Willow? Mr. Vasey? Levich Turchanov? New (January 30, 1822 — June 19, 1901), better known by the Americanized name of John Basil Turchin (born John Basil Turchin), Russian military commander, Colonel of the Imperial Russian Army, Brigadier General of the U.S. Army during the Civil War. The only Russian, who became general of the army of the United States of America.
Ivan Turchaninov was the representative of a noble family, descended from the Don Cossacks. His uncle, PP Turchaninov, took an active part in the Napoleonic wars, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, was one of the companions of Kutuzov. Thus, the genus Turchaninova was a member of the elite of the Russian Empire.
Born Ivan Turchaninov the Don, 1832-1835 he studied at the First Cadet Corps in St. Petersburg, then in the military grammar school in Novocherkassk. In 1843, Turchaninov finished Mikhailovsky Artillery School. Demonstrating outstanding ability for military service, was hired by the Imperial Guard. The rank of lieutenant served in the Life Guards Don Cossack horse artillery battery of the Life-Guards Horse Artillery, was involved in the suppression of the uprising in Hungary. In 1852, a small silver medal finished the Nicholas General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg. Was personally acquainted with Crown Prince Alexander Nikolaevich, the future Emperor Alexander II. Ivan Turchaninov took part in the Crimean War of 1853-1856., Held a topographical survey of the coast of the Baltic Sea, for which he received the rank of colonel of the Guard and was awarded the Order.
At the same time Turchaninov, seeing the imperfections of social order in Russia, came to the conclusion about the need for reform, becoming a staunch opponent of serfdom. Since 1853 Turchin was in secret correspondence with Alexander Herzen, in letters to and which set out his views on the fate of Russia.
Emigration to the United States
In 1856, while serving in Poland, suddenly emigrated to the U.S. with his young wife, Nadezhda Dmitrievna (née Lviv). No material reason for this was not, on the contrary, at the time of emigration Turchaninov had a distinguished career he served as chief of staff housing in Poland, enjoyed the location of the Emperor in front of him opened up bright prospects. Apparently, Turchaninov moved adventurism in the best sense of the word: the desire to take part in the construction of the young country. As a result, in 1858 with the rank of colonel, he was expelled from the service of the Russian army.
Upon arrival in the U.S. first couple Turchaninova unsuccessfully tried to farm and went bankrupt. That's when Ivan Turchaninov changed its name to American way, and was called John Basil Turchin, his wife Nadezhda took the name Nadine. Acquainted with the realities of American life, Turchin realized that in the U.S. no less a problem than in Russia.
Below is an excerpt from Turchaninova and letters to his wife to Herzen found during the post-war history of the last publication. They are small, but very eloquent.
Letter IV Turchaninova AI Herzen, of the so-called "Prague Collections" archive Herzen and Ogareva (TsGAOR, f. 5770, op.1., Ed. Mts. 112)
March 22, 1859
Alexander [Herzen — Aleksandr Ivanovich! — BM]
Back to almost three years — it was, if I remember correctly, at the beginning of June, when the just ended the Crimean War, and His Majesty deigned to gather crowned — you came to London Guards General Staff Colonel Turchaninov, it was me. No matter how short it was our acquaintance, but my desire to see you in person to read in your appearance — whether you are really what I imagined when I read your writings, was granted. I then told you that I was going to the North American states, and I remember your remark: "America is the land Boring! ..". I admit, I kind of doubt in your words, my dreams overseas were much higher and purer vulgar reality, not only boring, but also the land prepakostnaya America.
I could not stay in Europe, partly because my financial part was scarce for independent living, and often because I like to look at the only existing in our age of the republic and to make sure, in fact, and his eyes in so extolled its value.
My complete disappointment, and I do not see any real freedom here on Hair: that is the same collection of absurd prejudices and European monarchical and religious principles, in which the head is not the royal stick and merchant pocket, not the government manages a herd of sheep's and bodlivye, rattling dollars goats, merchants, not "us grace of God" in the title of all the commandments, and respectability (respectability) and public opinion, which, as elsewhere, belong to the strong, that is, the rich, and these, as usual, arrange things so that only and respectable, and supported by public opinion, which is not contrary to their interests.
This republic — a haven for the rich, and they are truly independent, and the most horrible crimes and darkest machinations pay off the money. Smart man (in our opinion — dodger and slicker) is a great word, from millionaire to porter from Senator to Tselovalnik, doer of counterfeit banknotes to dennogo robber — smartness strongly held. Whether a person's greatest villain, in which whatever grade class, if he did not get to the gallows and lovchak, it's the venerable, all cared for him, his opinion first in everything, his judgment and sentence believe more than the Bible; He twirls around, which itself rotates. The result of such lovchakov-slickers in the state of the control class in all things, the rest mass — controlled. Slick-capitalist — American prince, whose respectability just can not be attacked as the venerable Russian king of the first person in the same inviolable and sacred, as a second person, a crush any enemy soldiers and gendarmes, dollars and other subordinate thieves.
I do not want to spread a lot of it has gone, the old world to the new locations of its Indian obezyannichestve about his deep muzhichestve and lack of education in general and of its original, who took part own special flavor, monstrosity: it enticed me too far. For three years my heart has accumulated too much bitterness, despite the ugly masquerade of the New World and its Dubin representative Anglo-Saxon. I can only say one thing, that this republic is constant, never wears out and will thrive century centuries, wherever you want, even in Russia, may soon realized something like the Social Republic, but not in America. I do not see people between native Americans and the sojourner, or are made by the same beasts, as the natives, or a noise in his burger clubs. — As for me personally, I thank America for one thing: she helped me kill outright aristocratic prejudices and relegated me to the level of an ordinary mortal, I was reborn, no job, no work for me, not terrible, no provision scares, I do not care , I plow the ground and drive a manure or sit with the great scholars of the new earth in a rich study and interpret about astronomy.
Until now, I do not really lucky here, but I have no complaints against fate, I was looking for it myself. I had a New York small farm, which, despite my best efforts, I could not live, searching for places on the geodetic works in the coastal state shooting — did not have time, these things here more than anywhere, we need the patronage of what- any person, not memoirs, which I was. Now I live drawings and sketches, and I a great artist and a very good portraitist and painter, and in general of the need is provided. One wearies me: terrible boredom American world and the lack of Russian. Russian here is so small that I even begin to suspect whether they, not to mention the official officials with whom, of course, I'm not going to learn, and I think that on the other side of the ocean, in Western Europe, there are more Russian element and there is even a Russian and Russian printing house magazine — the heart jumps and scary card * fall over backwards for the Atlantic; earn a living for me there seems to be more difficult than it is here, though I want to purchase the right to be a citizen of the North American United States **, that have a shortcut on some security in a free Shred Western Europe, and then I'll see what to do.
Considering the human right not only to bury the talent, it is for the land, but boldly and loudly promote the idea of justice, freedom and personal independence, I am sending you two of the pies, I've written here, for publication in your journal. When writing, notify, whether they like you, and then I can send you something else.
Now I have a request to you, and that's what it is. My wife, who has a strong and undeniable talent of the writer, began a series of novels in French, and she holds it perfectly, in Russian, she writes freely and maybe even better, but I started writing in French from the calculation, because the French novel can be sell; storyline scenes are taken from Russian life and the position of the modern woman. Judging impartially, I find that the story, written by it now, is very interesting, vedena well and can be a success. Since there is nothing French does not print, then this story to sell here there is no way, and we have decided to ask you about it, you're familiar with publicists, and, perhaps, for you will not be too difficult to settle the matter, and we will make you a great favor. Since most of the scenes and persons belonging to the story belongs purely Russian life, I think it decently made vignettes would have a great interest to foreigners, and if I learn from you that this is the case can be settled and vignettes that can facilitate the sale or make it more profitable, I do vignettes in pencil itself, and cut and lithographed, of course, they will be the publisher.
Volume of this story will be equal to two books, such as your book, "From the Other Shore."
I currently live in the town of Mattoon, Ill., to this town three years of age, only, of its geographical position I can only say that he stands at the intersection of two railroads: the Illinois Central and Terre-haute and Alton RR in it, I'll wait for a response from you, and then I thought to migrate or in St.Louis or in Cincinnati, where I will send you this letter.
I have simplified here his name without changing its essence and russitsizma, English bird's mouth was unable to pronounce the name of my old, and I think that I will ask the government officially shorten my name, being able to avoid any difficulties arise in the case.
Now I address a letter to you in the name of Tryubnera and ask you to inform me, how should I continue my email address, if our correspondence can make for you any interest.
If you've heard anything about Evgeny Grigoriev, a promising young man who was once with me in great affection and was keen to meet with America — that very oblige me by telling me something about it.
I'm waiting for an answer from you, and I greet you fraternally. My wife, though not personally familiar with you, but very familiar with your writings, considers the right to send you my greetings also.
United States of North America
John B. Turchin.
Mattoon, Coles Co. Illinois.
* Dahl: Map of whom, solid. (Western kartet, kartets) impersonal. I have a map, his map, routinely comes, tempted by that pulls or very much like that. His so the map to the city. | | CPM. ill. Soul Maps, pain (Shane).
** Under the naturalization of 1795 which was in force at the time, after 3 years of immigrant could "declare" their desire to obtain citizenship, and after 5 years of residence in the United States — to obtain citizenship (only for "free white persons").
Herzen himself in 1851-1853 was thinking about moving to America. In February 1854 it was as a "Russian Republican" invited to the U.S. Consul in London for dinner in honor of Garibaldi. But in 1855 he wrote in a letter: "A law in America does not want to." Edition of the "North Star", he started just in 1856, the 2nd book came out in May, just before the visit to his Turchaninova. Yet in 1857, Herzen wrote about America: "The greatest idea, developed by the United States — a purely Anglo-Saxon, the idea of self-government, ie strong people with a weak government, autocracy, each piece of land. " The concept of "social republic" he expounded in his "Letters from Italy and France."
Letter N. Turchaninova (Preserved only part TsGAOR, f. 5770, op.1., Ed. Mts. 129)
I send you my story, I do not know if she will like you, and if she is destined to be printed, but in any case, thank you for your willingness to do it condescending. This story was written in French, because I could not imagine the possibility to print and sell anything Russian, all that I can write, you will need an anti-Orthodox and antivernopoddanicheskoe and therefore can not go in Holy Russia, in the North as the star is no room for light literature, nor for voluminous manuscripts. My Princess, there are probably a lot of russitsizmov, despite the fact that I know quite a decent language, momentum and ease of expression is lost when there is no occasion to use the language, and here I am three years have not met a single soul, speaking in French.
Ivan wrote to you about what we have found in America, I will add, on their part, a few words about the subjects, mainly interesting for me. An American woman, belonging to the highest «respectability» — conceited, arrogant and empty establishment. Clothes, swagger, desire to shine, to play the role of princess, lady — her ideal of life, nowhere luxury toilets are not brought to such wanton excesses; nowhere so openly brazen not bow down to money, there is not even outside the pale in this regard: on the street and in the shop, in the church and in the ballroom you'll hear in different ways The stated the same thing, namely, that money makes the man, and that man without money — rubbish, not worth consideration. And despite this zhidovskoe idolatry, despite the silly direction of higher class and stupid imitation obezyannicheskuyu lower, trailing from all out for fashion and respectability, there are amazing things that make a deep impression. These phenomena, independent of the national character, on the contrary, opposite to it, and somehow miraculously generated by the freedom that lies at the base of their life, belongs to the famous Lucy Stone, with its steadfast idea of personal independence of women, the same Lucy Stone, which well-meaning different magazines in Europe and is trying to put such a stupid-funny side. They also owned two small college women doctors, the house a few years ago, one — in Philadelphia, the other — in Boston. In one of the schools I attended a course and I confess to you, time and again, standing with the anatomical knife in the hands of the dissecting table so focused emotion that brings death to the soul, I shuddered with pleasure listening to these cries, tears of women employed as I do. «Magnificent! beautiful! »- shouted a dozen young women crowding around some well exposed a network of nerves or arteries vyslezhennoy skillfully. "Here it is — I thought the proud thrill — the one weak woman, suitable only for children or the ballroom!". These schools are under terrible persecution of male health class, here was unusually numerous caste dropouts, speculators and schemer, greedy for money. Respectability looks at them with utter contempt, not realizing, as is usual in such circumstances, the attempt to instill a woman's life activity, so characteristic of women's nature and so much necessary for a society where the sick woman often, very often, there is no help, because it does not dare to look at the doctor-men. These schools are deprived of means, women who learn they are forced to supplement what is missing, studying privately, but still they hold, in spite of persecution. It is known to you the first Christian church in Rome. What will be their fate ahead I do not know, but for me they are — Comforting a phenomenon of modern life, palpable hint of what might have been. In general, the freedom to practice — a great deal! Despite the ox-English nature, in spite of the greedy and stupid arrogance direction yankee, there are things that can strengthen the belief in the possibility and necessity of freedom and self-government.
At the end of life Turchin have fallen into poverty. Ivan wrote to Emperor Alexander II application for permission to return to Russia, but was refused …
On a tip:
See also: Herzen Syndrome
Letters of Sergei Dovlatova Tamara Zibunovoy from the U.S.