What is the United States? Carrion, a man they weathered to the point and not worth a damn.
With amazement we saw democracy in its disgusting cynicism in her cruel prejudices, in her intolerable tyranny. All noble, selfless, all uplifting human soul — suppressed relentless selfishness and passion for contentment (comfort).
Looking at the U.S., it is impossible not to feel disgust for the manifestation of power and global capitalism that is spreading around the world and becomes loathsome in his omnipotence.
FROM THE PEOPLE — TO MASS ATOMIZOVANNOY
The peculiarity of the United States in the development of the West was the fact that their territory ended with spiritual and psychological formation of Western man, the mental prototype of which originated centuries earlier in the socio-political conditions, trade republics and religious atmosphere of Puritan communities in Europe. The colonies in North America (English, Dutch and French) attracted those Europeans who consider their country ceased to be a home. New World was the "promised land" rogue states. Defeated in the military-political and religious opposition, thousands of European outcasts fled to North America, where there was a political, economic and religious pressures to which they were not able to withstand in Europe.
Gradually the Americas developed a society that does not have any of their own ethnic or cultural self-identification. For the first time in the history of the West is not the state arose as a result of socio-political self-organization of a particular ethnic group, and in the self-organization of a wide conglomerate of ethnic groups, cut off from their traditional environment.
By combining into a single state, individual colonies, the U.S. rulers were forced to work off control mechanisms mosaic ethnic community. The very conditions of American life — the lack of cultural traditions and extremely energetic, does not tolerate any restrictive framework of a motley mass of the displaced and forced the establishment of the United States to seek new methods of socio-political and economic governance, is not applicable in respect of a particular people, and human mass devoid of any form of ethnic solidarity. As Moscovici wrote, "If all previous societies had mass, it is only our society is weight "[1,. 442].
In such circumstances, the state leadership of the United States faced the problem of the creation of a new type of social and political control, designed to artificially combined conglomerate alien to each other ethnic groups. To the American public was split in the ongoing "war of all against all", was launched by the concept of the so-called "melting pot", according to which all the diaspora who find themselves in the United States, should be destroyed, and their human material used to create " American people. "
Change the ethno-cultural identity of citizens of the United States ruling circles of the country failed, its racial and ethnic groups still live in the rigid insulation, with great difficulty finding acceptable ways of being, but the cultivation of a particular spiritual atmosphere in the U.S. has allowed psychologically isolate man from the masses, and thus make it largely helpless. By the beginning of XX century in American society there was a "change in the nature of social relations, the transition from the small close-knit communities, giving special importance to personal relationships, a network of impersonal, secondary relationships in which a person is socially isolated and at odds with the other" [2, p. 38]. This has created a situation in which people find themselves addicted to the media and the authorities as a major source of critical information and, thus, find themselves exposed to propaganda, "… the means of mass communication could fire magic bullets of information, able to shape public opinion and persuade the masses to any point of view … "[2. 38]. At the moment, the American experience of the spiritual and psychological isolation is considered the ruling circles in the West as a prototype (matrix) of the New World Order.
It is also important that the United States are, in fact, a platform to test the concepts of English ideologues. First of all, it should be noted that it is in the living conditions of the American frontier idea «bellum omnia contra omnes» found its reality. "Wild West" was not only the territory, which allowed European exiles to realize the psychological need for expansion, but also a place where the principle of «homo homini lupus est» was really shape the psychology of people, turning them into a peculiar predators. Actually on American soil were deliberately destroyed by such manifestations of any traditional society, as cooperation and teamwork.
As noted by Herbert Marcuse: "I," to undertake a rational transformation of the human and natural world, saw a violent inherently belligerent subject, thoughts and actions are aimed at mastering facilities. Subject against object. This a priori antagonistic experience determines how ego cogitans, and ego agens. Nature (both internal and external world) has been given the "I" as something proper conquest, even violence — and that was the premise of self-preservation and self-development "[3, p. 110].
But behind this "aggressive entity" as a form of psychological protection (compensation), were gripped by fear, accustomed to the inner essence of subservience to God. For centuries, Protestantism taught his followers that the person — it's pathetic, insignificant creature that can justify its existence, becoming the only pleasing to God. Here's what he wrote about Erich Fromm: "Luther is not only expressed the feeling of insignificance, the coverage of social groups to which he was referring, but also offered them a way out. An individual can hope to be pleasing to God, if he not only recognizes his own insignificance, but also humiliate himself to the last degree, will refuse the slightest manifestation of his will deny its power generation and condemn it "[4, p. 76]. In confirmation of this we give them the words of Martin Luther: "… truly God promised His grace to the humble, ie those who believed in his death and despair in itself "[5, p. 209].
Hundreds of thousands of people have fled to the New World, not only from the political repression and economic lack of freedom, and the feeling of his own insignificance, which arose in the spiritual and psychological atmosphere of Europe. Getting on the vast expanses of the North American, European rogue started its life with a "clean slate", turning into energetic, tireless colonizers, mastering not only the new land, but also new forms of social life. However, it is sharp, unbearable feeling of being small, worthlessness, inferiority caused them to look for different forms of compensation through turbulent, unrestrained activity. That's why all the irrepressible, gushing energy of Americans, which allowed the United States to achieve great heights in business and politics, based on their strong and deep feelings of inferiority, and nurtured a particular ideology of Puritanism and continuous persecutions suffered by them and their ancestors in Europe. As emphasized by Erich Fromm, "get rid of the unbearable state of uncertainty, from the paralyzing self-misery can only be in the way that so clearly has Calvinism: develop feverish activity, do something. In this case, the activity becomes mandatory in nature: the individual must be active, to overcome their sense of doubt and powerlessness " [4. 84].
Stimulated in the public mind the dominant ideology greed and the desire for absolute freedom of action entered the final phase of the formation of the spiritual and psychological type doer (Westerners), which first appeared in the Italian republics of the Renaissance.
Over time, as shown above, the stark figure of God disappears under the corrupting influence of rationalism, pragmatism and materialism, and the "paralyzing self-misery" — remains. This deep-seated inferiority complex is compensated by the desire to limit the freedom of the active self-affirmation. However, as noted by another
Marx, exploring the western society, it: "The human right to freedom is not based on the connection between man and man, on the contrary, to the isolation of man from man. It — the right of this separation, the right of limited, self-contained individual "[6, p. 400]. As a result, people's perception of each other as obstacles to personal freedom, deep alienation of man from man created a world of eternal and uncompromising struggle of "all against all" in which competition between individuals is almost entirely suppressed all forms of solidarity. From early childhood, an American educated and brought up with the idea that he had to rely only on itself, that there is no help (even from close relatives), the people who surround him — the enemies, dreaming of his defeat or even death, that the only way to survive is to climb to the top of the absolute success with simultaneous suppression of obvious and potential competitors.
Here is how it shows Zinoviev: "Zapadoidy appeared and reached the present state in the West-European civilization in which the" I "played a dominant role in a pair of" I — we "and was developed more than other peoples in other civilizations, but "we", the combination of strongly pronounced "I", one might say — in the framework of self-civilization. <…> In this sense, the essence of zapadoidy individualists, and their society — individualistic.
The whole way of life of the western countries is the result and expression of individualism zapadoidov. If in a few words to express his psychological essence, we can say that the fundamental principle of being zapadoidov is this: to work for themselves, considering all the other media and as a means of being "[7, p. 47].
American society during the brutal and uncompromising struggle between individuals was divided into a large number of relatively closed economic, social, cultural and ethnic groups with a tough, sometimes totalitarian, structure, and are in a continuous and diverse opposition.
Those forms of forced social coexistence that emerged in American society based on the principles of hard domination and subordination, which permeated not only the social and economic relations, but also personal.
BETWEEN FREEDOM AND CONTROL
In the above conditions, to preserve society as a kind of systemic whole could only powerful state agency that controls all aspects of human life. Naturally, the mass to retain control of the armed enough independent and not someone prone to obey the people, especially in the early stages of a U.S. state, direct, overt violence was impossible. That is why the U.S. rulers had to find a hidden (implicit) forms of coercion, using spiritual and psychological characteristics of the population of the United States.
Put some restrictions western-oriented person in your life on active manifestation of his "I" on the outside, by coercion was impossible. The ruling circles knew that prohibit the doer to do what he wants — is extremely difficult, and therefore erected the Western system of total control based management of human motivation. In this case acted in a simple principle: If Americans can not be forced open to something, you need to create the conditions in which he, without explicit coercion, will do the necessary. Thus, the Western system of multi-level management of society has become a set of mechanisms to manipulate partikuljarnoj, eclectic, devoid of spiritual unity (vnetraditsionnoy) human mass. Isolated, psychologically and intellectually non-independent individual, entirely focused on the extraction of wealth and consumption, it is a condition of existence of the above-mentioned system.
Here's what he wrote about Erich Fromm: "We are not in a position to see that even though many people got rid of the old enemies of freedom, at the same time, new enemies, and these enemies are not so many different kinds external obstacles as internal factors that block the full realization of individual freedom "[4, p. 95]. However, he added: "We are fascinated by the growth of the forces of freedom, external towards us, and as the blind do not see those Interior obstacles, fears and compulsions that are willing to deprive of all meaning all the victories of freedom over its traditional enemies. <…> We forget that the problem of freedom is not only quantitative but also qualitative "[4, p. 96]. In this regard, we can recall the words of Alexander Herzen, who aptly noted (in his book "My Past and Thoughts"), that the Americans can do without government, because they themselves perform the office of the king, gendarmerie and executioner.
With the development of communication and information systems, the level of manipulative Western nations in general and Americans in particular, is much higher. In fact, through newspapers, radio and then television ruling elite begins to form their minds, but because the needs, values, world view, etc. mirootnoshenie Here's how it Spengler commented: "The Euro-American policy of" simultaneously " through the press, created to spread to the entire planet the force field of spiritual and monetary tensions in the sphere of influence that gets everyone without even realizing it. He is forced to think, to will and to act as considers it appropriate in the distance sitting governor "[8, p. 608]. Thus the German philosopher added: "At first, people could not even think of free thought, now allowed to think about it, but no one is no longer capable of. Everyone wants to think only of what they should want to think, and that is what is perceived as its own freedom "[8, p. 612].
At the time, Congressman Oscar Callaway published in «Congressional Record» article about how organized control of the American media. It turns out that in March 1915 a group of JP Morgan gathered together the twelve men in high positions in the world's press, and asked them to select a sufficient number of the most influential newspapers in the United States, so he took them under control, direct to channel daily information policy of the United States. These twelve men for the task to analyze the possible 179 newspapers and took out those you would use to create a system of control by the press. They found that for this it is necessary to control only twenty-five largest newspapers. To carry out adequate supervision and training information was picked up by every newspaper editor [9, p. 219].
Writes about the same and Zinoviev: "The centralization of media … gets along well with privatization. An example is the U.S. media. Although the centralization of it was vaguely expressed, it can take place. Local television stations, for example, depend on national media companies in relation to the programs. Less than 10% of their gear were local programs, and basically transfer the program were three large stations and movies. In the area of news two stations (AP and UPI) played the role of centralizing authorities. Four of the five television stations in 100 of the most densely populated areas of the Group, which were in the possession of many other means of media. Much of the newspaper was in the hands of a few corporations. For example, the firm Ganetti in 1985 owned 86 daily newspapers. Only 50 U.S. cities had competing newspapers with each other "[7, p. 333].
"Over the past ten years about ownership of the means of mass communication in the United States is concentrated in the hands of just a few organizations — states Professors Elliot Aronson and Anthony Pratkanis from the University of California. — Today, twenty three corporations control most of the television, magazines, publishing houses and film studios. Here are some facts about the ownership of the means of mass communication: 60% of the local daily newspapers are owned by one of the fourteen corporate networks, three companies dominate in the business of publishing magazines, six record companies control 80% of the music market and nine studios produce 70% of the programs of television prime time " [2. 289]. As of 2002, only nine companies own television broadcasting in the United States: AOL Time Warner, Disney, Bertelsmann, Viacom, News Corporation, TCI, General Electric (owner of NBC), Sony (owner of the Columbia TriStar Pictures) and Seagram (owner of Universal film) [10, c. 91]. In addition, the published time of ten telecom companies own 86% of the global telecommunications market [11, p. 101]. It is understood that with such a monopoly of the media and there was a monopolization of "freedom of speech". Media at the hands of the ruling financial and political groups have become the main and most effective tool for the formation of the mass consciousness. "The U.S. government spends more than $ 400 million a year to pay for more than 8,000 employees, leading the promotion of U.S. policy and the American way of life. Results: the dignity of the "American Way" extol ninety films a year, twelve magazines in twenty-two languages, and … of the "Voice of America" natridtsati seven languages, with the audience of 75 million listeners "[2, p. 23].
However, according to the British publicists 3. Sardar and M. Davis, "The narrowness of the interests of the American media is well known. International news is practically absent in the media, with the exception of just two or three newspapers. Television — the main source of information for the average American — from international news dares to show a disaster and the U.S. military action. Despite the fact that the American media have acquired the worldwide sound, they at the same time, paradoxically, become much more one-sided and banal. Independent voices drop out, and created a nice monoculture dedicated to promoting consumer, business, government and the public interests of the elite, as well as the amusement of the mass audience. This is not the result of "free market", acting on the principle of natural selection is the product of deliberate state policy "[10, 90].
In fact, the modern mass media are not a mechanism for collecting and disseminating information (which indefatigably urge the public, journalists), and act as its creators and the censors. They provide information in accordance with their tasks, giving it the appearance that serves the interests of those who control the media. The volume of information flow, which passes them insignificant. His role is even much smaller. Media are penetrating all spheres of American (Western) society — politics, economics, culture, science, sports, home and personal lives. They do not just affect the mind and feelings of the people, but forming a predetermined pattern of people.
Despite the absence of a special apparatus of indoctrination of the masses, the western oligarchy in general and the U.S. in particular, managed to totally ideologize society. His ideological space formed in different areas and at different levels as some form of understanding: peace, human basic values of life, human relations and social systems, etc. Media acted as a form of self-consciousness of modern Western society. At the same time they were formed, and as a mechanism for structuring the public consciousness, and as an institution, standardization of consciousness of people, and as a set of tools targeting the social environment and adapt to it, and as a system of self-defense of society from destroying it and forces opposing him.
Western countries do not have special governmental structures dealing with indoctrination of the masses, but it is directly engaged philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, historians, political scientists, journalists, writers, politicians, advisers in government and political parties, members of the secret services, etc. There are special research institutions, agencies and centers, one way or another involved in the problem of ideology. At least in many newspapers, magazines, publishing houses, schools, etc. there are people involved in ideological control. They decide what to write and how to write, what to say and how to say what to print and what not. They decide what to do films which make programs for television, what and how to promote, how to organize the massive spectacle and show the ideological context, how to select and dissect the information. In the West, as in the past, and now, the ideology was not and is not a phenomenon separate from science, literature, art, journalism, and even religion. It is dissolved, dispersed in all aspects of human life and is not perceived as an ideology [7, p. 277]. Ideological pressure in the West is carried out without apparent coercion by the state, implicitly when the assimilation of certain axioms of those who undergo the treatment, there is little effort on their part, often as a fun and enjoyable pastime.
The situation in the United States with the ideological sphere considered in terms of like the situation in the economy. Here, too, we can talk about the marketplace of ideas, which acts as if it is ruled by the "invisible hand." There are those who produce and store ideology, ie, offers ideological goods and services. They way they can bring their products to the consumer, ie, ideologically processed by the masses. Here there is a real, rather than metaphorical consumption of ideological production — listening, reading, vision. And in this market demand plays a role, which is considered to offer and which itself forms the proposal. And in this market "invisible hand" is not just something imaginary. This is — a certain person, the system of institutions, organizations, etc. that come in certain contacts, is well prepared to assess the situation on the ideological market and retrieve some benefit for themselves. Such an ideological mechanism does not cause negative reactions in people ideologically processed (as it was in communist countries), because they have created persistent illusion that it does not exist [7, p. 328].
Thus, due to total "brainwashing" the powerful energy of Western man is the most reliable way of channeled, driven into a rigid framework defined stereotypes. There is a paradoxical situation: owning all conceivable freedoms for the manifestation of his own individuality, Western man is deprived of individuality, "… The individual ceases to be himself — wrote about Erich Fromm — he completely learns the type of person he proposed common pattern and is exactly the same as all the others, and the way they want it to" [4, s. 159]. "… We may have thoughts, feelings, desires, and even the feelings that we subjectively perceive as our own when in fact it is not. We really feel these feelings, sensations, etc., but they are imposed on us by … "[4, p. 161].
Here again we see the Machiavellian type "man without qualities" that can be changed in accordance with the requirements of environmental protection. To be entirely appropriate external conditions, the individual becomes a "no." Abandoning any qualities and properties of a self-sufficient person, he is in a state of existential emptiness, allowing it to effectively adapt to the constantly changing environment.
Here's how it describes Moscovici: "With a permeable, flexible, does not seek a single point of support" I ", he (the western people. — Auth.) becomes a perfect inhabitant … "World of properties without people, without the lived experience of those who could survive it …" The separation from himself and the object takes on such importance because it allows people … to buy superior quality — the "quality of the lack of character." The quality of mobility and variability of the individual … that does not feel bound by any a priori principle, the internal debt and is not subject once and for all any rate. For he betrayed the movement, where nothing is not for a moment remains at rest … This character is just beside combinations and improvisation, it serves only to fit the circumstances "[1, p. 449].
However, losing the individuality (uniqueness), Western man enhances his individualism, which is found in the powerful detachment from other people and himself in opposition to them. As Marx wrote: "It's about freedom of the individual as an isolated, withdrawn into himself Monad" [6, p. 400]. This alienation, in turn, gives rise to a strong aggression toward other people and the world in general. Western man seeks to dominate, suppressing what he considers an obstacle on the way to it. As noted by Herbert Marcuse: "Reaching the stage of self-awareness, consciousness reveals itself as" I "and" I "means first of all lust: it comes to the realization itself, only reaching satisfaction and only by means of the "other." But such satisfaction provides a "denial" of the other, because "I" must satisfy themselves as to the true "being — for — itself" in contrast any "otherness." We deal with the notion of the individual, who must constantly assert and defend themselves in order to feel its reality, which is opposed to the world as his "negativity" as denial their freedom, and therefore can only exist continuously conquering its existence in something or someone, it claims. "I" should be free, but if the world is inherent in "the nature of negativity", the "I" for the needs of their liberty in the "recognition" of his reign, and this recognition can only be obtained from the other "I", another self-conscious subject. <…> "Self-awareness can only get satisfaction through another self-consciousness." Thus, aggressive attitude to the world-object domination over nature is ultimately aimed at the domination of man by man "[3, p. 114-115].
The lack of individuality in the Western man, individualism, and his aggressive samoizolirovannost become almost the deciding factors in the management of the social organization of the West, ie in the management of the company posttraditional type, under which no longer apply such powerful forces of social control as a national identity, culture, spirituality, etc. Thus, Western society deliberately recreates the standard for their individual qualities and alienated from each other by individuals representing themselves human mass, devoid of any variety. Leveling the spiritual and psychological characteristics of individuals leads to their primitivism, when one has to completely meet the proposed set of requirements and a corresponding set of forms to meet them without going beyond them. As underlined by the same Herbert Marcuse: "The high standard of living in the world of large corporations restrictive in a particular sociological sense: goods and services purchased by individuals control their needs and their ability to freeze. <…> Improved living conditions — compensation for pervasive control over it "[3, p. 99].
That is why Western kvazikultura takes the form of standardized production, creating (and industry) only products of mass consumption. Ruling strata of the West for the effective management of social needs "one-dimensional" person, so Western mass culture is reduced to a rather primitive show, which has a bright, attractive form, but is devoid of any content. It does not go beyond entertainment, it is designed only to "slew" of free time a man relaxing on his mind and soul, and therefore leads only to his inner devastation.
"This is — practical nihilism — A. Weber stated. — It is enclosed by a tendency to commit leisure total collapse of the person before self-contained, replace it with "plebeian mass" in the bad sense of the word, which consists of a mentally shattered individuals. These individuals to easily subdue them by means of the internal decay of demagogy and propaganda manipulated and used as human material "[12, p. 249].
Leveling the same spiritual and psychological and cultural space of Western nations not only deprives them of any independence, but also the smallest manifestations of tradition, which in turn creates the preconditions for the ethnic decay and degeneration of the culture as a purely national phenomenon. This development is due to the necessity of global governance conglomeration of Western countries and the countries caught in the zone of influence of the West.
COMFORT AND FUNCTIONALITY
The life of Western man runs between the desire to earn (by any means) as much money and the desire to consume as much material wealth. These two factors form the mostly his personality. This feature has been reflected at the conceptual level. American sociologist Lester Ward (1841 — 1913) was developed meliorism doctrine, the so-called science of improvement and the improvement of social order. Reflecting the spirit of Bentham, L. Ward meliorism defined as improvement of social conditions through accurate calculation, in which the person is not satisfied with the existing mitigation of suffering and seeks to create a situation in which the suffering would have been impossible in general. Naturally, the absence of pain in his view is the complete satisfaction of the increasing human needs, ie uncontrollable desire to consume through enrichment. In the same line of thought, and one of the founders of American sociology of William Graham Sumner (1840-1910). Repeating his ideological predecessors, British thinkers, he said: "The property desired, she performs a positive role in the world, that some should be rich, demonstrates the fact that others may become rich, it is what gives courage in business and industrial activity. The battle for ownership is a struggle for freedom "[13, p. 41]. Thus, American sociology "scientifically" confirmed Western concept of man as a being who by nature destined to live in the rhythm of greed and consumption. Of course, all of this goes beyond the binary nature automatically acquire human consciousness secondary and subordinate. In connection with this psychological feature of Sombart said: "A living man with his happiness and sorrow, his needs and requirements eliminated from the center of the range of interests and it took place two abstractions: profit and business. Man, therefore, has ceased to be what it remained until the end of the early capitalist era — the measure of all things " [14. 131].
Ceasing to be a "measure of all things" Western man himself becomes a thing that has a price and you can buy or sell. He is fully aware of himself as a thing. "Authoritarian, obsessed, nakopitelsky character, the development of which began in the XVI century and which continued to prevail in the structure of the character, at least the middle classes of society, to the end of the XIX century, slowly gave way to the nature of the market place <…> — Erich Fromm wrote. — I called this phenomenon the nature of the market. Because in this case the person feels as a commodity, its value is not as "use value" and as "exchange value." The living entity becomes a commodity on the "market of individuals" [15, p. 152]. And as the market conditions are constantly changing, it is to comply with it, we have to constantly change and most Western people. It ceases to be something definite, getting excellent properties of mimicry. "Individuals with a market character … not have even his own "I" on which they can rely, for their "I" is constantly changing in accordance with the principle — "I am the way I need you," — stressed Erich Fromm. [15, p. 153].
In this case, the market motivation is enhanced targeting of mass media aimed at primitivism of spiritual, intellectual, and psychological spheres of Western man. Hypertrophic propaganda conscious individualism, his formulaic "I" is constantly changing, adapting to the situation, and as a result a person is deprived of the "self" — the spiritual rod, which determines the sense of personal identity. "Identity Crisis" — it is a crisis of modern Western society. It is caused by the fact that its members have become standard tools, a sense of identity which is based on the participation in the activities of faceless corporations or giant bureaucracies. And where there is no authentic identity, there can be no sense of identity.
Turning into the most effective, "cog" in the global machine of Western civilization, is intended to produce material goods, western people knowingly and unknowingly kills all the aspects of your life that may somehow interfere with the operation of its system, limiting their sphere of interest and intelligence. The latter was reduced to a set of certain habits that have contributed to the effective implementation of those functions that provide the ability to earn and consume, ie mind becomes purely instrumental, not burdened with the task of understanding. Intellect of Western man is designed to maximize the optimal solution of practical problems that are put in front of him, but he was not able to analyze whether the problem is needed at all, especially to formulate its own. Thus, the individual turns into unquestioning performer lacks the ability to define "unnecessary" questions even to himself. As a result of social relations in Western society have largely become like a military order, covered with demagoguery about the triumph of "individual liberty." As Moscovici wrote: "They are waiting for the decision, but does not matter what it is, it is beneficial or harmful. In the eyes of all those admirable professionals and knowledge is the rule of money over the goals, the fact that one can reasonably argue with objectivity about "how to do", rather than to argue and worry about "why do" [1 , p. 443].
The other side of the instrument of intelligence is narrowing horizons of man and the lack of any interest in the world as such. In the information spectrum intelligence tool is only that which is related to the field of making money and spending. At a conceptual level, this psychological trait is reflected in the so-called philosophy of pragmatism — instrumentalism. The founder of pragmatism, William James in his painting robots reflected diverse world in which people are able to learn only partial and limited truths — truths that bring them to practical use. Building on the ideas of James, Charles Pierce primarily typical American-style, reacted to the central question of any philosophy ~ to the problem of truth and its criterion. In his philosophy of truth was beyond the scope of epistemology, treating as a unity of thought and action. Pierce, like any pragmatist focus on the practical possibilities that are contained in the subject. He emphasized that the ultimate good is laid in the process of "growing intelligence", which provides a person a success in practice. Pragmatism is thus conceptually testified that in the framework of Western civilization dominant position occupied by a person, the doer, focused on the manipulation of the surrounding reality and is interested in expanding the range of possible actions for achieving practical results.
Proof of this was the development of the concept of instrumentalism of John Dewey, who "know all", "theory of reality in general" were rejected in favor of the so-called "emancipated empiricism", "practical knowledge." The main categories of instrumentalism was the concept of "experience". And "experience" not at all, and "experience" in particular, is directly related to the "common sense Yankees." His concept has the following characteristics: "Torch instrumental philosophy of John Dewey is nothing like common sense to the Yankees, a practical way analysis of everyday situations and problems in terms of their permits. John Dewey married the philosophy of practical life and made a folk tradition Yankees characteristic of modern life, and thanks to him, this tradition has become the single greatest force that affects the mind and character of the XX century "[13, p. 95]. His single-minded energy was directed not only to the academic community. Frantic activity on the spread of ideas instrumentalism he developed in the field of American education. In this regard, Dewey said: "I would like, first, to keep young people under the influence of the educational system as long as possible … and secondly, the aim should be the development of industrial intelligence …" [13, p. 101].
The efforts of Dewey was not in vain, and the doctrine of pragmatism became the methodological basis of secondary and vocational schools in the U.S.. Moreover, the philosophy of pragmatism very quickly out of the academic framework, turning to the philosophy of the American people. Thus, the instrumental consciousness of Western man as a means to achieve wealth, was ideologically fixed.
Of equal importance here and rationalism. Absolutization rationality in modern Western society brought to the point of absurdity. An example of this would be the aforementioned William Graham Sumner, who said that the improvement of society — is the result of rationality. And this statement is not accidental, since the improvement of the western society is directly dependent on the development of rationality.
Western civilization is inherently rational, and rationality is it can not exist. That is why Western politics is a form of extreme manifestations of the rational, pragmatic thinking of Western man that can only be compared with Western economies, which is carefully calculated and thought out in every functional component that connects the purpose of implementing it. In Western politics, as in the western economy, stakeholders know in advance what result they will be expended in accordance with the forces and means. That is how politics and economy of the West are strictly planned phenomena. If the economy accident — is financial bankruptcy, the policy of an accident — it is a political bankruptcy.
In this connection it should be noted that Western government agencies (as well as non-governmental organizations to make strategic decisions) serves the whole system of institutions implementing the program development not only in the field of political (and economic forecasting), but also in the political (economic) model. That is, the processes of these areas deliberately channeled in this direction.
However, as mentioned above, this is a hidden centralized management and is based on manipulative techniques that create the illusion of unlimited freedom of the individual as well as in Western society as a whole. A simple man in the street, appeared in a closed part of certain information, perceives important political events like accidents, but in fact they are not. As in the time reasonably said Theodore Roosevelt: "In politics, nothing happens by chance, and if something happens, you can bet that it was well planned out," .
POWER AND CAPITAL
However, despite the desire of the masses for profit and consumption, the West is in terms of material wealth rigid hierarchical structure of pyramidal type with a huge imbalance between the haves and the have-nots. Inequality of people, from this point of view, in Western countries — huge. At the top of the social pyramid is an accumulation of fantastic wealth, and at its base — is thriving grinding poverty. A small part of western society has access to all the good things of life, all the achievements of civilization, which once could not dream of even the most privileged classes, and a large part of the population is deprived of the benefits of a grain, which used to have even the poor.
In every society, in one way or another, there is a division between the rich and the poor. But in different societies it takes different size and shape. Here are some details about it in the West. In the UK in 1987, 0.1% higher social stratum owned 7% of the wealth of the country, 50% of middle and lower classes — only 4% and 9 mln.grazhdan (ie 17% of the population) in 1986 living in poverty [ 17]. In 1989, a third of people in London was for the official poverty line.  By 2000, the situation has not improved in England. 17% of the population, or nearly one in five, as before, is living in poverty (which corresponds to the standard of living of the population of the poor in developing countries). According to the UN, the conditions of the existence of this part of Her Majesty's subjects are defined as "absolute poverty". The country has 4 million people can not eat twice a day (!). Scientists four British universities who conducted this study, by their own admission, were "shocked" by the results. They note that the proportion of poor households in the structure of the UK population has almost doubled in the period from 1983 to 1999.  In 1997, in one of the rooms of London newspaper «Observer» reported that "up to 2 million British children suffer from poor health and stunted growth due to malnutrition" [20, p. 103]. Every third child poverty in the country is growing, and because of this 1.5 mln.detey under 16 years old are forced to work [21, p. 272]. In the UK in 1985, 5% of employees received 16% of the national income, while 50 % — only 5% [7. 164].
In 1963, the United States created a sensation Michael Harrington's book, which said the tens of millions of Americans living below the poverty line. Despite all the measures of the government somehow improve the situation in 1989 in the United States lived in poverty, 31.5 million people, and in 1990 — 33.6 million, ie 13.5% of the population . In this case, as evidenced by UNICEF data, in the U.S. the worst performance among the industrialized nations by parameters such as mortality among children under five years of age (they are on a par with Cuba, a third world country, these forty years, subject to political pressure, covert aggression in the form of secret blasting operations and the economic blockade of Washington). The United States also holds the record for hunger, child poverty and other basic social indicators  and 40 mln.amerikantsev denied access to medical care [24, p. 237].
August 12, 2003 «USA Today» informed its readers that at the moment in major U.S. cities is rapidly growing number of homeless people. American workers and employees who are living from paycheck to paycheck, increasingly find themselves on the streets or in shelters. Former neighbors and colleagues living with relatives, unemployed managers settle in their elderly parents. Families who once had their own homes, forced to sleep in a bunk bed in a flophouse. Some homeless people camp out in their cars as long as they find a job. Studies conducted in 18 major U.S. cities showed that from 2001 to 2002, the number of requests for beds in the shelters of the country has grown by an average of 19%. This is the highest level in the last 10 years. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, in July 2003, the country registered mln.bezrabotnyh 9, of which about 3.5 mln.ne have the means to pay the rent of their homes and forced to live in shelters. In July, the U.S. was almost 2 mln.trudosposobnyh citizens who unsuccessfully looking for work for 27 weeks. From 1999 to 2002, in New York, the number of homeless families increased by 40%.
However, in 1997 half of the share capital of the United States owned the 1% of U.S. citizens and almost 90% of it belonged to the tenth richest families (the concentration is even higher for bonds and trusts that are comparable to other assets) [20, p. 219].
To follow the dynamics of the deepening of material inequality in this country, it is necessary to turn to official statistics. If you divide the American public on the five economic fifths (20%), the lower class, the actual state of affairs, has incorporated the poorest fifth and part of the fourth economic fifths, the average — the top of the fourth, third and second fully a fifth, and the bottom half First, the upper — contained in itself the first half of the richest fifth [24, p. 229].
Part of the national income of the bottom quintile in 1947 was 4%, and in the mid-90s — 4.2%, in both cases, 10% of the third — 16 and 15.7%, the second quintile — 22 and 23%. The top fifth in 1947, and fifty years later received
more than 47%. It should be added that the total income of the upper 10% of Americans over the 50 years took in an average of 30% of the national income, and 10% lower — only 1% [25, p. 318] [26. 323], and [27 p. 467], .
It should be noted that in the second half of the XX century upper class American society has become not just a lot richer than the middle and lower, and acquired its own special characteristics and socio-cultural lives in a special, isolated from the other classes of reality. The upper class, not exceeding 10% of the population consists of bankers, businessmen, paid managers, the top layer of politicians and government officials, successful lawyers, doctors, scientists and artists. Its members live in mansions, located in ecologically clean regions. They are educated in elite private schools and universities, "Major League" (which includes about ten private universities, tuition fees are at the end of XX century has exceeded 30 thousand dollars a year). They are surrounded by luxury and comfort, enjoy a servant, spend their free time in private clubs and holiday — in private luxury resorts and hotels.
Upper class consists of several groups. If you use the American terminology, in its bottom layer is the so-called "seekers" (which includes about 3 mln.amerikanskih families), and on top — a small layer of "owners", "barons" and "barons" who own multi-billion dollar state and concentrated his control over national resources. And the upper class "tycoons" (about one thousand) is present in the international financial and economic elite.
Middle class includes middle and lower layers of managers and government officials, "white collar" of scientific and information industries, skilled workers, scientific, technical and humanitarian intelligentsia, etc. They live in peri-urban areas, are the property of two-or one-storey family homes, small plots of land on the car the average cost for each adult family member. Their children are enrolled in private universities "second" and "third" of the league. The middle class also lives in his own world, isolated from the world of other classes.
The lower class in the U.S. is also a special, closed economic community, the isolation of which in the second half of the XX century has increased substantially. It is dominated by black Americans, Hispanic immigrants from Latin America, as well as recent immigrants from Asian and some Eastern European countries. Representatives of the lower class are mainly engaged in low-skilled jobs in the service sector, in construction, in dirty industries. Most of them take off cheap and small apartments, use public transport. Most of the children of the lower class do not graduate from high school. Lower class lives in urban areas (with the exception of the central business part) [24, p. 231-233].
Based on the above, we can say that the social structure of modern Western civilization resembles a pyramid. At its top is a thin layer of the powerful elite, in whose hands are the main wealth of the world, and absolute power, and at its base — many millions of people, most of them lacking basic material goods.
Western ideology and propaganda created for the ordinary man in the street anesthetic illusion of "equal society", which supposedly everyone can rise from the lower to the higher social strata. In this regard, examples of people who have amassed over a short period of huge capital or achieved other successes. However, many Western experts (for example, William Rubinstein. The Rich in Brittain. 1986.) Claim that upward social dynamics in Europe and the United States is negligible. According to them, there for most people the main condition for the acquisition of high social status is their origin, ie birth in the highest social stratum, and not some personal qualities. Therefore the idea of the West as metaobschestve "equal opportunity" is not true. On the contrary, it is the social organization of total inequality. Moreover, this inequality is not based on the natural inequality of people in terms of their abilities and talents, but on inequality in the possession of money, which means that material goods. Money, ascended to the top of the absolute values, equality between citizens made it impossible in principle. It is therefore natural that the real power in the West was in the hands of those who own the major capitals — a narrow, isolated circle of the elect. In such circumstances, the democratic system can exist in name only, as the propaganda abstraction that hides the reality of the situation. Actually political power in the West for a long time is a derivative of the financial authorities. "Behind the facade of them (industrial leaders. — Auth.) words, for their pious statements about what it would be better for the economy if the government and politicians not to meddle in the business to be hiding close relationship between government and business. Italian leading industrialists not openly involved in politics, as is the case for the U.S. business community. They do not take political positions and positions in the government, not visibly involved in the sewers financial support to candidates and political parties, as is the case in the United States (where it is obviously!). They act in other ways: bribery, print, television, intricate directorates and finance companies, stock exchange manipulation, control of commercial banks, which allegedly belong to the state and society ", — wrote Zinoviev [7, p. 232].
The data show that the American tycoons are constantly increasing the level of its representation in the upper echelons of the executive power and the diplomatic service. If in the years 1861-1877 they accounted for 81% of a creature of government officials, in the years 1878-1897 to 86, 8%, and in 1898-1913 years — 91.7% [29, p. 374]. And the trend continues unabated.
In addition, nominees (managers and lawyers) oligarchic clans absolutely dominate both the Republican and Democratic parties. The parties themselves were financially and organizationally dependent on big capital. It may be added that in this ideological and political differences between the parties as narrowed.
At the time, the former chairman of the «Mid-land Bank» (England) Reginald Mackenna said: "I am afraid that ordinary citizens will not like it if they found out that the banks can build and create money … And they who control the credit of the country, direct the policies of government and hold in their hands the destiny of the people "[9, p. 140]. As in the UK, before the era of U.S. dominance, and in the contemporary United States, the President, the government and the parliament does not play a decisive role. They, like the government of any other western country, only the legitimate interests of the conductors is very narrow, anonymous a group of persons that controls the major capitals of the Western world. One of the leading ideologues of the United States by Samuel Huntington in his book "The American policy," said that the government, in order to be effective, must remain invisible: "The architects of power in the United States must create a force that can be felt but not seen. Power remains strong when it remains in the dark, with the sunlight it begins to evaporate, "[20, p. 208.].
Not for nothing in 1816, Thomas Jefferson said, "I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. They have already created an aristocracy of money, which is not set at naught the government "[9, p. 151]. It was in connection with this powerful banker Meyer Rothschild uttered his famous phrase, "Give me control the money of the country, and I do not care who creates its laws" [30, p. 10].
States from coast to coast
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the world was under the powerful military and political pressure from the United States, represents the highest stage of development of western thalassocracy. The special status of the U.S. acquired in connection with the fact that at the moment no tellurocratic state can not throw open the call and challenge the military-political and economic struggle of American power. If until now unbridled pursuit of sea commercial republics of conquest was hampered by the unshakable power of the land-based empires, now the West, represented by the United States, got a chance to assert his absolute world domination.
Thus, the United States is a military-political and economic apotheosis of Western expansionism. This is evidenced by at least the fact that the two centuries since the adoption of the U.S. Constitution the land territory of the United States has increased more than fourfold. As stated by Professor A. Field, Jr., even before independence from the Americans was more than a primordial instinct of expansion: they had a coherent vision of a world empire.
In 1783, George Washington called the new-born republic "rising empire." "Expanding the scope of" Madison called in the 10th issue of "The Federalist", in Room 14, he spoke of the "expanded within its borders the republic" as "one great, respectable, and flourishing empire." As different as were the views of Hamilton and Jefferson, John Quincy Adams and Jackson on several important issues, they agree on one thing — the need for expansion. The United States, "which originated as an empire — wrote RW Van Elstayn — by its very nature an expanding imperial power "[31, p. 188]. Even their appearance was the result of the previous expansion of the western maritime leader — the United Kingdom, which established a number of their bases, and then the colonies on the coast of North America. But the spirit of conquest did not allow colonists to settle for a coastal zone and pushed them towards the huge U.S. space. His act of conquest and seizure began long before the rise of the United States. Thousands of former Europeans at their own risk and rushed into the depths of the Americas, driven by the dream of a fantastic enrichment. All that appeared on their way, preventing the realization of this dream was doomed to destruction. "Gold Rush" of American settlers in combination with semi-wild license and contempt for one's neighbor turned them into an aggressive mass of struggling with each other adventurers exciting "free" land of natives.
Against the Indians most vividly and distinctly proved itself a quality of Western man as a racist superiority complex "white master" over the "natives." Americans were treated to the "uncivilized peoples" in the same way as the Dutch and the Englishman — they do not perceive them as equals. Furthermore, they do not perceive them as people. This attitude is confirmed officially. In 1857, a black slave Dred Scott, born in the United States, appealing to the U.S. Constitution, the court demanded personal freedom. The U.S. Supreme Court denied him his request on the grounds that the slave is not a person, but only thing anyone owned the property [32, p. 183].
Considering the Indians and Negroes "talking animals", "white masters" treated them accordingly. For example, according to many historical documents, captured in Africa "black goods" transported to America in such circumstances, that of the 10 blacks before the trip were still alive one. Only in the years 1661-1774 in the U.S. was imported nearly a million slaves, and about 9 mln.iz them in the deaths on the road [33, p. 8]. American slave traders profit from this operation in the prices of the XVIII century was at least $ 2 billion. United States — at the time an astronomical figure.
It is believed that slavery was only in the southern states, ruled by the "bad" planters, and "good" Northerners led by the progressive American presidents and only thought about how to free the poor slaves. In this regard, it makes sense to quote the words of Abraham Lincoln, nicknamed "Honest Abe", went down in history as "the great liberator of the enslaved blacks": "And I will say that I have never supported and will not advocate for social and political equality of the two races — black and white, I have never supported the view that the negros should get the right to vote, to sit on the jury, or hold any position to be able to intermarry with white … add that between the white and black race is a physical difference and … as any man I am for the white race occupied a dominant position ". 
The reality of that time can be understood by the example of James Madison, fourth president of the United States and the author of the U.S. Constitution. After the War of Independence in his letter, he happily reported to a friend that any of his servant makes a profit of $ 257 a year, and spend it on the content of each of these, only 12-13 dollars is doubtful that such a sincere satisfaction with income from the exploitation of slaves could to live with moral indignation regarding the injustice of slavery. The author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson, were also hundreds of black slaves who worked the four thousand acres of his land. Prior to the abolition of slavery, none of the American presidents did not disdain to profit from slavery. It may seem surprising, but the "fathers" of the American people, who claimed to moral superiority and the role of teachers' freedom and equality "for all peoples of the world, at the same time were slave owners.
What later War of the North and the South (1861-1865) was presented as a struggle for the emancipation of slaves, most evidence of good work in the U.S. correcting mechanism of the story than the precise statement of historical fact. In fact, the war was a military action against the southern states of Washington, who take advantage of their constitutional right, decided to break away and create their own Confederacy.
Northern industrial states had to sell their produce, and the southern agricultural states have introduced tariffs on their industrial products, closing their domestic markets. In addition, the industry of the North needed the natural resources of the South. To overcome these contradictions could only war. After the defeat of the Confederacy won the North ennobled her humanistic ideals. Abolition of slavery was a by-product of military confrontation between the southern and northern states. The Declaration on the release was intended to create the conditions for economic "explosion" of the Confederacy. It did not eliminate slavery in the U.S. territory as such. Abraham Lincoln declared free only slaves are naterritorii southern states. Blacks themselves and their interests into account no one would. Neither of which humanism or "universal values" Americans do not want to hear. In those days, as humanism, and the "universal values", in contrast to the slaves, income could not give.
That's why black slaves remained almost the main strength of the U.S. economic progress, which still white gentlemen treated very cruelly. They not only did not consider them human beings, but also treat them like animals, have little value (in comparison, for example, a horse or a mule). For the fact that the Negro dared openly to face white, his often lynched. Many Africans did not maintain constant humiliation and abuse, running away from their masters. Americans hunted fugitives dogs, and when caught, cut off the leg, arm or penis. Often slaves resisted. Brutally suppressing uprisings, planters used against black people the most brutal punishments burned them on a low heat, branded, cut off ears, etc. Murder rebellious Negro encouraged the special prize of 455 pounds of tobacco. Still, by the end of XVIII century there were more than 50 mass uprisings [35, p. 511]. It should be noted that it is in the northern states, so selflessly, "who fought for the freedom of Negroes," lynching continued until the mid 60-ies of XX century.
Americans are proud of the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed in 1776, all the people equal. However, this document looks very strange, given the fact that the Indians, blacks and other non-European ethnic groups and races, proclaimed the Declaration of the rights and freedoms did not apply. From this it can be concluded that This document was created to consolidate the dominant part of American society, which has a European origin. This consolidation was to provide a subordinate position "racially inferior" groups. Therefore, the downside of this "equality" was a rigid system of race and inequality. Nowhere else slavery did not take such brutal form, as in North America. This is due to the fact that in American society dominated by racist ideology and psychology, and The United States was a racist state.
After negros got civil rights, their position has not changed. According to the United States periodically rolled pogroms against African Americans. The most striking of these were mass killings in Tulsa, Okla., in 1921. Then one night the white racists destroyed 35 blocks of the Negro part of town, away with robbing and killing blacks U.S. citizens. The corpses of the victims were buried in mass graves or thrown into the river. "Free" and "democratic" Seal of the United States, the U.S. President, Congress, and the white population of the massacre have not noticed, like many others like her. Only in 1996, the city government under pressure from Tulsa African-American community organizations apologized for the massacre, and even decided to build a memorial to its victims.
Despite cultivated "political correctness", on a psychological level racism in the U.S. has remained ever since. Although the U.S. authorities and public opinion at the moment it loudly condemn racial-ethnic antagonism in America takes place in a latent form today, periodically appearing in the form of incidents of violence and informal apartheid.
If English (and European) economic recovery XVIII-XIX centuries stimulated export of colossal wealth of the colonies, the U.S. economic breakthrough that allowed them in the future to declare their geopolitical ambitions, to a large extent been driven by not only the power of expropriation of shares abroad, but also direct slave labor.
Slave plantation economies in North America began its existence in 1619, when Virginia received the first batch of slaves from sub-Saharan Africa. In the days of American independence development of the slave system had reached its peak. To make the process of supplying slaves to the United States was uninterrupted, in 1821, a group of freed American slaves with the help of the American Colonization Society, settled in the area between Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, establishing a state there called Liberia (ie the "land of the free" ) actually became an American colony. Thus was created the main U.S. military base on the African continent, providing the process of illegal supply of U.S. slaves. Despite the fact that in 1847, Liberia declared its independence, and for the next five years has been recognized by the major European countries, the United States did not recognize its independence until 1862. In spite of that, the U.S. government, under pressure from the slave lobby in Congress continued to consider Liberia as its own and an outpost in Africa.
The desire to preserve the source of income of slaves due to the fact that the labor cost is much less black than white labor. Therefore, the import of Africans was advantageous economically. Slaves were supplied through the West Indies, which also developed plantation economy. In exchange, they provide cheap slave-alcoholic beverages, textiles, livestock, grain, handicraft goods.
Although the development of slavery in the United States began as a form of feudalism, the planters later became suppliers of cotton, rice, indigo, tobacco and other agricultural raw materials for British industry and the northeastern United States. That is really slave labor in America was used not only in agriculture, but also industrial production. In this case, next to the blacks, in fact the rights of slaves toiled Chinese. As an example that demonstrates the use of slave labor huge masses of people can be considered transcontinental railroads United States, which were used in the construction of almost slave-like conditions of hundreds of thousands (!) The Chinese.
By the above, we may add that in 2001, African countries have decided to bring the United States and western European former colonial states a claim for the total loss suffered by Africa during the slave trade. According to the Organization of African Unity (OAU), a few centuries in America were shipped 12 million people. In early January, 20.00 years, the OAU established a special commission composed of historians, economists, lawyers, sociologists, summarized the results of their work on a two-year study of the issue of the damage done to Africa as a result of the slave trade. The result was fantastic figure named a possible lawsuit — 777 trillion dollars. In addition, "the National Coalition of American blacks for compensation," said the U.S. government should pay compensation to the descendants of African slaves who had been abducted to America in XVII-XVIII centuries. Its total amount is estimated that organization needs to reach 1.5 trillion U.S. dollars. 
Against the Indians European settlers behaved similarly. "Cleansing" American lands from recalcitrant natives and create in their territories the state, they acted on the basis of U.S. General Phil Sheridan: "Good Indian — it is a dead Indian." They totally destroyed not only the men of Indian tribes, but the women and children. The history of the colonization of America just full facts of cruel and inhuman treatment of white Americans to "redskins", which could now be treated under international law as genocide and crimes against humanity.
Back in 1640 the legislature of New England has adopted a number of resolutions, the meaning of which can be reduced to three "axioms":
1. The earth and all that is in it belongs to the Lord;
2. The Lord can give the land or a part of it to the chosen people;
3. We — the chosen people [37, p. 290].
The Indians have not been able to understand how the land may belong to someone. Why, then, he reasoned, and you can buy or sell the air, the sky, rain, or birds singing. But is it possible to do that, being of sound mind? They were European settlers seemed insane. For them, the thoughts and actions of the aliens showed a disease of the spirit and the mind. The Indians did not understand why the "Indians" and the "white man" can not live together in the same territory, under the same sun. They want peace, they tried to negotiate, they are easy to make concessions and compromises. As a result, millions of them have been mercilessly killed, and the survivors herded into concentration camps and reservations.
European immigrants have always considered inferior race of Indians, whose existence contrary to God. That's why all sorts of moral norms were not apply to them. In fact, the Indians did not fight, they just slaughtered like wild animals that do not lend themselves to "domestication" and are not suitable because of their mentality, even the role of slaves.
A typical example of how Americans acted with "useless" by the natives, is a tragedy, which occurred November 26, 1664. Then the two pillars of American soldiers under the command of Colonel Anthony and Shivingtona (former Methodist preacher communities, missionary and organizer of Sunday schools) attacked the defenseless camp near Fort Lyon. At that time, there were only women, children and old people, only about 700 people. The Indians did not help even a large American flag that the "Great Father" gave one of the leaders. Massacre, which began in the camp, has surpassed all limits of human cruelty. U.S. soldiers with relish killing and maiming, bullying dead bodies. They cut off the penises of boys and old men, female breast, torn bellies of pregnant. Female sex organs are pinned on their bayonets. All of the soldiers killed and scalped of scalps made pouches for tobacco.
After the massacre Shivington told the press that he and his soldiers have successfully completed one of the bloodiest battles with the Indians. White settlers were jubilant. Gathered at the Opera House in Denver, they demanded to destroy, to kill all the Indians. Fifty years later, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed the massacre in Indian camp near Fort Lyon the most fair and honorable event, which had only been on the western borders.
In 1862, the U.S. government issued the "Law on the settlement of the West" (ie, Indian lands). To stimulate the process of extermination of Indians, each migrant, was promised free property 160 acres of fertile land. The Indians, the owners of these lands were declared illegal. Until the end of 1860 across the country go their persecution and mass murder. The authorities of many states are beginning to pay large sums of money for each scalp murdered aboriginal. For example, the legislative chamber Massachusetts in 1755, the Indians declared rebels, traitors and enemies by assigning monetary rewards for killing them. For an adult male scalp government paid 40 pounds for the scalp of an Indian woman and a child under the age of 12 years — 20 [32, p. 46]. It may be added that, under the laws of the United States (who acted vplotdo 1924), Indians were not U.S. citizens and do not have in the United States are no civil rights.
The same Indians who survived, American power was placed in reserve. In this case, the forced relocation was carried out like a military operation of the armed forces of the United States and was accompanied by acts of terrible violence, massacres and tyranny. For example, one of the largest cultural and Indian tribes — Cherokee, numbering at that time 14 thousand people during the forced deportations in 1838 — 1839 has lost 4 thousand dead [38, p. 260]. To get a little feel the depth of that ancient tragedy, let us turn to the story of John D. Barnett, member of the 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade of the U.S. Army Corps Mountain, who took part in the deportation of this small nation under the command of Captain Abram Maklillana.
"Expulsion of the Cherokee from their land caught me in 1838 as a private military service U.S. Army when I was still a young man, — he wrote in December 1890. — Being familiar with many of the Indians, and is fluent in their language, I was sent to the translator in the Land of fuming Gore in May 1838, where he witnessed one of the most horrific events in the history of American wars.
Innocent people were dragged from their homes and herded with bayonets at the collection points. In my eyes October morning, the freezing rain, they are like a flock of sheep were loaded into six hundred forty-five vans and sent to the west.
Never shall I forget the grief and horror of that morning. The leader — Christian John Ross said a prayer, and when the alarm horn train started moving, people, standing, said goodbye to their homes, knowing that they are leaving for good. Many of these accidents had no blankets or warm clothes, or even shoes on their feet. Such kicked out of their homes.
Seventeenth of November, we were in a storm of hail, sleet and sub-zero temperatures until the end of our stay, March 26, 1839, the conditions of existence of the Indians were simply dreadful.
They had to sleep in the van or on the ground, there's fire. The road to exile has become their way of death. I remember one night only twenty-two people died from pneumonia, fatigue, humiliation.
Among them was the wife of the leader of Ross, a real beauty. This noble woman gave her only blanket to the sick child was left in the rain and the icy wind without any protection. A few hours later she died of pneumonia.
And the cause of all disasters Cherokee tribe became a common human greed. <…>
In 1828, an Indian boy sold a gold nugget white merchant. And this piece of metal was the verdict of the people of the Cherokee. In a short time, the country has been turned upside down by armed troops who claimed that they — the government officials who came to take care of Indians.
Being committed their crimes simply trampled any notion of civilized people. Land taken away, houses were burned and people shot.
Yanaluska leader was personally acquainted with President Andrew Jackson. Together with a group of five hundred chosen warriors, Cherokee, he helped Jackson win the Battle of horseshoe, losing thirty three people were killed. The day kicked himself Yanaluska skull warrior tribe of hostile cries when he really was about to kill the next president.
The leader Ross Yanalusku sent to the White House asking for protection. But Jackson was unresponsive and cold to the brave son of forests, which saved his life. After hearing the request, he gave up: "The audience is over, sir. Nothing I can do for you. "
The fate of the people of Cherokee was sealed. Washington announced that the Indians have to be relocated to the West, and their lands passed white. In May 1838 four thousand soldiers and three thousand volunteers under the command of General Winfield Scott invaded the Indian country and entered the blackest page in American history.
Men working in the fields were arrested and driven to the assembly points. Women pushed out of the houses. And they are in the majority, did not even understand the language spoken by the soldiers. Children taken away from their parents and collected in a separate zagonchik where the ground for a pillow, a blanket and the sky. The elderly and the infirm were driven by bayonets.
In one house happened to the mountain. Child died. Dead baby with sad face lying on a bearskin rug, and the women prepared it for burial.
At this point, were all arrested and thrown into the street. I still do not know who buried the body.
In another house lived a single mother, a widow with three children. One — just another baby. When it came over, she read a prayer in their language, said good-bye to the old faithful dog, baby tied behind his back, the other two took the children by the hand and went into exile. But the test was not able to do. She had a heart attack, and she fell into the river, along with the baby behind her back and the other two kids who continued to cling to her hand.
This incident happened in front of the leader Yanaluski who saved the life of President Jackson. Tears streamed down his cheeks as he turned his face to the sky and remarked: "Lord, if in the battle of horseshoe I knew then what I know now, the history of America would have gone the other way!"
Today, in 1890, these events are still too fresh, and young people can understand the full horror of the atrocities committed against defenseless people. But the facts are already safely hidden from the youth. Today's students are not even aware that they live in the land of people have been driven into exile by bayonets to meet the thirst of gold. <…>
However, murder is murder, regardless of whether it takes place under cover of night, scum or people in uniform, marching to the music of a military band. Murder is murder, and somebody must answer.
Someone needs to explain the flow of blood to flood the Indian country in the summer of 1838. Someone needs to explain the four thousand graves stretching along the paths of exile Cherokee. I would like to forget, but to the last day and will stand in front of my eyes, those six hundred forty-five vans with their nightmarish "weight". "
No one answered the flow of blood, zalivshie Indian lands, and no one has explained why, why were mercilessly killed millions of people, from time immemorial, who lived on the American continent. During the XVIII and XIX centuries, the Indian population was almost entirely destroyed. If at the time of the appearance of the British in North America, there lived more than 2 million Indians, at the beginning of the XX century. they have no more than 200 million [39, p. 260].
The above facts are eloquent testimony of what are in fact western humanism and humanity, especially pronounced itself on American soil. However, the brutality of the Anglo-Saxons could be explained by the severity of the time and treat them as a consequence of savagery "conquerors of the West," which devout Protestant pastors just were not able to instill Christian charity, if indeed these atrocities were in the distant past. However, this is not the case.
This is evidenced by the fact that almost all the wars waged by the United States, accompanied by the power of shares of a systemic nature, which are currently characterized by international law as "crimes against humanity". The clearest evidence of this is the Vietnam War, during which the punitive raids of American soldiers were not just targeted destruction of the population of this small Asian country, and successive destruction of "narrow-eyed shorties", carried out in a particularly cruel forms. This could make a staunch racist.
An example of this is one of the best known episodes of the war, which occurred March 16, 1968. The day rota "Charlie" from the 11th Infantry Brigade of the U.S. Army, under the command of Lieutenant William L. Kelly, was ordered Captain Ernest Medina "to clean out the" My Lai. At 7:30 on it opened fire high-explosive and incendiary shells with white phosphorus. The population caught in the underground shelter. After a few minutes of preparatory fire died down, and the soldiers entered the village in company of "Charlie". There were no weapons, no guerrillas. In it the Americans found only women, children and the elderly. Kelly ordered to kill them all and burn the village. Brutal Yankees moved from hut to hut, grabbing frightened women and children's hair, shouting "Vietcong? Vietcong? ", And then killed them in cold blood. The fugitives were shot in the back. Moreover, before the execution of Vietnamese women raped and mutilated, helpless old punitive dumped into trenches and bayoneted, pregnant women stabbed, decapitated corpses scalp. Captain Medina (representative of the brigade headquarters), who observed this day for the course of the operation, radioed to Lieutenant Kelly and asked about the reasons for delay in promotion of his company. Kelly replied that they had stumbled on a group of civilians. "Take care of them," — told Medina. Without specifying the order, Kelly built the Vietnamese, and from a distance of ten feet by two of his subordinates shot them from a machine gun. Then the executioners dragged towards the bodies of dead women, who closed themselves of the young sons and daughters, and shot at close surviving children. The fugitives who tried to hide in the forest, destroyed with grenades and machine gun fire. Approximately fifty residents of My Lai hidden in a hole in the far end of the village. In the stinking mire floundering old men, women and babies. Kelly ordered the soldiers to shoot. Machine-gun fire and people were turned into a bloody mess. Later in the morning executioners stopped firing and took a break for lunch. But the tragedy of My Lai continued. With the prisoners rounded up for questioning in a ravine finished shots in the mouth. On that day, a gruesome death took about 500 civilians.
Another equally striking example of American warfare against the "natives" is the story of "combat feats" "Tiger squad." Newspaper reporters «Toledo Blade» (Toledo, Ohio) found that, according to the confidential report of the U.S. Army, the platoon, known as the "Tiger squad," acting in the central regions of Vietnam, tortured and killed civilians between May and November 1967 .
After gaining access to the classified reports of the Central Command of the Army criminal investigative, detailing the countless war crimes, journalists have studied thousands of declassified documents from the National Archives in Washington, DC, as well as hundreds of additional secret reports about the case — a case which, according to them, it was not known even "the most famous American historian of the war." Reporters also interviewed former soldiers "Tiger squad" and went to the central highlands of Vietnam (which consists of several provinces, including Quang Nam and Quang Ngai), where they found witnesses to his activities.
The platoon was considered an elite unit of the 101st Airborne Division, it was created in 1965 and consisted of 45 received intensive training paratroopers learned to conduct intelligence operations behind enemy lines.
This unit has visited more than 40 Vietnamese villages, killing old men, women and children. Prisoners before execution, torture. They cut off ears and scalp were kept as souvenirs. One of the soldiers' Tiger squad "cut off the baby's head to remove the necklace from his neck and killed by U.S. soldiers knocked out teeth for crowns of gold.
Journalists spent more than a hundred interviews with former soldiers of the platoon and Vietnamese residents, it is estimated that the unit killed hundreds of unarmed civilians in those seven months. Describing the extreme violence against peasants, former platoon medic Larry Kottinghem said: "It was when everyone was wearing a necklace of severed ears."
In September 1967, the U.S. Army launched Operation «Wheeler» («hauler"). Under the command of Lt. Col. Gerald Morse "Tiger Squad" and the other three divisions, called "Assassins," "Barbarians" and "thugs", raided dozens of villages in the province of Quang Nam. The operation's success was measured by the number of dead Vietnamese. "I've never seen anything like it. We just came and cleaned out the civilian population ", — confessed Rion Causey. Harold Fisher, a former nurse, recalled: "We went into the village and just shooting at everybody. We do not need an excuse. If they were here, they died. "
The newspaper also found that, despite the army's four-year investigation into the crimes, "Tiger squad" or one of its members has not been charged.
In 1971, John Kerry, a former naval lieutenant and leader of the "Vietnam Veterans against the War," in testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, said: "I would like to say on behalf of all those veterans and say that several months ago in Detroit We conducted an investigation, during which over 150 honorably discharged veterans to retire (many of which have high premiums) showed war crimes committed in Southeast Asia. These were not isolated incidents, but the daily crime, with full knowledge of their commanders at all levels.
They talked about how personally raped, cut off ears, head, tied with wires from a field telephone genitals and included current cut off the hands and feet, blew the body, firing indiscriminately at civilians, equated with the land of the village in the spirit of Genghis Khan, killed livestock and dogs for fun, poisoned food stocks, and generally ravaged the countryside of South Vietnam, not including the usual atrocities of war and the specific destruction caused by the bombing. "
Nothing has changed in the methods of warfare by the U.S. Army in the XXI century. This is evidenced by the documentary "Massacre in Mazar» («Massacre in Mazar»), the Irish filmmaker Jamie Doran (Jamie Doran). It described the executions without trial thousands of Taliban captured in Mazar-e-Sharif and imprisoned Qala-i-Jangi, once in November 2001 fell the last stronghold of the Taliban in northern Afghanistan — the city of Kunduz. In addition, the film presents a compelling eyewitness accounts of what the U.S. military was not only killed, but captured and tortured by the Taliban — cut off their tongues and poured acid before execution.
After watching this film in Germany, a number of European parliamentarians and human rights activists have proposed to launch an independent investigation into the atrocities of the American army in Afghanistan. Making the request, the famous human rights activist Andrew McEntee (Andrew McEntee), said: "It is clear that this apparently is evidence of serious war crimes, not only by the laws of international law, but also by the laws of the United States." Despite the deafening silence on the part of the movie the American media, it is widely discussed in the European press, with significant coverage in «Guardian», «Le Monde», «Suddeutsche Zeitung», «Die Welt» and other newspapers.
Naturally, the United States and the Northern Alliance categorically deny that mass killings in prison Qala-i-Jangi. But their assurances look very convincing, especially after «Sunday Mirror» published photos horrific treatment with Taliban fighters contained in another prison — Sheberghan, nicknamed the "Afghan Auschwitz."
At the time, many of the military and political leaders of Nazi Germany were hanged by the verdict of the Nuremberg Tribunal, just behind the methods of warfare which so likes to use the U.S. military around the world in the fight against the enemies of freedom and democracy. Despite this, the ruling circles of the United States still continue to teach mankind how to live properly. But against the background of the above facts, the very notion of "human rights", coined by American ideologues and actively used by Washington to justify its foreign policy looks very cynical, as well as the White House's desire to selflessly protect these "human rights" in other countries. It should be noted that at the beginning of the XXI century unsurpassed western humanism, which we are proud Americans and Europeans acquired a very odd shapes.
But back to the beginning of American history. Once in the War of Independence have the United States prior to their political leaders faced the task of targeted expansion of its territory. The main purpose of this land expansion was to achieve the Pacific coast. That is the American state with his first foreign policy moves constantly sought to geopolitical completion — ktomu to the U.S. border coincided with the coasts of the oceans surrounding the American continent.
In 1803, after a long and intense diplomatic struggle between the United States and France, Washington for $ 15 million. bought the Louisiana Territory from the French — the territory west of the Mississippi River, in size almost equal to the initial U.S. territory, and in 1819, Spain was forced to cede Florida, which was in the years 1810-1813 was captured by American plantation owners, with the support of the regular army. In 1836, the slave-owners of the southern states seized the Mexican province of Texas and declared it an "independent republic", and later joined the United States. In 1846, after a long bargaining with the United Kingdom, the United States took over much of Oregon — a vast territory on the Pacific coast. In the same year, the United States went to war against Mexico. After defeating the Mexican army, they annexed almost half of its territory. In the occupied territories were created states: New Mexico, California and Utah. At the same time, the U.S. gained a controversial British Canada Oregon, after which it was finally established a direct US-Canadian border. And finally, in 1867, Russia for $ 7.2 million dollars. sold Alaska to America.
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