Movie showing democracy in a positive light, the Fuehrer did not like. Tarzan he considered an idiot, and Charlie Chaplin for a parody of himself in the "dictator" hated.
The top of the Third Reich was well aware of the importance of cinema in the propaganda war and pursued a very aggressive policy in the field of cinema. Hollywood bosses believed the German market is too important to lose it because of such, in their opinion, the little things, like the ideological nuances. Thus began a love affair between dreamland and Nazi Germany.
Of course, the United States did not sign the Treaty of Versailles and promised to prevent the revival of militarism in Germany. Quite a few of the largest U.S. companies: IBM, General Motors, DuPont and others collaborated with the Germans and helped them rebuild the military industry, the destruction of which a few years later had to give life to American soldiers. Hollywood also made a modest contribution to the restoration of the Third Reich's military power. The world's largest film studio in the thirties MGM, says Ben Urvand, referring to the documents found in the archives, bought special German bonds, the money from which went to the conversion of military plants and factories in the Sudetenland.
Urvanda Critics say that Louis B. Mayer, director of MGM, trying in this way to circumvent the strict foreign exchange laws then existing in Germany. However Urvand does not claim that the directors of Hollywood studios, among them many Jews from Europe were convinced Nazis. Just for the sake of gain, they were willing to cooperate with the regime, set a goal to exterminate the Jews.
In the desire to keep the German market kinobossy Hollywood were ready for anything. Urvand describes in detail the many cases where the Director movie studios cut scenes from the movies, did not suit the demanding German censors. For example, one of the brothers Warner personally ordered to remove the word "Jew" of all the dialogues the film "The Life of Emile Zola" (1937). Warner Bros., By the way, was the first Hollywood studio, inviting German officers to his Los Angeles-view films and on-site offer bills.
Berlin even introduced a special post of consul, who was responsible for Hollywood. George Gissling looking through a lot of movies, and recommendation on their content and even arranged with Hollywood bosses something like debates and discussions. Moreover, had the last word with him. He not only asked to make notes, but also demanded to stop shooting some pictures. If the movie "Mad Dog of Europe" refused the request Gisslinga before the shooting, the shooting, "It Can not Happen", the film adaptation of the novel by Sinclair Lewis, was stopped in the middle on the order of the director MGM. Meyer ordered to stop shooting after he was called out of control and censorship hinted that the film may cause a backlash in some countries.
On the intervention of the Germans in the production process at the Factory of Dreams American press wrote back in those years. That there is even an article in Newsweek in 1937 under the title "The long arm of Hitler reached out to Hollywood studios."
In his revelatory book, Ben leads Urvand letter found them in a German archive, and dates back to January 1938. It Director of the German branch of 20th Century Fox Studios Adolf Hitler asked to share their impressions and ideas about American movies. The letter was signed "Heil Hitler!"
MGM, Paramount and 20th-Century Fox collaborated with the Third Reich to the last. They left Germany in the summer of 1940. But even after the United States entered the war against Germany and Hollywood began to take anti-fascist films kinobossy possibly tried as little as possible to mention the Jews.