Many mysteries of volcanoes remain undiscovered because of the impossibility of direct study of these objects. Scientists can not always predict the eruption, and the main way to deal with it remain passive measures — the evacuation of people from the dangerous area and stop air service. The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 led to the temporary closure of the airspace over Europe for flights. Supervisory authorities feared that volcanic ash can damage aircraft engines and aircraft flying lead to tragedy.
Photos: Underwater Volcano
In the history of geographical discoveries reputable European sailors have repeatedly applied to the card seen on the horizon, the island that disappeared without a trace at the time of the next marine expeditions, sailing in these areas. What is striking, such stories taking place in the South Seas, where the icebergs, which can be taken from a distance of the island, there is simply no. Probably for most of these mysterious cases are responsible … underwater volcanoes. With strong eruptions underwater volcanoes can float on the surface of the whole islands floating Volcanic pumice, which after some time (from several days to several months), split apart and sink. In October 2012 the naval forces of New Zealand officially announced the discovery in the Pacific Ocean island of drifting Volcanic pumice area of 26 thousand (!) square kilometers, which is comparable to the area of Belgium. However, new volcanoes, born under water, can give life and conventional islands. In 1963, after the eruption of underwater volcano
off the coast of Iceland, there was a small island of Surtsey, named after the mythological fire giant Surtur by name. In 2008, the island of Surtsey was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Active Volcanoes may threaten not only individual regions of large countries, but also the whole island civilizations and territories. For a long time it was thought that the eruption volcano on the island of Santorini was cause
death of an advanced civilization of Crete. In fact, the Minoan civilization can survive for about a century, after a series of collapsed on her natural disasters (eruption, tsunami, earthquakes). But it has been weakened so much that was soon captured by the Achaeans (Ancient Greek tribe), losing political independence and cultural identity. In the 1995 eruption volcano Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat (UK overseas territories) destroyed the capital city of Plymouth. The Government has moved to the village Breyds. Two-thirds of the residents left Montserrat for two years after the eruption. The victim of the eruption volcano the southern part of the island is still closed territory.
Photos of Soufriere Hills volcano
The largest volcanoes (Supervolcanoes) can "sleep" for thousands of years, but in the case of the "awakening" of their activity can be incredible. The biggest fear among scientists is the volcano (the Yellowstone caldera), located in Yellowstone Park in the United States. Some calculations predict its massive eruption in the XXI century. It can dramatically change the Earth's climate through "Volcanic Winter "(pollution volcanic ashes), leading to worldwide cooling.
Photo Yellowstone caldera of a volcano that could explode at any moment.
Of all the countries in the world the highest number of Volcanoes on its territory boasts Indonesia. They are on different data from 400 to 500.
The causes of volcanoes (Appearance and eruptions) may include not only natural geological processes, but in the human activities. Besides the well-known lava Volcanoes, There are so-called mud
Volcanoes. In 2006, the eruption of mud volcano in Sidoarjo (Indonesia). The reason it was a bad start drilling test wells. Hot mud flows destroyed several nearby villages and factories. More than eleven thousand people were forced to move to other areas.