Intelligence — general ability to the knowledge and problem-solving. Under the intellect as well understood as a system of cognitive abilities (perception, memory, thinking, imagination) and the ability to solve problems without the trial and error in the mind. However, there are many definitions of intelligence paradoxes created by psychologists. "Intelligence — what intelligence tests measure" — left to answer Alfred Binet, when he was asked to tell what it is. An even more elegant definition belongs Mac Nimaru: "Every man knows what intelligence is. This is something that no other! ".
A very long time, there were two views on intelligence. According to the first of them, the intelligence — especially hereditary trait: either man is born wise or not. In accordance with a second viewpoint intelligence related to the rate of perception or response to external stimuli. Back in 1816 the German astronomer Bessel argued that it can determine the level of intelligence of their employees by the speed of their response to light flash.
In 1885, James Cattell developed a dozen more "Psihologichnyh" tests, which he called "mental." These tests determine the speed of reflexes, reaction time, while the perception of certain stimuli, pain threshold when pressed on the skin, the number of letters memorized after listening to the letter series, etc. Using these tests, Cattell identified the parameters of the reactions to stimuli of varying strength.
In tests that have been developed later served performance indicator time, subjects were taken to address the proposed objectives. The main measuring device psychologists became timepiece: the faster the subject cope with the task, the more points awarded.
Meanwhile, scientists who developed the first prototypes of modern intelligence tests, this property is considered more widely. According to them, a person with intelligence — is the one who "correctly judge, understands and thinks" and who because of their "common sense" and "initiative" could "adapt to the circumstances."
This view was shared by Wexler — a scientist who created in 1939 the first intelligence scale for adults. He believed that "intelligence — is the global ability to act reasonably and rationally think and cope well with life's circumstances", that is, in short, "successfully be compared with the forces of the outside world." Today most psychologists agree with this definition of intelligence, which is regarded as the individual's ability to adapt to the environment.
There are three forms of intelligent behavior:
— Verbal intelligence (vocabulary, knowledge, ability to understand what they read)
— Ability to solve problems
— Practical intelligence (The ability to achieve goals).