Germany's population is gradually decreasing. In 2003, the Federal Republic of Germany lived 82,530,000 people, this is forecast to statisticians, 81.8. By 2060 the population will decrease by 19% — up to 66 million people. By the time Germany has long cease to be the most populous country in Europe.
Large families have started to go out of fashion in Germany in the 70's of the last century. At the same time the new prosperity of West Germany the birth rate dropped to around 1.4, well below the 2.1 needed to maintain the population of the country at least on one level.
The number of births in the year before, down to the level of the post-war — 663 thousand Baby boom came in 1964, when both parts of Germany came to light 1.4 million children.
Not surprisingly, since 1972, there is a natural decline in population, ie the number of deaths exceeds the number of Germans invariably emerged into the light. And the difference is growing: in 2010, 181 thousand and 190 thousand in 2011.
The blame for the looming demographic catastrophe all. And, unlike the vast majority of countries, in Germany, a man in the reduction of the population are to blame, even more than the fairer sex. Study of Population Policy Acceptance Study, conducted last year, found that 23% of men in Germany, that is actually one in four Germans, prefer to see in the "number of children" — 0.
The main thing — Psychology
Of course, one can not say that in other European countries, the demographic situation prosperous. However, if those countries difficult economic situation does not allow their governments to spend big money on a program to increase the birth rate, then Germany is an island of well-being in crisis-ridden Europe, and the picture is different in it. Money in the Federal Republic of Germany is, child benefits and a variety of social welfare payments for parents grow with each passing year. For example, last year it is impressive Berlin has spent 197.8 billion euros. However, the current trend of change is not possible.
The failure is easily explained. The trouble is that the Germans that this problem seems to be solved not only financially, but with no money, of course, can not do anything now, but on the level of consciousness. Need to change the psychology and mindset. Do the same, of course, much more difficult than to increase the child allowance and other benefits.
It should start, perhaps, with the fact that the personal example to show the Germans to no one. At Chancellor Angela Merkel has no children. Should be changed and psychology experts say. And first of all — the attitude toward working mothers.
"If you examine the numbers, — explained to the New York Times director of the Moscow Institute for Population and Development Rainer Klingholts — then you can see that the greater equality between the sexes, the higher birth rate."
From Germans expect that they will stay at home and raise children. The same ones that are going to work, often seen as bad mothers. Not surprisingly, this attitude has led many to think carefully before you give birth.
Many working mothers, in addition, immediately after the work is transferred to low-wage "miniraboty", with about 17-hour work week and the salary in the region of 450 euros per month. Such women in Germany more than 4 million, ie every fourth working German.
Another way to deal with the reduction of the population — to convince retirees to postpone retirement. Now Germany's retirement age is 67 years, although not so long ago, this figure was 2 years below. The share of workers aged 55 to 64 years has grown in 10 years from 38.9% in 2002 to 61.5% in the past.
Large reserve — for migrants. It should be borne in mind that one in three newborn appears in a family of aliens. Without them, the number of babies would not exceed 400 thousand and a recent study found that more than half of Greeks and Spaniards who come to Germany to work, left for the first year. And many of them — qualified young people. In addition to the objective reasons such as the one that recently migrants long in one place do not stay anywhere else, there are also subjective reasons. For example — often negative attitude of Germans toward foreigners, forcing the workers to leave the country in a more hospitable.
Really Old World
Population problem is acute not only in Germany but all over the continent, which, as it turns out, is no accident has been named the Old World. Birth rates are falling far from universal. If the birth rate in Germany in the last 13 years was 11%, in some European countries, on the contrary, has increased: in France, 3.6% in the UK — 4.3%, Ireland — 8.9%, and in Spain — by 12.8%.
The situation however is complicated. Several recent studies show that in countries with historically high (above 50%), the unemployment rate among young people — for example, in Greece, Spain and Italy — the young people, for obvious reasons, are not eager to become parents.
According to the European statistical office Eurostat, the number of births in the 31 countries of the Old World has decreased in the years 2008-11 by 3.5% — from 5.6 to 5.4 million For comparison: in 1960 in 27 European countries, born about 7.5 million babies.
Yet, before this trend was found, it was reported that in 2060 reduced the population of many European countries. And in some — such as Latvia and Romania, the reduction will be even stronger than in Germany. "The burden of" old people will be every year more and more pressure on public finances. Now the EU for every retiree accounts for approximately 4 working Europeans. By 2060, this figure will be reduced by half, to two. How will they keep pensioners, no one knows.