Igor Pykhalov: State of the tubes

Finnish peasants, 1870-1880

What kind of a country in which "all the Russian foreign to, of all things Russian are hostile? It is enough to be Russian to continually meet oppression, falsehood and malice, if not the entire population, then the entire intelligentsia, without exception. " In this country, "Russian, like foreigners, deprived of political rights, because they can not elect members of a diet, do not participate in it. Russian denied access to military, civil and spiritual service. Russian living in the province, are taxed for the benefit of the community, but still denied the right to vote in the urban and rural community gatherings. " In this country, Russian children have opportunities to learn their mother tongue. Finally, in this country solemnly opened monuments glorifying the victory of local armed groups over the Russian troops.

The modern reader may think I'm describing one of today's small but proud Baltic "states". No, it's the Grand Duchy of Finland, part of the Russian Empire. And the quotes are taken from the works of P.I.Messarosha respectively (Finland — Russian state or suburb? St. Petersburg., 1897. C.2) and MM Borodkina (A Short History of Finland. St. Petersburg., 1911. P.161), published long before the birth and destruction of the USSR.

In the "prison of nations"

It is known that Alexander I of Russia left a legacy of two misunderstandings in the form of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Finland. Poles thanked the two uprisings (1830-1831 and in 1863-1864.) And as a result lost its special status. In contrast to the arrogant nobility, slow and prudent Finns from time to time were quiet. Therefore, they have not only preserved the old privileges, but also gained a lot of new concessions. "The Reign of Emperor Alexander II was a true celebration of the separatist movement in Finland. Restrained firm hand of Emperor Nicholas I, but not destroyed it, it almost from the first days of the new reign loudly announced its existence "(PI Messarosh Ibid. P.25).

Referring to the large deficit in trade with the Grand Duchy of Russia, Finnish officials have managed to push through a new draft trade provisions providing for the establishment of Finland's own customs and the customs guards. December 20, 1858 (1 January 1859), this provision was approved by Alexander II.

The customs border between Finland and the rest of the Russian Empire had existed before. But before that Customs acted only on the Russian side. Moreover, in 1853, Nicholas I decided on the complete elimination of customs at the Finnish border. Unfortunately, due to the outbreak of the Crimean War, this command was not executed. The new emperor acted as the exact opposite. "No one, and it never occurred to think about the political significance of this, apparently unimportant measures — sarcastically wrote to one of his contemporaries — and the existence of Tsar Nicholas I, probably, no one suspected" (MM Borodkin History of Finland . time of Emperor Alexander II. St. Petersburg., 1908. p.48).

The new trading position increased list of products eligible for duty-free import of the Grand Duchy of the Empire, and significantly expanded the limits for Finnish factory goods, duty-free import of which was permitted only in limited quantities. As for imports from Russia to Finland, there is, on the contrary, were set limitations. Thus, the duties were levied grape wine, sugar, molasses, salt, tobacco leaf. The fees were introduced and a number of foreign goods imported from the Empire of the Grand Duchy.

But much more important was the political consequences. New trade and tariff situation actually turned Finland from the Russian province in the likeness of an independent state. Not surprisingly, the grateful Finnish Senate 19 (31) January 1859 Alexander II brought a special loyalty address.

Soon followed by a new royal favor. Manifesto of March 23 (April 4) in 1860 in Finland has been introduced its own currency: the brand. Top ads from November 28 (December 10) 1862 enacted all taxes, duties and other taxes to the treasury, and all amounts borrowed letters and receipts, contracts, etc. from 1 July 1863 to calculate and display a stamp at the rate of a penny (Collection of the Grand Duchy of Finland. 1862. № 21. C.1-2).

Some time later, in 1877, were put into circulation coins of gold in the 10 and 20 marks. Thus, according to the king's folly Finland got another attribute of statehood.


As a part of the Kingdom of Sweden, Finland had neither administrative nor even cultural autonomy. The official language was Swedish. It's the language spoken nobility and the whole educated stratum of society, it conducted training, printed book. Finland was considered as the language of the common people.

After the accession of Finland to the Russian Empire, this situation continues to persist. With the connivance of Russian monarchs remained the official language Swedish, and all the administrative posts in the Grand Duchy, with the exception of the Governor-General, occupied the local natives.

However, due to the gained autonomous status among intellectuals Finnish national movement began. At the root of it was Elias Lenrot, gathered and published by the Finnish epic "Kalevala". In the early 1830s Lenrot founded the "Finnish Literary Society." Supporters of this movement are called "finnomanov." Their creed formulated assistant professor of the University of Helsingfors Adolf Ivar Arvidsson: "We are not Swedish, Russian, we do not want to be, but because we Finns" (MM Borodkin Finnish history. Time of Emperor Alexander II. S.410). A recognized leader finnomanov soon became Johann Wilhelm Snellman, a former director of the school. In 1846, to promote the ideas of the Finnish national revival Snellman with Lenrotom begin to publish the magazine «Litteraturbladet» («The literary piece").

It should be said that the then Finnish represented the raw set of dialects. Literary Finnish at that time simply did not exist. The language of educated people was Swedish. Therefore, the same Snellman wrote his article in Swedish. In Swedish and wrote his most famous verses of the then Finnish poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg, one of the leaders finnomanskogo movement, made famous as the author of the collection of poems "The stories Ensign table." In most of these poems were sung victory over Russian Finns during the war of 1808-1809. Later, this book will be a table in every Finnish family. Moreover, each newly arrived Finnish patriots also spoke Swedish — until the 1850 debate in the "Finnish Literary Society 'were conducted in Swedish.

However, a significant part of the population of the Grand Duchy were ethnic Swedes, who have the idea of "the Finnish national revival" was completely alien. Moreover, in that they saw as an attack on their privileged position. As a result, soon formed a Swedish national movement, the so-called "shvedomany." Their main purpose was to maintain dominant positions Swedish-speaking elite.

The two competing nationalist groups were hostile to Russia and Russian. However, for a long time, their activities do not go beyond the "moderate progress in the rule of law", coming down to the timid attempts to sabotage the royal administration to reconcile Finland with the rest of the Empire.

But the strategic objectives of both groups were significantly different. Shvedomany dreamed of returning Finnish part of Sweden, while finnomany expected in the future to create an independent state in which the Finns have become the dominant nation. There were more mundane, short-term interests, in the form of distribution of ranks and positions.

Originally shvedomany had a significant advantage over their opponents, as their hands were local authorities, including the Senate. And they did not hesitate to use "administrative resources." In Soviet times, the Finnish language discrimination explained the machinations of autocracy: "Funky Polish liberation uprising of 1830-31, the revolution of 1848-49 in several European countries and sympathetic attitude towards them best Finnish intelligentsia, the tsarist government embarked on the road of open political reaction … 1850 decree forbade the printing of the book on Finnish (except religious and agricultural) "(Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 2nd edition. v.45. M., 1956. p.183). In fact, the tsarist government in this case is completely irrelevant. The ruling, by virtue of which the Finnish language was permitted to print only the books of a religious nature and agriculture was adopted precisely the Finnish Senate.

Treatment of syphilis CHOLERA

The Crimean War of 1853-1856 was a severe test for the Russian Empire. Launched as the war against Turkey, she suddenly turned to Nicholas I in another war of a united Europe against Russia. On the Turkish side were England, France and Sardinia joined them. To be ready to join the coalition and other European powers, including the throes of revanchist sentiments Sweden. The old King Oscar acted prudently, but his successor, Crown Prince Carl openly eager to fight. Addressing the troops at one of the parades, the hot Swedish guy said bluntly: "Brothers! I think we need to send to hell the whole neutrality! "(MM Borodkin Finnish history. Time of Emperor Alexander II. P.95).

Similar sentiments are actively fueled barricaded in Stockholm Finnish emigrants. This company is vying assured the Swedish authorities, though Finland is ready to revolt against Russian oppression, and to publish and send it back to the Grand Duchy of propaganda pamphlet "The Finnish case." Organized the whole process of the then leader of the Finnish dissidents, who bore the true Finnish name Emil von Kwanten. In the summer of 1856 he appealed to the Russian authorities to allow him to leave for permanent residence in Sweden. By making this submission, the Governor General of Finland Count F.F.Berg wrote: "Since Mr. von Kwanten, during his stay in Sweden, expressed his political writings are different for the existing order in his homeland hazardous, then I For my part, I think it would leave the petition unattended. " Alexander II decided differently, imposing a resolution "is permitted, for one villain will be less than in Finland" (Ibid. P.95).

What could the Russian authorities to counter this? It is clear that the official slogans, such as "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality" is not working. And here to help the king's lieutenants, suddenly came Snellman. On the pages of his "Literary Newssheet" he began to struggle with entrenched in Stockholm emigrants. Sharply condemning their actions, he refused to see them as representatives of the Finnish interests because of their origin they mostly belonged to the Swedes.

In doing so, Snellman followed the commandments of privat-docent Arvidsson made by him in 1839: "If the Finns want to ever come out as an independent nation, they must first be separated from the mother land, ie Sweden, with which they are too closely associated with love and thoughts to be able to think in his own way "(Ibid. P.406).

Delighted by this support, the Governor-General Berg, in turn, began to patronize finnomanam. In January 1856, despite the displeasure of Swedish-speaking officials, Snellman was promoted to professor of philosophy Helsingfors University.

When, in March 1856, Alexander II visited Helsingforce Berg gave him a note in which he proposed a series of measures to improve the rights of the Finnish language: allocate an amount for the maintenance of the counties and parishes of translators for the translation of government regulations on the Finnish language, as well as to establish, at the expense of the treasury Finnish newspaper. 11 (23), the emperor approved the proposals.

In May 1857 at the graduation celebration at the University of Helsingfors, a delegation of Swedish teachers from Uppsala University. At the farewell dinner 18 (30) of May, the young scientist Adolf Nordenskiöld proposed a toast to the future of Finland: "Why should we, the Finns do not afford to dream about the future? In our lives … the consciousness of our rights to freedom and bonds, which for 50 years had been torn off, once again began to tie, and thus, to the struggle that conduct with the dark forces, we do not stand alone on the battlefield "(Ibid. p.93). Again, Snellman, in his "Literary Newssheet" condemned the trick Nordenshelda, calling it an expression of speech cheap liberalism.

In response, the grace in 1858 was followed by an order to lead the parish records in the Finnish language in those parishes where worship was conducted in the same language. Then Helsingfors University has received permission to use the Finnish language on academic debates.

Since 1860 the collection of the Grand Duchy of Finland, which was previously published in Swedish and Russian languages, and also began to be published in Finnish. At the beginning of that year, the Governor-General requested permit to print textbooks in Finnish and January 26 (February 7), in 1860 it received royal permission. Thanks to his assistance, "the Finnish Literary Society" has been able to publish in Finnish General Code of 1734.

As we can see, fruitful cooperation and Snellman Berg continued. The policy of treatment of syphilis Finnish Swedish cholera gaining momentum. In this case, the Governor-General arrogantly believed that he has the situation under control. Thus, in a letter to the Minister of State Secretary for Finland column Armfelt from April 14, 1856 Berg, expressing his complete satisfaction at the strong criticism expressed by Snellman at Swedish correspondence and newspaper articles about Finland, said the following:

"As for the future of that which predicts the Finnish people, the Snellman, then saying between us, I believe in his ill-fulfilling prophecy. It seems to me that this tribe is not intended to play a role among the civilized nations of Europe. But it should serve as a means for us to complete liberation from the influence of Finland, Sweden. And to this, we must first of all strive for. Finnish people should give a good religious and moral education and agricultural education, after that you can patronize his popular poetry, and in general should find out the Finns that our management is better and more profitable Swedish. As for the other finnomanskih dreams that go beyond the scope inscribed by me here, all this impresses me bubbles "(ibid. P.65-66).

Mikhail Alexandrovich NOVODVORSKAYA

Meanwhile, on the horizon, the clouds gathered again. The air smelled another march united Europe against Russia. Having ascended to the throne, Alexander II abolished the special military police headquarters, which existed in Poland after the rebellion in 1831, granted amnesty to political offenders, and many Poles benefits. As expected, the arrogant nobles saw this as a sign of weakness. Riots erupted in January 1863 broke out into open revolt.

Once it became clear that despite the efforts of the pro-Western liberal propaganda for decades lepivshey romantic image of the Polish "freedom fighters", Russian society is not sufficiently imbued with human values. Prevailing mood in it boiled down to the statement: "Our right to the Kingdom of Poland is strong right: it bought Russian blood" (Borodkin MM Brief History of Finland. St. Petersburg., 1911. P.150).

Of course, immediately went hysterical howling of the "progressive community." "All Russian patriotism swept syphilis" — lamented Alexander Herzen (Kersnovsky AA History of the Russian army in 4 volumes. V.2. M., 1999. P200). Herzen was echoed by another immigrant, known revolutionary anarchist M.A.Bakunin, "I loudly renounce Russian state-imperial patriotism, and I will rejoice in the destruction of the Empire, from which it would be all right" (MM Borodkin Finnish history. Time of Emperor Alexander II . P.138).

In his paper "The Bell" Herzen called kill "damned Russian officers, the infamous Russian soldier" (AA Kersnovsky ibid.). During 1863 published in Finnish immigrants in the Stockholm newspaper «Aftonbladet» was published several inflammatory articles Bakunin. He hoped that Finland will rise along with Poland to regain their freedom and independence, and in this case the Russian anarchist promised to lend her a hand.

"In the region there finnomanov party and we can not help but sympathize with her, as it is national and democratic. In addition, the force of circumstances, it is hostile to the court of St. Petersburg and the Union of Sweden. Finnish patriots willing political and administrative autonomy, and they are certainly more likely to have it in union with Sweden, than under the auspices of Russian deadening "(MM Borodkin Ibid. P.137).

Rebellious nobles, as well as sympathetic to her spiritual ancestors Novodvorskaia well aware that without the military intervention of the Western powers is doomed rebellion. Major role in the upcoming intervention were to play France and England. But Sweden also played an important role.

To facilitate the entry of Sweden in the war against Russia, Bakunin named Henry Suhl (Henri Soule) personally went to Stockholm, where, despite the protests of Russian Ambassador Dashkova was met with open arms. On hosted a banquet in his honor Bakunin said that reaches out Swedish patriots. As we can see, according to these figures, condemned to be not just patriotism, but only Russian.

In order to feasibly spoil their homeland, this revolutionary was even ready to sacrifice anarchist beliefs. Going to pay homage to the Swedish ministers, Bakunin eventually achieved an audience with the Swedish king's brother, and by some accounts, was adopted and by Karl XV. Trying to persuade the Swedes to go to war with Russia, he asserted that the Russian peasants are ready to rebel against the hated autocracy.

Simultaneously with Bakunin to Sweden from London came under the name of Magnus Behring son Herzen, who were given letters of recommendation to the background Kvantenu. It was planned that Herzen, Jr. will first agitation in Sweden, and then travel to Finland. However, the young man turned out to be extremely prudent and did not go further in Stockholm.

Alas, to the dismay of the revolutionary Russophobes Sweden was not the same. When it became clear that none of the great powers are not going to war with Russia over the Poles, it also did not dare to speak. On top of all three sheets to Bakunin quarreled with background Kvantenom, deeming it not hot enough and the revolutionary guy.

SURZHYK in Finnish

Meanwhile Snellman continued his tireless campaigning. In the article "War or peace for Finland", published in number 5 "Literary Newssheet" for 1863, he analyzed, what will the Swedish intervention in the affairs of Russia. According to Snellman, the entry of Swedish troops in Finland would mean "a fratricidal war." After describing all the "charms" of fighting in the Finnish territory, he advised his compatriots to settle down and do not create grounds for turning their country into a second Poland. Similar arguments have acted on the practical Finns feasibly any patriotic propaganda.

Of course, this zeal just could not go unrewarded. According to an announcement from the Imperial January 28 (February 9) in 1863 in primary schools and secondary schools in Finland abolished compulsory teaching of Russian language. This was motivated by the fact that "it is through the opportunity for a more thorough study is not only necessary for every Finnish citizen of Finnish and Swedish, but also Latin and German, which are the basis scholar education in general and the condition of the components for a more extensive study science" (Collection of the Grand- Duchy of Finland. 1863. № 2. C.1-2).

However, "students wishing to study Russian language should bring the case to the study of it, but only in emergency hours, without reducing the number of classes that are assigned to other objects" (ibid. C.2). At the same time abolished Russian language exam for admission to the University of Helsingfors students. Supreme announcement on April 29 (May 11) of the same year there were allowed to lecture in Finnish.

Finally, according to the highest decree of July 20 (August 1) 1863 Finnish equalized in rights with the Swedish government. Snellman finally got his way and was able to triumph, and the Russian emperor was soon appointed him a member of the Finnish Senate.

Finnish language had to enter into a formal paperwork at once. This was driven for 20 years. The highest resolution introducing the Finnish language in use in judicial and administrative government offices on the edge of 8 (20) February 1865 detailed the terms and stages of the process.

In such a delay was not surprising. The reason for this was the extreme crudity of the then Finnish language, which was set tongues: esterbotenskoe, tavastlandskoe, aboskoe significantly different from each other. The written language was formed by the merger of all these dialects, which required several decades. There is concern that 20 years may not be enough.

Fears were not unfounded. Creating a literary Finnish language was hard going. Often, in the course was a kind of "surzhik" in the form of a mixture of Finnish and Swedish. For example, as evidenced by P.I.Messarosh, in November 1895, he received an official document from Vyborg landmark office, in which "a phrase written in Swedish and one Finnish, and even in the same sentence the words are Finnish and Swedish words together "(PI Messarosh Finland — Russian state or suburb? P.125).


Finally, in the same 1863 in Helsingfors the Finnish Diet was convened. When it opens 6 (18) September 'Tsar-Liberator ", as his uncle august half a century ago, gave a speech in French. Of course, to learn Russian during his stay in the Russian Empire Sejm deputies were somehow too busy. And the emperor in Russian undignified act: after all, the first gentleman of the state, and not a man clumsy.

"We, the visitors, taking and feted with all the warmth, just what they were able to muster. But must admit that we are still felt in Finland, as in a foreign country. — Said Alexander II accompanied the Secretary of War DA Milyutin. — Particularly jarred us the complete absence of Russian and French speech before the Russian Emperor Finnish its subjects "(DA Milutin" … We still feel … like in a foreign country "/ / Homeland. 1995. № 12. P.22 ).

According inherited from the Swedish legislation, diet consisted of four chambers and formed on the principle of the Estates. From 1600 at the Diet of nobles had 148 members, 2928 members of the clergy sent 32, 8413 voter-citizens — 39, and 727,417 peasants — 48 MPs (MM Borodkin Finnish history. Time of Emperor Alexander II. P.174). It is noteworthy that 48 thousand Orthodox Finns were not represented by any member of, or in the House of Clergy, nor among the other classes. A similar pattern was repeated at the Diet in 1867. It was only at the Diet in 1872 among members of the peasant was professing Orthodoxy Simon Ratinov.

By convening the Diet in the midst of the Polish rebellion, Alexander II wanted to show his Finnish subjects that good behavior is not without its rewards, as he explicitly said in his speech: "You, the representatives of the Grand Duchy, dignity, peace and moderation of your debate to prove that in the hands of the people … the wise liberal institutions, not having been dangerous, become a guarantee of order and security "(Collegiate Dictionary. T.XXXVI. St. Petersburg.: F.A.Brokgauz and I.A.Efron, 1902. p.5). However, as subsequent events showed, the deputies did not heed the hint of a monarch.

Work noble House began with a discussion of the chairs are not provided in this law. To arrange them properly, it took only two hours of debate. After that Tribune diet was immediately used for the demonstration of the national dignity. Three deputies of nobles — Schantz, Uggla and Brun — were Russian officials. On this basis, they tried to deprive of authority, referring to the Swedish laws prohibiting the participation in the Sejm persons in the service of a foreign government. Thus, a number of deputies of a diet made it clear in no uncertain terms that it considers Finland separate from the Russian government. Finally, a majority of 74 votes to 34, the nobility Chamber decided to allow three deputies to the meetings, but with the condition that the decree was not effective at the opening of the future of the Sejm (MM Borodkin Finnish history. Time of Emperor Alexander II. P.178).

Then one of the deputies of the nobility in his speech compared the situation in Finland during the reign of Nicholas I, "at times of slavery of the Jews in Egypt" (PI Messarosh Finland — Russian state or suburb? P.27). In order to test this idea, I specifically looked into the Old Testament, but not a single message on the autonomy of the Hebrew slaves in the vicinity of the pyramid of Cheops is not found. Apparently, the anti-Semitic forgers couple of pages torn out.

A deputy in the meantime continued to stick to your fingers. Soon the Diet sounded the requirement to recognize Finland's neutrality in the event of war with Russia a nation and the establishment of a separate fleet. "What more? What is lacking in Finland to Russia in a collision with other powers, it is not declared war on us, or at least did not retain a formidable armed neutrality? "- Sarcastically asked about the biggest editor of the conservative newspaper" Moscow News "Mikhail Katkov (Borodkin M. M. History of Finland. time of Emperor Alexander II. p.193).

Even during which began in 1867 the construction of the railway between St. Petersburg and Finland, in which the State Treasury of the Russian Empire has allocated a grant of 2.5 million, the Finns persistently demanded that the European standard gauge. But this time, Alexander II insisted on building on the Russian model, saying: "If the Finnish railway will narrow gauge rolling stock and the Russian will not be able to move around on it directly, the rise in Russia such a storm against Finland, which is not in my power to protect the Finns' (MM Borodkin Brief History of Finland. p.158).


Until the 1860s, all the training in the Grand Duchy conducted exclusively in Swedish. There was no Finnish schools, but there was no Russian schools. April 29 (May 11) in 1866 adopted a resolution on the highest national teaching unit in the Grand Duchy of Finland, the input instruction in their native language. As a result, by the end of XIX century Finland was in fact the country of universal literacy. If the census of 1880 among residents of the Grand Duchy of both sexes over 10 years old were illiterate 2.5%, according to data of the 1890 census — 2.1% (Collegiate Dictionary. T.XXXVa. St. Petersburg.: And F.A.Brokgauz and . A. Efron, 1902. S.947). And this despite the fact that the whole of the Russian Empire was illiterate than 70%.

However, among the Orthodox population of illiterates in Finland in 1890 was 45.3% (ibid.). Of course, some people rush to declare the democratic orientation is a consequence of the notorious Russian laziness. In fact, the culprit was the policy of the Ministry of Education. By 1895, in the Grand Duchy there were only four Russian secondary educational institution (male and female high school at Helsingfors, a vocational school and gymnasium for women in Vyborg), and 15 elementary schools. In this case, male high school in Helsingfors was opened in 1870, and the women — in 1875.

His contribution to the eradication of the Russian language in Finland introduced the orthodox clergy. Despite the fact that the majority of the Orthodox population of Vyborg province were Russian and Russified Karels, a parish of the Orthodox school education was introduced in Finnish. Karels requirements that the teaching was going in Russian, were rejected on the pretext of lack of Russian teachers.

Worship in the Orthodox churches as well, as a rule, conducted in Finnish. So much so, that in Salminskom Orthodox parish peasants flatly refused to go to church, if it will serve in Finnish. Served in Slavonic, but continued to teach at the school in Finnish, "for lack of teachers who know the Russian language" (PI Messarosh Finland — Russian state or suburb? P.164).

However, it is fair to say that sometimes Alexander II still remembered the Russian-speaking population of Finland. So, November 21 (December 3) in 1866 was published the announcement of the highest duties of court and other official place of Finland to take the petition and the documents, written in Russian. Opening the Sejm in 1872, Alexander II in his speech said that "taking into account the failure of the study of Russian language in schools, while the need for a thorough knowledge of the dialect is not only found in a service field, but in practice private life, I recognized the enjoin the good now, in connection with the conversion of educational institutions, to reintroduce the edge of Russian language schools in the number of compulsory subjects "(MM Borodkin Finnish history. time of Emperor Alexander II. S.347).

But such moments of enlightenment happened with the monarch is not often, after which he was accepted to the old. So, when the Russian community petitioned to establish a Russian periodical, His Majesty on April 22 (May 4) 1876 has imposed on their petition resolution: "I find the reason Russian magazine in Finland quite superfluous" (Ibid. S.472).


A special role is played by the imperial authorities in the establishment of the ideological and institutional framework for the future of the Finnish army, with which we have had so much mess in the Soviet era. When Russia began to prepare for the introduction of universal conscription, imperial rescript of December 31, 1870 (January 12, 1871), addressed to the Governor-General of Finland, it was announced that the same service should by rights be introduced in the Grand Duchy. 12 (24) February 1871 Minister of War DA Milyutin humbly presented a report which recognized the need to carry Finns military service on par with the rest of the population of the Empire and merged with it in one piece in the Russian army. The main provisions of this report have been approved Imperially (Collegiate Dictionary. T.XXXVa. St. Petersburg.: F.A.Brokgauz and I.A.Efron, 1902. S.941).

However, it was not there. 1 (13) January 1874 approved the charter of conscription to the Russian Empire, but in the Grand Duchy did not apply. Meanwhile, a panel of representatives of all classes of Finland, chaired by Lieutenant General Indreniusa by the end of 1875 has developed an alternative draft statute on military service in Finland, where there were a number of deviations from the all-Russian charter. In particular, once and for all determined by the number of regular troops and Finnish eliminated their relationship with the Russian army. Although the military Minister Milutin spoke out against the project, the national troops were still created.

As a result, if a Russian term of active military service was 5 years old, in Finland only 3 years. In the period from 1882 to 1897 the number of annual recruits to depart military service in the ranks of the army in Russia received 36%, and in Finland, only 9%. Of the whole population of Russia was on active duty 1.6% and 0.5% in Finland. At the 1000 men of working age in the army was in Russia 39.5, and 9.2 in Finland (Collegiate Dictionary. T.XXXVa. St. Petersburg.: F.A.Brokgauz and I.A.Efron, 1902. S.943 ).

Very peculiar in Finland maintained and fighting spirit of the army. A sign of good manners there was considered widespread construction of monuments dedicated to victories at the time of the Russian Finnish troops. The first time such an event took place 2 (14) in July 1864, when it was celebrated the anniversary of the defeat of Russian troops in Lappo. The event was attended by over two thousand people. Thus was inaugurated the monument erected by means of one of the local entrepreneurs.

In the same 1864 number 32 in the newspaper «Mikkelin Wiikko Sanomia» was posted on collecting donations for the construction of the monument in memory of the former in Porosalmi in 1789, the battle between the Russian and Finnish troops (MM Borodkin Finnish history. Time of Alexander II. S.437). Although the then Governor-General Baron P.I.Rokasovskim fundraiser was banned, the public was not appeased. In 1882, she was able to perpetuate the battle at UTAS, and in August 1885 was a monument on the site of the Battle of Wirth Kuopio province, and participated in the opening ceremony of the local battalion of the Finnish troops. However, at this time, Russia has rules Alexander III, who learned of such outrages, prohibited any further build monuments without royal permission.

More Finns love to compose for his toy army marches glorifying the victory over the invaders. "Our" cheers "in the steppes (?) Sounds like a thousand votes. Valley of the talking, the banks are responding: "Down with the Russian here! '" (PI Messarosh Finland — Russian state or suburb? P200) — inspired wrote Helsingfors University rector August Alkvist, and the government listened good-naturedly as the fathers of the future White Finns were practicing it Masterpiece (Alkvistu have to do is replace "Down here Russian!" to "Down with the violence of here!").

But the overall picture did not change certain prohibitions. In general, the power of Tsarist Russia for its unreasonable actions with perseverance worthy of a better kept carefully nurture Finnish statehood. It seems as if some unknown and mysterious force has commissioned the then rulers of Russia — take people who have never had statehood, and create it with all its attributes.


See also: The ideological shift. Putin took the taboo on the topic "The Soviet-Finnish War"

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