On the Internet, you can find dozens of ways to "fast and reliable" getting rid of the unpleasant consequences of yesterday's meeting with the alcohol. A hangover, in other words. But withstand the online recommendation medical check?
Hangover syndrome has significant implications not only for the suffering of the individual, but for the economy and health care in general. For example, in the UK related losses are about 2 billion pounds a year, mostly, this includes losses from absenteeism for health reasons. In the U.S., hungover damage is estimated at 12-30 billion dollars a year. However, there are other data that are criticized as too high — they mention the figure 148 billion dollars a year. Russia on such statistics do not.
Who suffers from a hangover
Scientists have shown that a hangover often suffer moderate drinkers and alcoholics in the early stages of the disease. For those who do not consume alcohol or quit drinking, it does not happen at all — which is logical.
In addition, virtually no hangover in people with chronic alcoholism, that from the point of view of the layman it sounds strange, but from a medical point of view, too logical.
The more dangerous hangover
If a person is able to hang out on the job, then (depending on who is working), it can be a danger to themselves and colleagues. To blame the components of hangover: impaired memory, thought disorder, worsening of orientation in space, difficulty concentrating, general malaise (headache, nausea, vomiting). If the plumbing or, say, the seller is not fatal, the installer for high-altitude or aerodispetchera fraught.
Furthermore, hangover increases the risk of strokes and heart attacks (especially young people), and not only in alcoholics, but moderate drinkers. After all, alcohol poisoning can be corny …
Let hangover syndrome to chance — he will somehow — not worth it, since it must be fought. On the one hand, to prevent the occurrence, on the other hand, if it really happened — quickly and efficiently remove the unpleasant symptoms.
In 2006, scientists from the United Kingdom Max H. Pittler and Edzard Ernst and colleagues from the Netherlands Joris C. Verster decided to put together all the known means of hangover and find out which ones really help. Get an overview of all the existing studies on the treatment and prevention of a hangover, they called «Interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: systematic review ofrandomised controlled trials» and published in the "British Medical Journal".
First, scientists have found ways to treat all non-scientific hangover. Search the web using Google (search term "hangover cure") gave more than 325,000 results.
Thus, the methods of treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome, according to the Internet
- activated carbon;
- calcium carbonate;
- succinic acid;
- hangover pill: Berocca, Chaser; RU-21 (Ru-Alkoprotektor 21 Red — a drug supposedly designed in the former Soviet KGB special laboratory in order to allow agents, staying sober, could solder opponents and ferret out the necessary information) and the like;
- cabbage pickle;
- stalks of barley;
- a mixture of fruit cardamom, ginseng roots, and thistle, citrus peel, mushroom porii kokosovidnoy, Chinese mixture shen qu, dried ginger extract of the fungus Ganoderma larch;
- any alcohol — hair of the dog (such as "Bloody Mary");
- fruit juice;
- green tea;
- various non-alcoholic cocktails containing olive oil, raw egg yolk, ketchup, Worcester sauce or Tabasco, lemon juice, buttermilk;
- tincture of ginseng;
- Spreads Vegemite (an Australian dish — yeast extract, mixed with celery, onion and salt);
- an ice pack on his forehead;
- hot tub;
- fresh air;
By the way, if you take a similar attempt in RuNet using Yandex, the results will be much smaller — 27,266. Moreover, of these, more than half of the links lead to the private drug treatment clinic offering services to the conclusion of the binge, coding, etc.
The clinic "AlkoMed"
- The conclusion of the binge
- Blockade of alcohol dependence
- ECG analysis at home
Impressed by the variety of hangover means Pittler, Edzard Verster and set out to evaluate their effectiveness. For this, they have found all the scientific articles on the topics of "hangover", "alcohol and hangover", "hangover cure" in the bibliographic search Medline, a database Embase, Amed, and the Cochrane Library, the National Research Register (UK), and the service National Institutes of Health of the United States since 1951. In addition, the materials were used conferences and own a collection of articles and medical journals. Everything else had been in contact with six manufacturers of commercial drugs for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and five experts who were asked to contribute to research. Clinical data were assessed two independent reviewers.
The selection of the study were those in which the hangover effect has been studied as a means accepted in evidence-based medicine: the results obtained in humans in the experiment compared the data from the experimental and control groups, examined the effects of the substance and placebo, with the correct selection of the subjects. Ideally, work should be taken into account medical (clinical and laboratory) indicators, not only subjective, such as "I drank and I feel better."
As might be expected, the number of well-conducted studies on several orders of magnitude smaller ways to "cure a hangover" found on the Internet. Not only that: out of 296 selected articles only eight publications met all the necessary criteria. They were checking the following tools:
- borage officinalis (borage)
- prickly artichoke (seed);
- Indian Fig Opuntia cactus;
- mixture of dry yeast and multivitamins;
- tropisetron (antiemetic drug);
- propranolol (a nonselective β-blocker);
- tolfenamic acid, (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug);
- fructose (and glucose).
Significant effect was observed only the three.
When checking the efficiency γ-linolenic acid from borage revealed a significant reduction as the overall severity of hangover and individual symptoms: headache, laziness and fatigue compared to placebo. A mixture of dry yeast and multivitamins reduced the symptoms of discomfort and anxiety.
Of the four pharmaceuticals (tropisetron, propranolol, tolfenamic acid, fructose / glucose) worked only tolfenamic acid. Hangover symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, thirst, dry mouth, tremors, and irritability were significantly reduced compared with placebo.
The disappointing findings
Thus, the results of research show that there is no conclusive evidence that any additional or standard medical intervention effectively prevents or cures a hangover.
While the pathogenesis of hangover is not solved until the end, the effectiveness of prevention and treatment will remain in question. So the most effective way to avoid the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome — a practice abstinence or moderation in alcohol consumption.