Dear readers! During the lifting of the country from the knees of giants warn about "sdelanounas" and about the opening of new facilities. But realistically, it's pretty much still remains PR. In the former company towns in which to pump the alleged "return production" actually employ a couple dozen veterans — and all. The rest as they lived in complete despair, and live. Meanwhile, the brain drain is gaining momentum — millions of compatriots, mostly young professionals, depart from the country abroad.
It's … I'm not about Russia. This is about my dollars. In the United States, according to "Los Angeles Times," Obama's re-industrialization is faced with great difficulties.
Thing here is that not only we had a collapse of the industry in the 90's. America was going through its own collapse of the industry. It is, however, different from ours by birth: we have — sawed legacy of a global power, simultaneously stifling production, which were useful for global power, but did not need a young democracy with no complaints. In America, the collapse of the production was from prosperity.
Well, you remember that what is good for business — it's good for America. Good for business to cut costs, so the plants are moved to the hot banana country to cheap banana workers hands. A left without conveyors, presses, wrenches local refocused — on a building boom, to work with the computer, the service sector and so on. All this at the turn of the '90s and even zero-called "post-industrial economy." The concept was roughly as follows:
1) Smart Americans will sit down with a cup of coffee and do on the computer model trains, spaceships and sneakers;
2) Sweaty banana nation — the whole thing will be riveting, cast and sew in reality;
3) Most of the money will accrue, of course, those with a mouse, and not to those who plow — because of its technology and also their capitals;
4) Smart Americans will share the wealth with the Americans simpler, who no education, no talent: they will provide services to each other, look out for each other in the common areas and sell to each other at home, and arrange insurance at all — to lead a merry life without a well-fed worries and intelligent superhuman.
As a result of this prosperity is the number of Americans employed in manufacturing has fallen for 20 years by 36%, or 6.3 million people. A number of Americans come in large numbers and receiving "tower" in the field of "science, technology, engineering and mathematics" — rose from 2000 to third. Although among the graduates-techie abnormally large immigrant (an average of one-third, and in some industries, and the majority).
But when the crisis broke out, and was declared a campaign for the return of production in the United States — for the years of hard work managed to recover only about 500 thousand jobs.
Why so few? Here are two examples that explain much. First. The largest supermarket chain Wal-Mart in order to support the domestic U.S. manufacturer announced the replacement of any Chinese goods in the U.S. — in the amount of 50 billion dollars annually. In particular, the last manufacturer of textile in no time, "the textile towns" Griffin, GA — now charged with making towels for 600 stores.
Can you imagine how much this job — do Towelie for 600 giant malls across the country? No, no idea. Because of this joyful event at the Griffin increased, note 35 (thirty-five) jobs.
Why so few? Because, as the newspaper notes, "production since 1990 has dramatically changed." Mega-coil, which was once an industrial yarn wound around a hundred people — now turns, winding all that is needed, the robot. He also sews and it is dry. Veterans of the textile industries, is now earning a one-time random underworking — grieve and precipitated office, hoping to be among the lucky ones.
The second example, speaking more. The giant company «Lenovo» also decided to produce computers at home, in walking distance of the shops in North Carolina. The move gave the giant work already 115 people, among them — 15 engineers. At the same time, however — the company also decided to expand its research centers. A research centers of the company are now in China and Japan. How, by the way, and the main production.
That is, in fact, the main crux of the matter. In the high-tech companies, especially in America, which bought IBM's business computers for years of "post-industrialization" of America has shifted not only primary production, but also the main brains.
Let us return to the concept: how we remember, the collapse of American industry was held under the slogan "the U.S. would sit people with computers, and plants will be on all kinds of smoke China and Korea."
Well: in practice it turned out that the departure of the actual production abroad makes crawl there, close to him, and brains, and quality education. Research centers can certainly do in Silicon Valley, and production in Asia — but soon it somehow turns out that most professionals will be interested in the same place where the factory is buzzing. And within these countries grow their own research and engineering centers and frames. That sooner or later overtake the level cadres of the metropolis.
A total of a little predictable. The United States has recently become, in their own data, the victim of brain drain. How to complain about American patriots, today, 6.3 million U.S. citizens working abroad. The number of young Americans who want to leave the country in general has increased over 2 years from 1% to 5.1% wishing to work abroad for young — 40%. By the way, in other post-industrial power, the United Kingdom, still sadder: for 10 years there left 3.5 million people, two-thirds — qualified in age from 22 to 44 years.
But that's not all. It turns out that the children of immigrants educated in the U.S., are increasingly seeking to their historical homeland — in China, India, and more recently in Brazil and Russia.
All these problems are our American opponents, by the way, has already begun to address. And at the very least — certainly in the next decade to cope.
… What all this adds up to you and me?
The fact that any country — if it wants to survive in a constantly changing and competitive world — is obliged to provide its comprehensive competitiveness. And this competitiveness it can achieve the one and only way — constantly raising the intellectual and labor potential of the personnel, ie citizens. All possible.
And none of the options in a series of "smart people will come up with, hardworking Morlocks stitching, and a fun crowd of hangers-joking" — in reality a long time do not work. Cream formed only where there is milk.
Increase the overall capacity of a citizen is only one way: constantly confronting them with the systemic problems that force to develop.
So — in the case of our country — the need for a so-called "Import substitution" and the other re-industrialization caused not only by poverty to achieve GDP growth of six per cent per year.
It is caused by the fact that the degradation of personnel — from harm or from being, it does not matter — leads to the same tragic consequences.
And … the post-industrial era fursenkovskoy nonsense about "the ability to skillfully use the fact that coming up with others" as a guarantee of the success of the country — it's time to file.
By the way, the most popular in modern Russian specialists — engineers. And there is a surge in the country entering the engineering profession in college. However, all sorts of managers and financiers still more — but their numbers began to decline. About it — in another time.