Value — Navy adaptation to modern challenges and threats to the Russian Federation
The role of the Navy in the defense of our country is defined in the Marine Strategy Russian Federation. But what are the challenges and prospects of the Russian Navy replenishment with new ships, equipment and weapons?
Ability to solve various military and political tasks — that’s the main motive for any state to have effective armed forces, including the Navy and. The presence of Russian Navy — impartial and historically confirmed the need, one of the binding criterion security of Russia, its public interests, economic and cultural development. The fleet is one of the important attributes of Russian statehood. Based on the geopolitical situation of our homeland and the challenges facing its armed patrons, the Navy in its composition has kind of forces that are capable of operating in all areas of surface, underwater, in the air and on land.
Military-political background and main objectives
Has changed dramatically in the XXI century, the situation in the oceans, as a steady increase in the interests of the major powers of the planet to the redistribution of marine areas for industrial development of their natural resources required to maintain the appropriate level of the Russian Navy, constant development and improvement of naval weapons systems.
» Determining in the form of new ships for the Russian Navy will be their ability to conduct cooperation with other branches of the Armed Forces «
The difficult economic situation of the Russian Federation in the last 15-20 years is very bad affect the marine potential of our country, for all its components and interrelated components: transport, fisheries, naval and research fleets. Reflected on this scientific, industrial frames shipbuilding industry on a diverse and unique characteristics contingent on a number of specialists sailors.
Destruction of Russian national economy that followed the death of the USSR directly led to the underfunding of the Navy acquired, which resulted in a reduction of ship on a background of the aging fleet, the rejection of promising plans for its construction. As a result, since the 90s, our country has significantly reduced its presence in a number of ocean and marine areas.
Currently, the Navy forces are contained in the set of combat readiness, provided, though not in the same volume, all fit. Ships and aircraft are limited composition of combat duty, single ships and submarines involved in combat service in the operational areas of principle. But taking into account the actual state of the Navy, scientific, technical and industrial base, currently purposefully read not only on the development of the fleet, and in the formation of his new military-political criteria and more fundamentally — the economic environment.
The database Marine Strategy RF laid two main objectives: in peacetime — nuclear deterrence at the strategic level and naval cooperation in the interaction of international forces in wartime — timely defense, and suppression of anger reflected from offshore destinations.
Implementation of major bastings in the construction plans and updates of the Russian Navy is designed to provide a qualitatively new creation and more than a modern fleet, which in significant reductions in the number of criteria for all kinds of forces should very likely save your own combat power potential, become less burdensome for the country economically and be able to adequately protect and defend the national interests of Russia and nearby away from its shores.
When choosing ways to develop fundamental nuance Navy is its ability to adapt to today’s security challenges of the country. Namely, in the Russian Federation Military Doctrine, approved by the President February 5, 2010, to the main objectives of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and other troops in peacetime, not including strategic deterrence, including the prevention of military conflicts have been attributed fight against terrorism and piracy, to ensure the safety of navigation and economic activities in the oceans role in peacekeeping operations, the suppression of acts of anger (breach of the peace).
To perform these tasks need alternate, obmyslenny based on the deepest analysis and consideration of various options threats reasons the country at different levels, as development of adequate ways of countering them, according to the available resources.
With reference to shipbuilding is determine the relevance of research and development of modular options ships and equip them with the most diverse weapons — shock, anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-mine, anti-sabotage, search and rescue.
One of the important problems of today — the creation of marine systems, unmanned, unmanned vehicles, boats, solve puzzles in all environments without the help of others as well as in promoting among themselves and Mothership.
Separate problem — the development of means to ensure the security of the maritime boundary in general and shore facilities viz.
Such questions are not only enthusiasm for the Russian Navy, and for the naval forces of other states. They are, namely, open a discussion at a meeting of the Main Armaments Group NATO naval forces with partner countries (NATO Naval Armaments Group — NNAG), held in June 2011 in St. Petersburg during the 5 th of the International Maritime Defence Show (IMDS 2011). So when considering the theme «Protecting ports» reporting on the outcome of research Lisbon Port: based on analysis of 4000 threat scenarios here it was possible not only to identify eight more unsafe sources of risk and vulnerable parts of 19, and offer appropriate security measures.
It should be noted that in NATO timely response to the burning challenges given the same attention. In block has a post of Supreme Commander Transformation unified armed forces (VGKT NATO), which from 29 July 2009 to the end of September 2012 A representative of France, General Stefan Abriel (Stephane Abrial), and now — as the Frenchman — Air Force General Jean-Paul Palomero (Jean-Paul Palomeros).
In an interview during a recent visit to Moscow Stefan Abriel led the transformation of NATO forces as work on three fronts: the creation of strategic development for the future, the development of military capabilities, military and educational training. All three areas are developed on the basis of analysis of the experience of the exercise and the alliance’s why running a special structure, located in Portugal. Central Authority — Command Transformation (CT) taken in Norfolk. In general, its activities should be implemented in the program «Smart Defense» — achieving goals means available.
Certainly, our Navy will have a new quality only through widespread use of modern science and the introduction of new technologies. Maximum efficiency of the naval forces should be determined on the balance as puzzles and Systems tools.
In recent years there has been a positive trend in the Russian military shipbuilding. On municipal defense order mostly finalized head samples and unfolding construction serial virtually all classes of ships. Expanding military-technical cooperation. Become better financial position of the companies of the defense-industrial complex. Grow investment in R & D and. Too early to talk about the fact that the situation has come that we are quite satisfied and ensures the development of the Navy need. But there is a positive trend. More companies are not engaged in the issues of their own survival, and constructive systematic work to create new models of naval technology.
Currently, tests are completed cerebral strategic missile fourth generation «Yury Dolgoruky» Project 955 «Borey». Launched and runs municipal tests 2nd submarine — «Alexander Nevsky». Construction of a series of such ships, which would amount to the base term of the strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation, will be carried out in an impartial criteria of economic problems, the so-called resource-saving technology, with the introduction of a wide existing backlog of material, equipment and a huge accumulation of experience.
At the PO «Sevmash» is preparing to test a multipurpose nuclear submarine fourth generation «Severodvinsk» Project 885 «Ash». The development of such vehicles will be produced in the process of upgrading serial construction, providing increased levels of both major TTX, and a reduction in price.
Taking into account the long-term production of new submarines, Special Navy already preoccupied with forming type submarines, which will come to replace the currently under construction.
Not so long ago adopted the Navy and passes trial operation diesel submarine Project 677 «Lada». Head NNS named «St. Petersburg.» This submarine reflects modern trends in the global non-nuclear shipbuilding: the presence of missile, multifunctionality, determines the number of operated submarine tasks, the low level of physical fields.
Promising direction is the development of unified electric power systems with electronic propeller units (elektrodvizhitelnyh complexes).
Introduction of full electric propulsion systems on ships can improve their maneuverability properties, reliability and survivability of power plants to reduce the amount mezhpohodovogo service, extend the capabilities of unit repair and on this basis the stress ratio increment in the cycle of use of units, the ability to implement standardization and unification of parts of the electric propulsion systems of ships different classes.
No specific connection between the primary engines and propellers helps elect rational characteristics and those of others, and on this basis to improve the economic properties of ships with electric propulsion.
Not to mention such an innovative direction, as the involvement of the effect of superconductivity, which allows to reduce weight and size characteristics of electrical equipment, increment transmitted in an electronic system to reduce the power and electronic loss. Meanwhile increment efficiency of ship electric power.
In the midst of new surface ships must be emphasized frigate «Admiral Gorshkov» Project 22350. In 2010 JSC «Severnaya Verf» celebratory descent of the lead ship. These frigates will be one of the most advanced combat units in its class.
Bookmark OAO «Shipyard» Yantar «Project 11356 frigates shows the effective application of the acquired backlog export of ships for the Indian Navy.
Is an active serial construction of corvettes on «Shipbuilding Plant» Severnaya Verf «and JSC» Amur Shipyard. » So, at the IMDS-2011 demonstrated corvette «savvy», which is the second in a series of ships of «Guarding» 20380. It differs from the head and arms improved features, namely a new anti-aircraft missile system «Redoubt» instead of air defense missile-gun system «Chestnut».
On the corvette foreseen accommodation embedded systems head and a threaded shell command Fri Extensively applied solutions on the reduction of visibility: the special shape of the hull and superstructure, the add-in is made of composite material, which is an innovation in surface shipbuilding Russia.
To replenish the Caspian Flotilla at JSC «SF» Diamond «series is constructed of small artillery ships (IAC) Project 21630» Buyan «. Lead ship «Astrakhan» already served, at the present time are acceptance tests of the second ship of this type — «Volgodonsk.» Mariners plan to pass three more — 5 MAK.
For the development of mine-sweeping naval forces at JSC «Srednenevsky Shipyard» is built base minesweeper project 12700 «Alexander» of composite materials, kitted out with modern weapons Mine. For the hull has been specifically designed brand new development on the basis of more advanced domestic and foreign experience in the construction of ships and vessels of plastic.
This year for the Russian Navy in France was founded first of 2-landing helicopter dock ships of the «Mistral», equipped with the most modern systems of communication and control. DVKD — universal ships projecting military force and control the actions of operational groupings. Lead ship named «Vladivostok».
In 2010, adopted by the anti-seal cutter. Designed it spetsy Nizhny Novgorod Design Bureau «Vympel», and it was built at the shipyard of «Zelenodolsky plant Gorky.»
In perspective for 2013-2015 is scheduled to begin the creation of a new ship class «destroyer.»
Conducted study of the concept of an aircraft carrier, capable to solve puzzles in all environments and not a repetition of heavy aircraft (VLA) such as «Smith» or AVMA «Nimitz».
Determining in the form of new ships for the Russian Navy will be their ability to conduct cooperation with other branches of the Armed Forces and allied troops, massed use precision instrument, the use of modern information tools and systems that possess the highest secrecy (first on the acoustic field and submarines in the upper hemisphere — for surface ships), to protect against air attack, the highest combat stability. At first foreground operational survivability issues. When designing ships get priority development of missile systems with vertical start and standardized launchers. High-jump is made up functional information systems using phased arrays motionless. There will be new electronic warfare equipment, lighting, surface and underwater situation, combat information management systems of last generation.
So Makar, complete approach to the construction of the Russian Navy, founded in Marine doctrine and existing handbills promising, will allow the Russian fleet remain the real power, the presence of which the prisoners in the world, a force which protects and defends national interests, almost all providing our country status of majestic power.
Deputy Chief of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Navy for Research, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Doctor, Captain 1st rank