Myocardial infarction

Captives of a heart attack.

Myocardial infarction is known as a terrible disease, taking lives. No wonder the man was upset his words or actions, saying "bring to a heart attack." This saying reflects one of the characteristics of a heart attack — it can trigger the development of strong emotional feelings and stress. Physical stress — is also among the "agents provocateurs". But the most common heart attack begins in the morning, after waking up, when the transition from night to day activity holiday supplies heart increased load.

But not everyone waves working or waking man "grabs the heart." What is a heart attack, and why it occurs?

What is it?

One in two men and one in three women will meet with coronary artery disease and its severe manifestations — myocardial infarction. What do we know about him?

Myocardial infarction — an acute form of coronary heart disease. It occurs when the blood delivery stops to any cardiac muscle department. If blood flow is disturbed by15-20 minutes or more, the "starving" part of the heart dies. This site destruction (necrosis) of cardiac cells and is called a myocardial infarction. Blood flow to the appropriate department of the heart muscle is violated when an atherosclerotic plaque, located in the lumen of one of the vessels of the heart, by the load is destroyed, and at the injury site formed a blood clot (thrombus). The person thus feels unbearable pain in the chest that can not be removed, even taking a few pills nitroglycerin row.

Just how dangerous myocardial infarction, eloquent statistics. Of all patients with acute myocardial infarction before arriving at the hospital, only half survive, and this percentage is almost the same for countries with different levels of medical emergencies. Of admitted to hospital and another third die before discharge because of of fatal complications. And after infarction at its location on the whole life scar remains — a kind of scar on the heart muscle.

Recently, myocardial infarction rapidly "younger." Now it is not uncommon when it affects people, nearly thirty years have stepped threshold. However, in women younger than 50 years of a heart attack — a rarity. Prior to this turn of their vessels are protected from atherosclerosis, estrogen and other sex hormones. But with the onset of menopause women, on the contrary, become ill more often than men.

Why did this happen?

The main reason for the disease — atherosclerosis, which almost everyone of us. In addition, we call life circumstances (and beyond our control, and is not), in which the most likely to get high:

  • male;
  • dangerous age for women comes after 50 years;
  • heredity (CHD heart attack, cerebral stroke, at least one of the immediate family: parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters, especially if they have the disease began before age 55);
  • high cholesterol (greater than 5 mmol / L or greater than 200 mg / dL);
  • Smoking (one of the most important risk factors!)
  • overweight and sedentary lifestyle;
  • increase in blood pressure. (more than 140/90 mm Hg at any age);
  • diabetes mellitus.

The presence of at least one of these factors actually increases the risk of an "acquaintance" with myocardial infarction. Moreover, the accession of each new risk factor increases the likelihood of ill exponentially.

They also say that male pattern baldness is a kind of precursor to a heart attack as a factor in the appearance of baldness is the increased androgen levels, and in the case of hormonal fluctuations body responds to changes in hormone levels rise in blood pressure and increased levels of cholesterol in the blood.

What if this happens?

Atherosclerosis — the process by which a wall of the large arteries deposited some fat (cholesterol and other lipids), if they are contained in excess in the blood. Those places in the vascular wall, especially where many lipid concentrations are referred to as atherosclerotic plaque. Plaque — the most vulnerable spot in the vascular wall. Especially if it is "young" and it had not yet deposited calcium. In the most unexpected moment wall plaques, and, therefore, the inner membrane of the heart arteries can crack ruptured himself. For the body is an alarm. Crack it seeks to heal the blood clot. Therefore, the damaged site immediately begins to wind down blood. Thrombus formation resembles a rolling hill snowball. If he does not interfere, the clot grows rapidly until it closes the entire lumen of the artery. Then it stops the blood flow, cell death begins and develops myocardial infarction. The larger the artery, which closed the clot, the greater the myocardial cells die.

The integrity of the atherosclerotic plaque can break heart palpitations and high blood pressure.

Heart attack may begin during a severe physical or emotional stress, but often it develops for no apparent reason, as if out of nowhere. Possible — even in his sleep. But the "favorite" of his time — the early morning.

Depending on the size of infarction are divided intomacrofocal, in which necrosis extends through the entire thickness of heart muscle, andsmall focal. Macrofocal heart attacks are more dangerous anterior wall infarction. When a heart attack back or side walls, especially small focal (not full thickness), its effects are not as traumatic. The scar on the heart muscle remains for life. It can not dissolve, and history of myocardial heart "remembers" always.

Symptoms and diagnosis of myocardial

The first sign of allowing suspected heart attack usually becomes severe chest pain that is in the middle of the chest. Normally at rest, crushes, burns, compresses, can give in the arm, shoulder, back, jaw and neck. When angina such pain occurs during exercise, and myocardial she is stronger and more begins at rest and does not go after taken one after the other three nitroglycerin tablets (1 tablet under the tongue every 5 minutes).

In the presence of these symptoms call your "ambulance". Ability to endure in this case — a dangerous enemy. Sometimes the disease is manifested by vomiting or abdominal discomfort, disruptions in the heart or breathing problems, loss of consciousness, or … nothing.

Yes, it does happen: man suffered a heart attack, not even noticing. The so-called painless form of myocardial infarction is more common in people with diabetes. The changes in myocardial clearly visible on elektrokardiograme. For clarification of the scope and extent of damage can be assigned to cardiac ultrasound (echocardiography), which allows you to see the structural changes. In some cases, the doctor may recommend the scintigraphy.

Treatment

In order not to risk the slightest suspicion ofheart attack doctors send people to the emergency department of the hospital. And the sooner, the better. After all, only in the first few hours, introducing special preparations can be dissolved "fresh" blood clot and restore blood flow in a coronary artery. Then should prevent the formation of new blood clots. To do this, use the medications that slow blood clotting. One of the most reliable means — acetylsalicylic acid, that is, ordinary aspirin. It reduces the number of complications and prolongs the life of those who have suffered a heart attack.

Often used in the treatment of beta-blockers. These drugs reduce myocardial oxygen demand, and hence save cardiac muscle cells from destruction, reduce the size of necrosis. At the same time they make the heart work more economical that myocardial very important.

In recent years, for the treatment of myocardial used not only medicines. In particular, so-called invasive methods include coronary balloon angioplasty. Angioplasty illustrates the ineffectiveness of drug therapy. In ano
ther case, a heart surgeon can offer coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

In the early days of strict bed rest is mandatory. At this time, the damaged heart can not withstand even minimal stress. Previously, people had a heart attack did not rise from the bed a few weeks. Today the term bed rest significantly reduced. Still, at least three days after a heart attack should be in bed under the care of doctors. Then allowed to sit after getting up, going … It starts recovery, adaptation to a new "post-infarct" life.

Rehabilitation after heart attack

Can I go back after a heart attack to normal life? Firmly say "yes" or "no" is difficult. After all, it is at everyone: one works as a loader and the other spends his days behind a desk. First it will be difficult to engage the usual activities, and the second will be a little that way. In addition, complications, and do heart attacks are different.

Recovering from a heart attack lasts for several months. Because the disease is not joking, it needs to review its way of life, something it changed. Rehabilitation begins in the hospital, where along the way with a premium of drugs and the passage of physiotherapy gradually build up the intensity of the exercise. (Emphasis — the word "gradually"). In no case do not force events. Therapeutic exercise, walking on a flat surface first, then — on the stairs … By the way, stairway — a good test for readiness for an active life. If the patient can climb at a moderate pace on the fourth floor without feeling chest pain or shortness of breath, then recovery is successful. For a more accurate assessment of the test is often used with metered load. Usually it is performed on a special bicycle — a bicycle ergometer or "treadmill".

How long should I take the medication? The answer is the same: life! Even if you feel fine. It is because it is a great, ever taken drugs that help the heart.

Is it possible to be sexually active after a heart attack? Unashamedly ask this question to your doctor. It will all depend on how you carry physical activity (a sexual act — it's a load, and considerable). But there are general rules for all of which we must remember that the sexual contact ended pleasure, not a new heart attack. First, he must be familiar with the partner, second in familiar surroundings, andand thirdly, selecting the position for intercourse, you must choose one in which the load is minimal — for example, on its side.

Prophylaxis

From some of the risk factors (gender and heredity) can not escape. But all the other quite amenable to our efforts!

  • Maintain a normal blood pressure, as well as keep an eye on the weather — for example, for people with high blood pressure are dangerous heat and geomagnetic storms.
  • Normalize blood sugar levels.
  • Move more! It is not necessary to "run from a heart attack," enough to walk in the fresh air for at least 5-6 kilometers per day.
  • It is important to stop smoking — it one of the "aggressive" risk factors.
  • Try to lose weight. What should be a normal weight? Let's count: your weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. The resulting number is called the body mass index. We must strive to ensure that it does not exceed 26. Nutrition should be a minimum content of animal fat and cholesterol. More vegetables and fruits. Instead of fatty pork — white meat poultry, butter substitute sunflower, fat — fish. Such a diet, not only reduces the level of cholesterol, but also costs.

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