Konstantin Leontiev. What and how our liberalism is bad? 1880.

In one of the latest issues of "Voices" published an article by Mr. Alexander Gradovsky under the title "Time of Troubles".

This article is dedicated to the protection of the "liberals" against people who accuse them of pandering to "revolutionary atrocities."

G. Gradovsky asks: "Is there, however, the basis for such a charge? Investigated whether not only the question of "complicity" of this mysterious "liberal" with the attackers, but even more simple question: what a Russian liberal?"

"Let's see what's up, shall find this mysterious liberal, which introduces such trouble truly poor in our society.

The origin of our "party" refers to the time of converting activity reigning Sovereign. After you have completed the peasant reform, judicial and land, as had been granted privileges printing and universities, our society was divided into two camps. Contentious points between them were:

1) The question of the date of reform in principle applied to our everyday life.

2) The question of the future development of sophisticated transformations.

People dedicated to the cause of reform, received nickname liberals, people called him the opposite direction guarding. As far as both are justified by the merits of the case, disassemble, we will not.

By a happy coincidence, Russian liberalism did not seem to be any need to start opposition. In contrast, during the liberation of the peasants, as well as on subsequent reforms, the so-called "liberals" were quite cabinet party. It's all remember and know. Of course, they are not tripped up new institutions. Take a fundamental dissatisfaction transformations belonged entirely different "parties".


Let's begin … first of all with the assurance that no one will blame themselves All without exception Russian liberals conscious and deliberateconniving plots and nihilism.

Liberalism, the idea for the most part negative, very extensible and wide. In the Russian liberals are now so many shades and personal before their crayons and are meaningful, and that they can not be brought under the same category as you can, for example, brought under the se Nihilists or Communards.

The latter is simple, everything is clear, everything is performed a special kind of criminal logic and fierce sequence. Liberals all vaguely, all confused, all pale, a little of everything. The system of liberalism is, in fact, the absence of any system, it is only the negation all extremes, the fear of a coherent and expressive of.

This is something the uncertainty, this stretch of liberal ideas and was the main reason for their success in our surface and impressionable society.

A lot of people are liberal because they are compassionate and kind, others because it is profitable, because it's in fashion: "No one will not laugh!" Moreover, the think does not take much for it now. In the 60's and 70's to be a moderate liberal has become as easy and profitable as it was profitable and easy to be the guardian of the strictest in the 30's and 40's.

In the 30's and 40's only conservatives are respected, they only made a career and formed a fortune. Liberals at the time seemed either too dangerous or ridiculous. While, to be a liberal, you really had to think (Correctly or not — that's another matter), because the environment is not conducive to liberalism. Then liberalism was neither cheap rebelliousness agrarian leaders against the governor, nor cruelty of the judges to the old landowner derived from the patient servants or phrases counsel in defense of rebellious youth, nor envious opposition to the "white" of the priest-monk, bishop, etc. Then liberalism was feeling personal and alive, and he was then generosity, in many cases — courage. Now the Liberals have (in the words of Shchedrin) fences backsSo … a lot of them and so little to the mind, knowledge, talent and energy to be a liberal today! Liberalism in Russia has a system very easy and unpretentious yet because the outposts in every nation their: The Turk — Turkish, the Englishman — English, in Russian — Russian, liberalism and all have the same (ie, liberalism is not British exceptional, specific and overall— Democratic liberalism).

All could be without a long history of borrowing, and all too easy to take. Good for us to approach so close to Europe and to vaccinate themselves quickly and innocently her scrawny beginning?.. Anything one — or cosmopolitanism, ie, drop individual states and merge them together, there is a good purpose, or that outcome — is evil and danger? ..

The one who finds it a blessing here right to object to this, I will not, such an objection would leave too long. If the State cosmopolitanism is evil and danger, then, means, and the pan-European liberalism as hard pursued by a system that facilitates and even in the distant (?) Future public like a merger, or if there is no evil, then at least the error and negligence.

I say "evil", mind you, I'm not talking maliciousness. In life and love, and generosity, and even false notions of fair — may cause harm. We must understand this.

I started with that said, no one would blame myself all the liberals in bad faith. They are, again, very different. Let me give you a few examples, one — liberal because he was a liberal in the 40's, and it hurts to part with her beloved ideal to which he had so long and so faithfully served, the other is for a lifetime liberal because he thinks, as if honest man must necessarily be true to his life prior convictions, even in spite of a number of disappointments. This kind of honest liberals very harmful, because they are located particularly affect people famous, influential, and in full view of standing, once linked his name with a certain kind of hands-free operations, with the famous native of service to society, with a certain literary and political hue, they are ashamed to confess and repent that they were wrong for so long. Not everyone can find the mental fortitude Kelsieva and Herzen, who dared to publicly repent — the first is that under a socialist insurrection useful for Russia, and the second is that respect for the beginning of his life modern "petty bourgeois" progress.

This kind of liberalism, I say, sincere at first, and later only a solid, but not sincere, is the most harmful kind, because it is serious and influential. Here's how even a kind of honesty can often give birth to a great evil in this "vale of tears" Earth!

Most are harmless liberals in our time — it is the Liberals benefits of. One, for example, a liberal because he writes for the food in the newspaper, defending the "freedom and equality". This is easy to fix, any quarrel with the editor or a good price in a reasonable progressive newspaper will make it the guardian of one week, just to have time to apply … Another love freedom because, in the service, did not please his superiors, and the third — because, on the contrary, that catered to the liberal dignitary, and the fourth — the fiery fighter for all sorts of "rights" of man, because he has made his name and fortune in the new and liberal courts, etc.

This kind of people are not as harmful and dangerous as people are noble and honest! .. Such people, incorrigible morally, but politically very easily correctable by some bribes, — Fortunately, we have many more. Policy — No ethicsWhat to do …! It has its laws, independent Moral.

There have also landowners, only liberal upwards: The works of their emancipation and they are upset, not sympathizing egalitarian reforms, liberal only in opposition sense of annoyance.

Women who are, and we are very influential, the most liberal part of the softness, on compassion, on a false understanding of Christianity or, finally, because no raison d'etat for them is not clear … etc.

What is all this systematic malice? .. There are, of course, if you like, in our society, a slight tinge of rebelliousness, there is some innocent and sometimes empty, sometimes pernicious nonsense petty opposition. But the persistent and deliberate indulgence atrocities we have most liberals do not see.

The "majority", I say, but you can not say that does not such indulgence.

Anyone can point out the facts of this kind, on the facts known to all, but somehow by the way today suddenly forgets.

Now I will say a few words about liberalism institutions, and then spread more about liberalism people, acting on the basis of these institutions, or under the influence benefits, new institutions granted.

I will not treat a lot of themselves reforms. Mr. Gradovsky says thoroughly that new institutions — law, the will of the government, and therefore they must obey.

It's true, and I will not allow myself to criticize here reform. But I will note only one thing: time to admit that "equality and freedom" — civic ideals, we must sincerely sympathize with the reforms and admit that this soil (On the basis of equality and liberty) reform our well done. But I have another question: Can a long time, more not a hundred years stand what else society with equality and freedom?.. But this principle in doubt after … And now — about liberalism Russian people on the basis of new institutions and by the modern benefits.

This is where it starts something suspicious, and if not always directly villainous, either very stupid and frivolous, or very insidious and unclean.

Let's see what has been done and is being done so far liberal people on the basis of liberal institutions. Let's see how served These "associates" of the government … "Russia and the Emperor", — Says Mr. Gradovsky. My pedantry is a monarchical order of the words does not like it, I propose to speak —Sovereign and Russia, for I do not understand French, who know how to love any France and any France to serve … I wish that my homeland was worthy of my respect, and Russia any (For example, one in which Gradovsky Stasyulevich and would limit the power of ministers) I did on coercion make … Mr. Gradovsky judges apparently different.

So, let's see how people are Russian liberal spirit served the Emperor and Russia on the basis of these reforms.

Mr. Gradovsky mentioned the Zemstvo and courts, the universities, the Press, the emancipation of the peasants to the land.

We begin though with zemstvo. In our opinion, the Zemstvo reform is better than new ships. It is still something, "soil", solid, and most importantly, it's good that the device zemstva have something of their own, which is not in the courts, eclectically retired from Western models. But in the European courts evil and affected a much tougher and sharper than the impact in the zemstvo.

However, in the zemstvo often swept such spirit that can not be called a government or a protective and liberal, that is, not passing over the line privileges granted.

Here are a few examples. In one province in the running for a certain vowels — a local landowner, educated man as all, and any misdemeanors special for him is not listed. Almost all of the black balls. Why so? What is it? ..

He close to the governor, and he it seems to be oneAnd we do not want to administration knew everything that we do, and would influence here …

What is the administration? This is nothing like the government itself en detail. What is a governor? It does not get this person in order after the third emperor of power, as in ordinary time (ie in the absence of military governors-general) governor is up to the minister, and the minister is the nearest exponent of the Supreme Will.

Suppose it's no big deal. And the district council is also a governmental body of some kind. It can allow in some cases be as small what happens in England opposition, ie on the one hand, the Ministry of Her Majesty the other — Her Majesty's opposition also. I know that for me it can be argued very thoroughly yet: "The opposition may be protective, and even deeply reactionary character" … Yes, in theory this is true; but in practice, in Russia, we do not see nearly

To clarify our thoughts imagine yourself the following composition Zemsky County Council: the rich landowners — the late Ivan Kireyevsky and recently deceased elderly Count Ignatiev (1st), which in St. Petersburg was the home church, A very intelligent young man himself latest, latest style, which is already sick of the Moscow University more than liberal mates (they are after all so uninteresting!), he likes to Schopenhauer and Hartmann, so pessimist for all of humanity and prosperity does not believe, then he three merchant — conservatives, a few poor landowners in the shower angry liberals, but wanting to be members of the council, because they need the money. In favor of the first three people they pretend to be guardians, then the peasants, community representatives, and between them a few dogmatists, two representatives of the monasteries, some retired military who want peace and respect the discipline, etc. The entire structure of the kind …

Of course, that is not abused to the district council rights and often made in opposition to the right-hand side, and in no way not leftBut … it usually happens with us? Similar to the composition of our Zemstvo on a similar pattern? And what usually happens when the administration and the district council to disagree with something? ..

When the two bodies — the administration and the district council (put both on government source) — Take their dead fight, one finds this: the government, highlighting of himself, so to speak, the district council and granted him the famous perks is at this moment that these benefits fairly and bolshih it finds useful to give … So the administration is entrusted to watch, so that in the County of liberalism spirit it does not go beyond hell Liberal Law. District council, in a sense of the natural and inherent to every human institution is constantly striving to pass this trait is not in a form that is in the spirit, that is, weaken the local action of the government itself, which granted him the right toAnd … because the majority of Russia is still naively believe that all our disasters come from backwardness and not on the progress of the lack of Europeanism and the present, and not from excessive imitation, all these aspirations to cross the line breaks, the whole small opposition takes most of the reactionary and not conservative and egalitarian-liberal, reinforcing first general relaxation, and then licentiousness.

His opposition of Velichestva this small but constant resistance easily without knowing it, is reborn in his opposition Velichestwu.

All this is very difficult, of course, but we must try, as far as there is strength, disassemble this complexity. Our nobility, for example, that it is "conservative" or not? Here's an important question, because although the nobility as estate almost does not exist de facto since 1861, but it is in the province continues to play a primary role: first, as the "intelligentsia", and secondly, as a large landowning class. What is this current nobility?

Nobles — is primarily Russian Europeans, grown on European concepts of the XIX century, that is, on vague concepts based on the rickety, on reading such books and newspapers, all of which is criticized and rejected by many, as immutable axioms considered only the principles of liberal-egalitarian progress, ie, les droits de l'homme … These Russian Europeans are in most cases very loyalAnd they are ready to go to war for the Emperor or to send to death for the home of his sons, and they are willing to sacrifice and money … In an environment far more noble than in any other class, we find people of noble, generous and honest. But personal morality (I said it), and even personal valor, taken by themselves, do not have a more personal and organizing public. Organizes not personal virtue, not a subjective sense of honor, and the ideas objective, outside of us standing, primarilyreligion. Does our religious nobility? Piously whether or not it?

No doubt, our peasants morally far below the nobility, they were often brutal, absurdly suspicious, they drink a lot of bad faith in the transactions between them a lot of thieves, but they have certain objective ideas; There fear of sin and love yourself the principle of power. Bosses bold, solid, polished and even cool they like… Bishops, generals, commanders of the military man is not only our respect, like them Byzantine his feelings … Crosses the king he loves and looks at them with an almost mystical respect. That is whether the current nobility? .. We will be sincere … Many nobles Gambetta or Bright like more than Ants (Vilna) and Paskevich …

It is understood that this is? Let us take one more example from one province … The question arises whether to admit the representatives of the secular clergy in the elections in vowels or not. In St. Petersburg, decided: "To admit, because they may have a moral influence." Nobility is responsible restrained smile on that comment the moral influence clergy. Priests are running for vowels. All non-elected. What is this? Legality respected, freedom of choice … Good! Freedom choice, but why this spirit freedom and progress? On this question I answer, the district council — it primarily economic, economic, for the priests?

It seems to me that the farmers and merchants of old would look at the part of the priests serious.

So be it, as long as it does not at all maliciousness, not sedition, it's just the same Zeitgeist. It is, rather, the European levity, contemporary need to move for at least a bypass line and certainly not right and left. It's still pretty harmless and apparently quite legitimate opposition, and nothing more.

But that's important … is coming, almost scary question schoolsZemstva … given the right to establish schools, contain and control them, subject to certain formalities. These schools placed under special supervision of directors and inspectors from zemstva not depend, in addition, there are higher school boards, which sit on different members of the observer, the director of the gymnasium, for example, marshal, etc. So what? Despite all this supervision on all legal obstacles laid, apparently as unwary naive progress, and maliciousnessIn school … penetrated to the very last time so many unwanted … it took twice the attention to them, even the tables are zoological, taste Darwin, anticipating, we observe and most science. For in these tables is displayed with solemn and expressive silence Stairs RA beings from ciliates to humans: whereas in most detached from any moral constraint foreign science is still the question of how to understand Darwinism (or kinship animal types) — a relationship real, physiological or as relatives perfect, like crystal forms of kinship or of architectural styles?

There were said to be in educational activities zemstvoes such examples. Priests are asked to do not worry, and only come to the exams, and if advances in God's law will be good, the priest gives the district council monetary reward. Priests are poor, besides many of them are semi-liberals, is due to the one that are subject to the black clergy ("this parasites-monks reaching the episcopal dignity "). The priests are silent, and the children are approaching people for the most part, at least, questionable.

There were also other kinds of things, and I know that the house of a leader of the public school teacher publicly preached the following things:

"Luxury! Who speaks against the comfort and luxury? Here (in the house of the landlord) — well, beautiful. But it must be a more even distribution of all of this. See how the peasants live, look at the church. In the church of luxury: gold, silver, and all this accumulation of wealth can turn to other, more useful. If the peasants unable to support the church, they were unable to instead of this church support and club, in which they would gradually get used to the cleanliness, to the comforts of life, would read the newspaper, "etc.

They all listen and no one even finds these malicious speech. All of this — a pleasant conversation and nothing more. In this case, we hear the full range of liberal show, we see all the shades of liberal coloring — the explicit nihilism (bad faith) in the person of the teacher to the simple-indulgence and neglect of the agrarian leaders, and even to the indulgence of the police authorities. How so? Here's how: agrarian leaders listen and silent, perhaps not finding it serious, and can be, and agreeing with the teacher that early or later it and must be so, "You can not just suddenly rip off from the people bark of old superstitions ". That's what I do not call explicitly malicious, but simply — Progressive emptiness, extension simplicity, European stupidity …

But the point is, say, came to the governor's teacher caught, captured, sent somewhere, and somewhere Used released againAnd … it again in the same province. After a while, probably will be teaching … You ask, what do you do with all this? .. I will not say — I do not know, but I will say — wait a talk about it

In the meantime, this is what "The Voice" in another article ("Sad notes") says the following:

"The only thing in society means to discuss the situation and to find measures to combat evil — print. What does it say to us? Nothing but phrases. Foreign newspapers are incomparably our thoroughness, Russian disassemble the position of the case, indicate the outcome of it, will offer measures. And we? Why do not we might as well rounded, deeply explore the question, we so close? What is the danger, if and when it was suggested incorrect, proposed measures are impossible. The use of the same would be great: and the government, and society would know all those elements, among which it lives and which should be considered, and finally, and printing would be more serious about their tasks and to the important issues of concern to the homeland. "

Listen! Do you think people with liberal can argue deep and comprehensively?.. You will cover the silent contempt those who allow themselves to get out of the range of commonly accepted notions … the old Slavophiles tried to do it … And what happened? Where traces of their teaching? .. They became influential only when, setting aside his cherished dream of Slavonic originality, began to care only about the nesvoeobraznoy side of the case, ie, Slavic freedom. While it was a question originality, everyone laughed at "Cap-murmolkoy", despite the fact that the change in the external forms of life is the surest sign of a deep and powerful changes in the spirit of. And when Russia's call roused them? Then, when it came to the release of the Slavs from all that is what prevented them so far become the most common European wimps! Prior to the national identity and creativity, to the national identity we do not care, we just lost the ability to understand what it is — the originality and creativity, etc., and how it is that it appears that even slavery, and all sorts of embarrassment, in many cases, develop a personality — And folk, and unit more (ie, expressive) than the current Europe-wide freedom? .. In other words, how is it so turns out that the right and opportunity to live identity, is neither more nor less than the right and opportunity — become like all?..

In the power to, for example, Mr. Gradovsky or friendly version of him to take seriously that's a thought:

"Egalitarian individualism destroyed individuality characters? "

Do not just a collection of words and phrases? It must be so! ..

Or is it possible to argue with liberals "deep and comprehensive" if only on public education?

Try someone with integrity and complete sincerity grounds to doubt the most educational affairs wherever it was, and not only in Russia? Dare to remind Vl. Dahl! Try to say that it is not clear whether and useful if, in fact, a lot to teach the people, whether well try to force our EU-wide concept, our tastes, our ideals, our prejudices and our horrendous mistakes? ..

What is the answer to the person directly and not fearful of original thought? Laughter or silence.

Or let anyone try to express this thought: "Knowledge and ignorance — the essence of funds amounting to development"!..

"What is this nonsense" — is not it? ..

"What kind of preaching ignorance! .. What the new obscurantism welcome! .. "

But enough! Another time, I'll try to prove that in every field of "liberals" passed away left for new line institutions, and served Emperor and Russia, if not always subtly, in any case, extremely frivolous and not smart … Here's the kind of Scylla and Charybdis for friends "freedom" … Who was crafty, he was smart, for reaching its goal — Disorders general … And who was direct and honest in his enthusiasm, he was wrong, or bitter, or just do not realize the state.

The state keeps no one freedom and some restraint and austerity, as elusive as yet for the social sciences harmony between the discipline of faith, government, laws, traditions and customs, on the one hand, and on the other — the one real freedom of the person, which is possible even with the existence in China torture… "Do not do that which is forbidden, if you're afraid of torture … And if you're not afraid — as you know." This choice was possible at all times, and people did choose… If you can live and act in such circumstances, how could not live and act calmly in new institutions and so soft? .. However, we see that nowhere people on these soft facilities stay can not, and all the civilized Humanity is now committed innumerable crowd into some dark abyss of the future … the abyss of an invisible yet, but the proximity of which is at all gradually begin to bring despair and horror!.

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