IV Kireyevsky. On the nature of education in Europe

One of the biggest differences between a legitimate system of Russia and the West are indigenous concept of the right of property in land. Roman civil law, it can be said, the essence of everything is nothing, as the development of the absoluteness of the right. Western European social systems also come from varieties of combinations of these original rights, the basis of its unlimited and only in the relations of the public to some mutually conditional restrictions. You could say the whole building of Western public opinion is on the development of the personal property rights, and so is the person in the legal basis of his only expression of the right of ownership.

In the apparatus of the Russian public personality is first base, and the right to property only her casual attitude. Land belongs to the community because the community consists of families of persons who can cultivate the land. With the increase in the number of people increases and the amount of land owned by the family, with the decrease — is reduced. The community's right over the land is limited to the right of the landowner or patrimonial, the right of the landowner Understands its relation to the state. The relationship of the landowner in the state do not depend on his estate, but his estate depends on his personal relationships. These personal relationships are defined as much by personal relations of his father, and how much their own, lost their inability to maintain or grow strong advantage over other virtues, joint, personalities. In short, the certainty of land ownership could be in Russian only as an exception. Society is made up not of residential properties, which were attributed to a person, but of those who attribute their own.

Entanglement, which later could have come from this relationship in the higher strata of society in the destruction of small principalities and merge them into one government unit was random and had its base, as seems to be the causes of outsiders, not as being a necessary development, but as a deviation proper development of the basic spirit of the whole Russian statehood. However, in any case, it's a special, very different from the West, the situation in which people understand themselves in relation to ownership of land was to be in communication with the whole set of its public and coenobite and moral relations.

Because coenobitic Russian relations were also different from Western ones. I'm not talking about the difference between some special forms that can read people's accidents irrelevant features. But the very nature of folk customs, the very meaning of public relations and private morals were quite different. Western man shatters their lives on the individual aspirations and even connects them to one reason overall plan, but also in every moment of life is as a person. In one corner of his heart lives a religious sense, which he uses in the exercise of piety in the other — separately — the power of the mind and the efforts of everyday activities, and the third — the desire for sensual pleasures, in the fourth — the moral and family feeling, in the fifth — the desire for personal self-interest, and in the sixth — the desire for pleasure and the fine-artificial, and each of the private aspirations subdivided into different types, followed by a special state of mind, all of which are separately from one another and communicate only an abstract rational memory. Western man could easily pray in the morning with a hot, tight, amazing zeal, then take a break from diligence, forgetting prayer and exercising other powers at work, then take a break from work, not only physically but also morally, forgetting its lessons for the dry sound of laughter and prandial songs, and then forget all day and enjoying life in a dreamy artificial spectacle. The next day it was easy to start once again turn the same wheel of his outward good life.

Not so Russian people. Molyasya in the church, he does not shout for joy, does not beat his breast, does not fall unconscious with emotion, on the contrary, during the prayer feat he especially tries to keep a sober mind and integrity of spirit. When it is not a one-way sensitivity of tension, but the most self-completeness prayer penetrate his soul and emotion touches his heart, his tears pouring silently and no passionate movement does not confuse the deep silence of his internal state. But he's not singing and drinking songs. His lunch is accomplished by prayer. With prayer begins and ends each case he. With prayer walks into the house and out. Last peasant, being the person in front of the palace of the Grand Duke (an honor which he may be, but yesterday dared their lives in some random argument with lyahami), the owner does not bow before the bow before the image of the shrine, which has always stood in clear honor every corner of the house, large and small. So Russian people every important and unimportant to their work always associated directly with the higher concept of the mind and with the deepest center of the heart.

Yet one must admit that it is a constant striving for total integrity of all moral forces could have and its dangerous side. For it is only in a society where all classes are still imbued with a spirit universally respected and where numerous monasteries — these public schools and universities of higher religious state — quite hold of the minds, where, consequently, people mature in spiritual wisdom may always be guided by other not yet matured — there is a similar layout person should lead him to the highest perfection. But when, before reaching to the original maturity of the inner life, he will be deprived of rukovoditelnyh worries Supreme mind, his life may present the wrong combination of excessive stress from excessive exhaustion. That is why we sometimes see that the Russian people, concentrating all their energies to work in three days, can do more than the cautious German did not make thirty, but then for a long time, he can not volunteer to take up his business. That's why in this immature state and the deprivation of the unanimous leader often for the Russian people's mind is a German limited, the size of the plate on the clock and measure the degree of his works can be better than himself, to control the order of his occupation.

But in ancient Russia, this inner wholeness of self-consciousness, which sent most customs of the Russian people, and reflected in the forms of his family life, where the law is permanent, every minute heroic self-sacrifice was not an exception, but a matter of common and common responsibilities. So far, still retain the character of a family of integrity in our country life. For if we wish to penetrate into the inner life of our house, we will notice it is the fact that every member of the family, with all its incessant toil and constant care of the successful course of the entire economy, never in their efforts does not mean his own personal gain. Thoughts about their own benefit completely from the bay it very root of their motives. The integrity of the family have a common goal and a spring. All excess management is unaccountable to one head of the family, all private wages in full and conscientious given to him.

And besides lifestyle the whole family usually little improved and unnecessary excess of head of the family, but the private members are not included in their use and do not even know the value of looking for them, they continue their eternal work and care with the same selflessness as a duty of conscience, as a support family harmony . In earlier times, it was even more striking, because families were larger and were composed not of some children and grandchildren, but retained its integrity with significant breeding race. Meanwhile, even now we can see every day how easy it is important for the misfortunes of life, how willing, I would say even, as one member of the family happily always willing to volunteer to sacrifice themselves for another, when he sees his victim to the common good of the family.

In the West, the weakening of family ties was due to the general direction of education: from the upper classes of the people passed it to the lower, the direct influence of the first in the recent past and an irrepressible desire to adopt the mores of the ruling class. This passionate imitation of the more natural, more homogeneous than the mental education of various classes, and the more quickly bear fruit than the artificial nature of the most educated and the more it is subject to personal opinion.

In the higher layers of the European Society of family life, generally speaking, very soon became, even for women, almost extraneous matter. From the birth of the children of noble families were brought up behind the eyes of the mother. Especially in those countries where fashion is to educate the daughters of the family, separated from her impenetrable walls of monasteries became the general custom of the upper class — there is the mother of the family was almost devoid of all sense of family. Stepping through the door of the monastery only to walk down the aisle, she entered the same step in a vicious circle of secular duties before the family learned responsibility. Because sensitivity to public relations took her to the top of the domestic relations. Proud and noisy fun living replaced her anxiety and pleasure quiet child. Salon courtesy and ability to live in the world, with an excess of developing at the expense of other virtues became samoyu An essential part of women's dignity. Soon both sexes bright living room turned into a major source of pleasure and happiness, a source of intelligence and education, a source of strength in the public, the dominant and all-consuming goal of artificial life. From there — especially in countries where the higher education of women was done outside the family circle — was excellent, charming development coenobite finesse, along with this development — and the moral decay of the upper class, and in it the first germ of the famous doctrine of the later full emancipation of women.

In Russia between forms of social life, expressing the general integrity of life, never took a single, self-development, detached from the life of the people, and therefore could not drown a man's sense of family, nor damage the integrity of his moral growth. The sharp feature of the Russian character in this regard was the fact that no person in their dealings coenobite never sought to put his native feature as a virtue, but the ambition of individuals desire to be limited to the correct expression of the fundamental spirit of the society. Because the living room is not the government in the state, all of which are imbued with sympathy with the whole integrity of the social life, and as a personal opinion does not sway in a society that stands firmly on the belief and not a whim of fashion reigns in it, wiping out the overall firmness of life.

With this arrangement, like the simplicity and ease of life needs was not due to a lack of funds and not a consequence of non-development of education, but needed most of the main character education. In the West, luxury was not a contradiction, but the legal consequence of crushed aspirations of society and the individual, and she was, so to speak, the artificial nature of education, it could condemn the spiritual in disregard of conventional concepts, but in the general opinion, it was almost a virtue. She did not concede a weakness, but rather proud of her as an enviable advantage. In the Middle Ages, people looked with respect to the outdoor splendor that surrounds the man, and his concept of this outdoor splendor reverently merged into one feeling with the very notion of human dignity. Russian people more gold brocade court respected rags fool. Luxury penetrated into Russia, but like an infection from neighbors. It apologized, she succumbed to a vice, always feeling its illegality, not only religious, but also moral, and social.

Western man sought external funding to facilitate the development of the severity of internal flaws. Russian man tried to rise above the internal external needs to escape the gravity of external needs. If the science of political economy existed then, without a doubt, it would not be clear to Russian. He could not agree with his views on the wholeness of life — particularly the science of wealth. He could not understand how you can with intent to annoy individuals' sensitivity to external needs only to multiply their efforts to the real performance. He knew that the development of wealth is one of the secondary conditions of social life, and should therefore be not only in close connection with the other higher terms, but also in perfect subordination to them.

However, if the luxuries of life could still, like an infection, get into Russia, the artificial comfort with his artistically tenderness, as well as any intentional artificiality of life, every reverie relaxed mind, would never get it right of citizenship — as a direct and clear contradiction its ruling spirit.

For the same reason, if I had the time of fine arts develop in ancient Russia, of course, would have taken it a different character than in the West. There they developed sympathy with the general movement of thought, and therefore the same fragmentation of the spirit, which has produced speculation logical abstraction in the fine arts has spawned dreaminess and fragmentation heart desires. From there, the pagan worship of abstract beauty. Instead of the meaning of truth and beauty store in one indissoluble bond that, of course, may interfere with the rapidity of their individual development, but which protects the overall integrity of the human spirit and keeps the truth of its manifestations, the Western world, on the contrary, founded upon the beauty of the deception of the imagination, on the false dream or extreme stress sided feelings are born out of deliberate splitting of the mind. For the Western world was unaware that daydreaming have heart lies and that the inner wholeness of being is essential not only for the truth of reason, but also for the exquisite pleasure of completeness.

This line of Fine Arts did not go past the life of the Western world. From inside the totality of human relations is born free art and, being on the light re-enters into the depths of the human spirit, strengthening his or relaxing, gathering his strength or lavishing them. That is why, I think, a false direction of Fine Arts more deeply distorted the nature of the European Enlightenment, than the very direction of philosophy, which only happens when the springs of itself when the result of it. But voluntary, permanent and, so to say, the desire to animate deliberate bifurcation of internal consciousness splits the root of mental strength. Because the mind becomes a clever trick, heartfelt feeling — a blind passion, beauty — in the dream, the truth — in the opinion, the science — a syllogism, materiality — a pretext to the imagination, virtue — in self-righteousness, and the theatricality of a nagging life partner, Ext prikryshkoyu lie — as is her reverie inner mask.

But, calling the "complacency", I touched one another, rather general, the differences between the Western man from the Russian. West, generally speaking, are almost always pleased with his moral state, almost all of the Europeans always ready, proudly beating his own heart, saying to yourself and to others that his conscience was quite calm, that it is perfectly clean before God and man that he alone ask of God, that other people were all like him. If it happens that most outdoor activities it will come into conflict with the generally accepted notions of morality, he invents himself a special, original system of morality, as a result of which his conscience to calm down again. Russian people, on the contrary, always keenly feels its flaws, and the higher the back stairs of moral development, the more demands from himself — and therefore the less is pleased with himself. When deviations from the true path, he does not seek to deceive yourself some clever reasoning, giving the external appearance of the correctness of his inner belief, but even the most passionate moment of enthusiasm always ready conscious of his moral illegitimacy.

But stay here and gather together all told us about the difference between Western and ancient education, because, it seems, has seen us enough features to make, reducing them to one up, bring a clear definition of the nature of both learning.

Christianity penetrated into the minds of the Western nations through the teachings of one of the Roman Church — in Russia it lights the lamps on the whole of the Orthodox Church, the theology of the West assumed the character of rational abstraction — in the Orthodox world, it has preserved the integrity of the inner spirit, there is a split powers of the mind — is their desire to live together : there is movement of the mind to the truth through logical coupling concepts — here pursuing it through an internal elevation of self-consciousness to the heart and center of wholeness of mind, there is the search for the outer, dead unity — is the desire for the inner, living, there is the Church mingled with the state, connecting with spiritual power Secular and merging church and secular significance in one of the mixed nature of the device — in Russia it remained not mingled with worldly goals and the device, there scholastic and legal universities — in the ancient Russian monasteries prayer, to concentrate a higher knowledge, there is rational and school of higher learning truths — are striving to live their wholeness and cognition, there is a mutual germination of pagan and Christian education — is a constant striving for purification of truth, there statehood conquest of violence — is the natural development of national life, imbued with the unity of the basic beliefs: there is a hostile distribution of estates — in Ancient Russia set unanimous in their natural species, there artificial link feudal castles with their accessories of individual states — are cumulative consent of all the earth spiritually expresses the inseparable unity, there landed property is the first foundation of civil relations — property here only occasional expression of personal relationships, there legitimacy formally -logic — are coming out of the way of life: there is a tendency for justice outside law — here the internal preference, there tends to a logical law code — here, instead of the outer forms of connectedness with the form, it is looking for an intercom legitimate beliefs with the beliefs of faith and life, there come the laws artificially from the prevailing opinion — here they were born naturally from everyday life, there are always improvements were made violent change — is a slender natural increase, there is the excitement of the spirit of party — here the inviolability of the basic beliefs: there is a whim of fashion — here the hardness of life: there is the precariousness of personal samozakonnosti — here the strength of family and public relations, there Dapper luxury and artificiality of life — is simple necessities of life and vigor of moral courage, there effeminacy reverie — there healthy integrity of reasonable force, there is an internal anxiety of mind with rational confidence in his moral perfection — the Russian deep silence and tranquility of the inner self at a constant distrust of self and with unlimited demands moral perfection — in a word, there is a split of the spirit, mind split, split Sciences, bifurcation of the state, split classes, a split society, a split family rights and responsibilities are split, moral and heart condition, a split of the totality and of certain types of human existence, of private and public — in Russia, on the contrary, the predominant tendency for the integrity of the internal and external, public and private, contemplative and worldly, and artificial moral. Because if it is true what we said before, then split and integrity, rationality and reasonableness will be the last expression of the Western European and ancient education.

Approx. Ed.

Kireevskaya Ivan (1806-56), the Russian religious philosopher, literary critic and essayist, one of the founders of Slavophilism. In a departure from religious principles and the loss of spiritual wholeness saw the source of the crisis, "European Enlightenment" and the rule of abstract thinking in German idealist philosophy. The task of an original Russian philosophy thought processing "European education" in the spirit of the Eastern patristic teachings.


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