Daughter studies at the Law Faculty in absentia. Working. She came to the meeting — lives alone, an adult. The first thing for me to work — in the library with literature is difficult, and there have puzzled theme — "Siberian separatism, and the origins of the modern state." I had some help. But the theme itself is somewhat forced to think on this issue. These thoughts I would like to lay out, but — do not judge strictly. I am not a political scientist, just curious and tried to summarize. There will be a lot of quotes — but, I believe, no other way to discover the essence of forces and the people they represent, without specifics views expressed by them. I apologize in advance for mnogabukaff.
Before talking about the Siberian separatism, its roots and manifestations, we should note the following:
Separatism is a phenomenon closely related to the historical and political structure of the state in which it is manifested — implicitly or explicitly. Accordingly, Separatism and can be considered from different points of view — to whom it is advantageous or disadvantageous to whom it. Let's call the first "ideology", the second — "statesmen". In today's Russia and the lack of both.
Considering these points of view, focused on a number of papers as "ideologues" and "statesmen". During much is not helpful, I think, the trend can be traced on the analysis used, in which case, I think, comrades corrected and add necessary.
It took the first K. Khandogina, "Siberian separatism as a threat to the integrity of Russia"; Vinogradov, A. Yadykina, "Separatism in modern Russia", which can be called "centrists", although in essence they are the same "ideologues" and to the second — certainly respected SG Kara-Murza.
What is the difference between them? I think, without going deeply into the theoretical calculations, they can be distinguished by the very approach to the problem. First consider that separatism as a whole, as the phenomenon has a historical background, its development is inevitable and welcome them. The second, somewhat restrained in such statements, are proponents of the idea of containment of separate development in the society by directing existing experience and knowledge in the area of creation and not destruction.
Let's consider the history of the issue, "Siberian separatism" in terms of "ideologists", which no doubt can be attributed to political scientist Cyril Khandogina, who believes that Siberian separatism is a necessary inevitability.
According to Mr. Khandogina in today's Russian separatism has deep historical roots. Separatism subject not only to the national-territorial entities, such as the Republic and autonomy, but are members of the Federation as a state or province. Detonator regional separatism are internal contradictions that exist in the regions. Internal conflicts and tensions born situation where the region is not profitable and do not need to be separated from the center but at the same time, they have a negative attitude to this center, believing that the federal government stifles any local initiative and prevent regions to realize their potential, by the use its resource base. In fact, in most regions of Russia at the beginning of XXI governors have turned into a kind of feudal lords who control the economy, politics, and in many cases, and law enforcement agencies. The so-called administrative resources, virtually guarantees the governor's re-election — regardless of its success in ensuring the well-being of the inhabitants of the region. With this and did not put up the president, starting his reforms. Policy Center contributed to the consolidation of regional elites around it. While this consolidation is largely involuntary, it is politically efficacious, is a reality. Regardless of the fact that the elites are formed in very different regions with very different cultures, all of them in these terms willy-nilly forced to play by the rules that are set in the center, as it is beneficial to themselves both politically and economically. Only ten of the Federation economically independent and are donors for the rest. Federal grants and have the carrot, which measures the loyalty of the elites to the center.
Thus, analyzing the ideas of Mr. Khandogina and his colleagues, it can be noted that at the heart of the issue of separatism, they are putting a financial issue — the distribution of financial flows between the center and the border regions. The same question and they try to move to the relations that existed in the past, justifying separatism historically.
The origins of Siberian separatism, in his opinion, should be sought in the development of political thought in Siberia XIX century. Even in the first half of the XIX century among intellectuals not numerous anthrax is spreading the idea of the colonial status of Siberia in the Russian Empire. In this regard, developing the idea that Siberia should go the way of Latin America and the United States, free from the "colonial oppression" and formed a new independent state. Considerable influence on the attitudes of the local intelligentsia had political exiles, especially the Decembrists and Polish insurgents who saw in Siberia prototype of the "new America."
A Vajra in his book, "The Path of Evil" in detail considered the path of "liberation from colonial oppression" of Latin America and the U.S. role in this, as they say here, to add or subtract.
Gradually, in the environment of the Siberian intellectuals formed a new political movement, which championed the idea of an independent Siberian State. This movement is called Siberian regionalism.
In 1852, the fraternity issued in Kazan Siberian university students and Theological Academy. As the domestic researcher Anatoly belts, students of the University of Kazan Siberians called Siberia only as Russian America, believing that it "sooner or later, will separate from Russia." Another important center for the development of ideas of Siberian separatism becomes Compatriot circle Siberians in St. Petersburg. It is starting out the main ideologists of Siberian regionalism, NM Yadrintsev and GN Potanin.
In 1863, one of the members of the Siberian Patriotic Circle in St. Petersburg, Irkutsk merchant SS Popov wrote a manifesto, "Patriots of Siberia", which later edited and published under the title "Siberian patriots" NM Yadrintsev and SS Checkers. In a proclamation noted that Siberia "to secede from Russia for the good of his people, to create their own state on the basis of national self-government. The democratic structure of society particularly favors a Siberian republic consisting of states like America. " To implement this idea Siberian patriots proposed to "move closer loyal people of the country, not showing the type and purpose of your approach, the active propaganda increase their party, start relations with other cities, villages and mines. Arrange the secret printing and lithography for free speech. Collect money on the revolutionary goal. " In order to promote their ideas and Yadrintsev Potanin, and a number of radical Siberian regionalists back to Siberia.
The idea of the struggle for independence in Siberia found support from the Polish political exiles, who, after the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising of 1863 in large exiled to Siberia. In addition, some Russian revolutionaries were planning to stage a rebellion in Siberia to combat "the tsarist government." In particular, one of the creators of "Land and Freedom" by NA Sulfur Solovyevich on behalf of his mug has established links with the Polish exiles to prepare for joint action against government troops. In their eyes the general uprising of political exiles in Siberia and Siberian revolutionary forces was to result in th
e creation of the Siberian republic with the name "Svobodoslaviya" led by the interim government, which was supposed to enter such famous revolutionaries like NGChernyshevsky, NA Sulfur -Solovyevich, MI Mikhailov and Y. Ogrizko. The newly formed Siberian republic in the future was to start a revolutionary war for the liberation of Europe from Russia and Poland "tsarist oppression." In June 1866, the Polish exiles raised a rebellion in the Baikal region, but the government forces can in a short time his succumbing. Trying to deploy a large-scale revolutionary movement is failing.
The year before, is another important event that is a serious blow to the movement of the Siberian regionalists. May 21, 1865 the officer Siberian Cadet Corps, which was located in Omsk, finds a random search at one of the inmates of the leaflet "Patriots of Siberia", after which begins the investigation and arrests Siberian regionalists and the main ideologists of GN Potanin and NM Yadrintseva. Only in the case of a "conspiracy of Siberian separatists on the separation of Siberia from Russia and the formation of the North American republic like the United States," 44 people were arrested. Three years later, February 18, 1868 N.M.Yadrintsev was sentenced to deprivation of all property rights to the link, and 12 years of hard labor, and April 19, 1868 Senate passes sentence GN Potanin — five years of hard labor. The other oblastniki also punished by reference.
At the beginning of XX century due to the growth of revolutionary sentiment in Russia oblastnicheskoe movement gained new momentum. In 1905, on initsiativeoblastnikov, Revolutionaries and the Cadets created Siberian regional union, but also put forward the idea of establishing the Siberian Regional Duma, the jurisdiction of which shall be to all local affairs. The ideas of political independence again gaining popularity among the regionalists. Thus, in March 1907 in Chita distributed leaflet of "Siberians!" Signed by a certain "Siberian Independence Party," which ends with an appeal: "… We are inviting all those who cherish the motherland, under the banners of our fighters for the idea of Siberian independence."
Events in February 1917 regionalists were given the chance to implement their ideas. At this time, the question arises as to who will have the real power in Siberia. August 2, 1917 in Tomsk going to the Conference of NGOs in Siberia, which makes a decision on the autonomous device Siberia. August 5, 1917 convened by the Conference approved a draft of the Siberian flag, designed by one of the delegates AP Kazantsev, "National Siberian flag represents a combination of 2 colors: white and green. White means Siberian snow, green — the Siberian taiga. The shape of the flag is a rectangle, which is a diagonal connecting the upper left corner to the lower right is divided into two parts, the upper part of the green, white lower. "
From 6 to 17 October 1917 in Tomsk, going first Siberian regional congress that elected Siberian regional council and decided that Siberia should have full legislative, executive, and judiciary, have Siberian Oblast Duma and the Cabinet of Ministers. In connection with the October Revolution of December 6, 1917 in Tomsk, convened an "emergency Siberian Congress." Oblastniki together with the Social Revolutionaries opposed the Bolshevik seizure of power. GNPotanin demanded an immediate break with the Bolsheviks and the deployment of dealing with them, after which the Siberian Regional Council has not fight for autonomy and against the Bolsheviks. January 20, 1918 started its work Siberian Regional Duma, consisting of regionalists — SR, indigenous peoples of Siberia (Buryats, Kyrgyz, Yakuts) and immigrants (the Poles, Germans, Ukrainians). But by January 26, 1918 the Bolsheviks led by the chairman of the Tomsk City Council of Workers and Soldiers Deputies Nikolai Yakovlev dissolved the Duma, arresting 20 members. Remaining at large Siberian Regional Duma deputies, the day formed the Provisional Siberian Government.
After the defeat of the White movement in Siberia different oblastnicheskie organization ceased to exist. The Bolsheviks did not forget anti-Soviet regionalists and the majority of "Siberian patriots" had to flee the country. In terms of the Red Terror performances regionalists were doomed to defeat. However, the new authorities have become more attentive to the interests of the local community and its problems. During the years of Soviet power was established autonomy for the indigenous peoples of Siberia, as well as developing infrastructure, which contributed to the strengthening of the European part of the country's ties with its eastern outskirts.
Unfortunately, the consideration of separatism in Siberia Mr. Khandogina somewhat one-sided and taken without regard to time and circumstances of its occurrence, and is absolutely not the answer to the question — and that was after the Civil War? What is a state model has been proposed that the idea of separation of Siberia appeared again only at the beginning of the 90s, and why?
However, Chandogin continues:
In the early 90s with the collapse of the USSR activated separatist tendencies in many regions of Russia. Thesis BN Yeltsin's "take sovereignty as you want" was for some heads of subjects of the Russian Federation guide to action. The press has actively discussed the possibility of the Ural Republic, an independent Tatarstan, Bashkiria, etc. In the Siberian regions were also discussed issues on the autonomous and independent status, even in Siberia. It is worth noting that the idea of regionalism began to revive among the Siberians period of the growing crisis of the Soviet state. At the end of 1989 on the initiative of the Union to promote the revolutionary reconstruction of Tomsk committee was set up "Siberia". In the spring of 1990 the Committee released the address "the question of the Confederation of the Siberian lands," in which the members were in favor of the formation of the broad democratic movement, which aims at the creation of the Confederation of the Siberian lands for "reasonable" decentralization "to overcome the over-centralization, which is destroying everything of value in the field . " Committee members considered "Siberia", the Confederation of the Siberian lands should be with their common currency and the market, and the financial resources of the Confederation shall consist of earmarked land. Decisions must be made on the basis of consensus of all the land. As a practical problems in order to create the Confederation of Siberian land committees determine the formation of common Siberian authorities, the transfer of ownership of natural resources in new territorial formations ("land"), granted the right to self-determination, and voluntarily entered into the Confederacy.
Members also discussed the possibility of creating a mass movement "For independent Siberia" under the slogan "Live on rich land and eke out a miserable existence — and unbearable shame!".
The main forms of the Committee's work began lecturing, organizing discussions, "round tables", rallies and picketing government, collecting signatures.
1 July 1990 at the initiative of the committee "Siberia" was a conference which brought together representatives of almost all the regions and territories Sibiri.Konferentsiya was convened for the purpose of establishing a new social movement — the "Union Association of Siberia." The conference also adopted a declaration in which the founders of the Union defined the main tasks of the new movement: "1. To seek the sovereignty of Siberia and the creation of effective common Siberian government, including the Siberian land of parliament and government based on the qualitative upgrading of local councils and in a real multi-party system. " At
the same time, in Tomsk, on the initiative of a small group of writers and politicians created the Independence Party of Siberia (PNS), which was headed by the deputy of the Tomsk Regional Council Boris Perov. PNC leadership developed the basic provisions of the Declaration of Independence anthrax: the proclamation of an independent Siberian Republic, the prohibition of foreign participation in the development of natural resources of the territory, the prohibition of privatization; deportation from Siberia all prisoners and exiles who lived before the conclusion in other regions of the country; compensation Siberia damage "empire" . As a tool to achieve these goals PNS considered All-Siberian Congress of People's Deputies. April 28, 1992 at a meeting of the Tomsk regional council leader Boris PNS Perov said that Siberian people have every right to abolish the "colonial structures of power" and create your own controls. Perov also noted that the NTC would support any acts of civil disobedience against the Russian "salesmen", through which "anyone who feels they rob the Siberian good." However, the party did not last long, as early as January 1993, PNC announced the dissolution.
In 1998, the Liberation Army was formed Siberia (2000 FSB officers have expressed their concern name of the organization, and it was renamed the Oblastnicheskuyu Alternative Siberia — approx.), Headed by the Irkutsk publicist Michael Kulekhov. The main objective of CCA is the revival of ideas Siberian regionalism. Since 2002, CCA collaborates with the newspaper "Baikal conduct," which became actively popularize the idea of regional officials.
First, Kulekhov as oblastniki 19th century develops the idea that 400 years of colonization in Siberia, a new nation — the Siberians that are different from the people of the European part of Russia. "One of the main differences from the Siberian Russians — said in one of his articles Kulekhov — his, Siberian, unlimited individualism. However, even in this sense, the Siberian different from both European: he likes to talk about his individualism — in fact, the same is unlikely to exist in the world large collectivists than Europeans, from century to century combined in all sorts of communities, guilds, estates. Siberian forever Canny, critical and suspicious to everything you hear, just believe in yourself … in general, it is clear that the awareness of its special Siberians has always been. It is sometimes attenuated, sometimes acute, but Siberians are always aware of itself in varying degrees of "other" than the Russians. "
In addition, oblastniki argue that differences of Siberians "European Russian" is not just about the features of the "Siberian nature," but in the religious consciousness. If the majority of Russian adhere to the Orthodox faith, while Siberians, living side by side with the indigenous peoples, adopted their customs and beliefs. Thus, in Siberia was mixing Buddhism, local beliefs and orthodoxy. It has become commonplace, when some Siberians in the event of illness are turning to Buddhist lamas or local shamans.
Secondly, according to regional officials, Siberia economically more connected with Asia than with the European part of Russia. An active cross-border trade with China, in the streets of the Siberian cities much more can be found Japanese foreign cars than the cars of domestic production.
Third, the modern successors Yadrintseva indicated that the "colonial status" of Siberia and the unfair distribution of funds between the federal and local authorities. The newspaper "Baikal conduct," which became the "voice" of the regionalists, said: "Almost all of Russia's budget is in Moscow from oil, gas, metals, and other" semi "exclusively of Siberian origin. Therefore, pushing the European provincials to the periphery, in the life of the Russian Federation are only two "nations" — Moscow and Siberian. At first, as you know, 80 percent of the money of the country, the second — 80 percent of its natural resources. The living is easy like an amoeba: run out of money in Moscow — sell Siberian riches, and will be again with the money (which faces the Moscow nationality is a very fair and proportionate share for all of us …). "
The activities of modern regionalists not limited to publication of the article complained of "colonial oppression" and picketing government. Some supporters of the ideas Yadrintseva and Potanin decided to further develop the principles of regionalism and gradually came to the conclusion that if there are people "Siberians" means to be in this nation and its language — "Siberian". In April 2005, a resident of Tomsk Yaroslav Zolotarev has decided to proceed with the creation of the "Siberian language". Before you start a "compilation" of the new language Zolotarev left a message on his blog: "It is well known that the modern Ukrainian — is South Russian grammar plus Polish roots. I do not think it will be difficult to construct a Siberian language, the bay in chaldonskuyu dialect grammar right amount of Tatar roots, down to the lack of understanding of the Siberian European Russian language. " Soon Zolotarev found like-minded people who helped him popularize the "Siberian language". The Internet was even launched a website on the "Siberian language", where you can find the "grammar of the Siberian language" and even "Russian-Siberian dictionary." In addition, the "Siberian language" were translated and famous works of world literature, such as "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare, "Eugene Onegin" by AS Pushkin, etc.
In October 2006, on the "Siberian language" was not even open a section in Wikipedia ("Seabee? Rska Vikipe? Ddya"). By January 2007, through articles created by bots, came on the 66th place with 6924 articles, ahead of many living languages — Afrikaans, Uzbekistan, Belarus, etc. Participants of the "Siberian" Wikipedia engaged in transcription of a variety of texts, mainly linguistic and religious subjects, on the "Siberian language". But this division lasted only a year and after active discussions on the site "Wikipedia" section on the "Siberian language" has been closed.
In fairness, it should be noted that Cyril himself Chandogin notes — the number of members of the SLA is 30 people. But he does not answer the question — why now so many of them? What caused the sharp decline in adherents of the idea of separation of Siberia? All drove the Bolsheviks? So they are not more than twenty years. Maybe it's just different, is that the approach of Mr. Khandogina initially incorrect?
However, the historical background of let down himself, Mr. Chandogin actively cooperates with Ukrainian nationalists, why, and was assigned to the "ideologues."
And are there any prerequisites in Siberia to separatism?
The answer to this question is given in the works Sergey Kara-Murza, also known journalist and political scientist of today.
As we mentioned in the introduction, there are different points of view on this issue. If you try to sort out and take a look at the acts and Potanin Yadrintseva from another point of view, for example, from the point of view of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, we see a somewhat different assessment:
They both belonged to the flow of Siberian regionalists. How is characterized by the TSB for this?
Siberian oblastniki, representatives of the political movement of anthrax among the bourgeois and petty-bourgeois intellectuals (mid-50s. 19. — The beginning of the 20th century.). Regionalism was born in St. Petersburg circle Siberian students (GN Potanin, NMJadrintsev, S. Shashkov, N. Naumov, f. N. Usov, etc.). In the 60-ies. S. Fr. advocated the revolutionary struggle against
the autocracy for democratic freedoms. On his return to Siberia (1863) have intensified their activities. Advocated the "foreigners" against colonial oppression. Acting in contact with the Russian political exiles and Poles, S. Fr. prepared uprising. Considering Siberia as a political and economic colony of Russia, as well as a new Siberian Siberian "nation", some of the S.. have come to the wrong conclusions about the special ways of development of Siberia, put forward a reactionary slogan of separation from Russia. For the activities of the S.. 70s. characterized by enthusiasm for revolutionary populism. In the early 80's. undergoing an evolution of S.. in the direction of liberal populism, and from the 2 nd half of the 90's. — Bourgeois liberalism and the counter-revolution. In the early 20th century. of S. Fr. any right Cadet-monarchical current (AV Andrianov, AN Gattenberg, NN Kozmin, etc.) and left. The last (EE Kolosov, P. J. Derber, etc.) was close to the Socialist Party. S. Fr. participated in the preparation of anti-Soviet rebellion in Siberia. In the future, actively cooperated with AV Kolchak, and after the establishment of Soviet power in Siberia fled abroad. Some of SA. (Potanin, Yadrintsev, Kozmin, PM Golovachyov) made a notable contribution to the development of culture and science in Siberia — the history, archeology and ethnography.
Lit.: Lapin NA, revolutionary-democratic movement of the 60s. XIX century. in Western Siberia, Sverdlovsk, 1967, Acceleration IM, Plotnikov ME, GNPotanin during the Revolution and the Civil War in Siberia, in the book: History of Siberia, in the. 2, Tomsk, 1965 Sesyunina MG, GN Potanin and NMJadrintsev — ideologues Siberian regionalism, Tomsk, 1974.
In general, anything that would allow them to delete from history (as, for example, it was done with Beria in the same BSE), or expose "Red Terror" — is not reflected. Yes, the "individual SO have come to the wrong conclusions about the special ways of development of Siberia, put forward a reactionary slogan of separation from Russia ", nothing more. And specifically names Yadrintseva and Potanin are not called.
It is necessary to understand why the movement of "Siberian regionalism" emerged precisely in the second half of the 19th century and reached a peak in the summer of 1917, and then disappeared.
The same Potanin died in the city of Tomsk in 1920 of natural causes, no one of his "Red Terror" is not exposed. A simple analysis of available sources already makes it possible to doubt the veracity of the findings and of the facts stated in the first chapter from the source — K. Khandogina.
Can still be seen activity Siberian regionalists in a slightly different way — as an activity aimed at the development of Siberia — and Potanin and Yadrintsev did much to create the first university in Siberia, Tomsk, known for their research work in the world, Yadrintseva name, by the way, We named a street in Barnaul, the second wife of Vladimir Potanin, was a native of Barnaul. But apparently, someone needs to provide these scientists in this light? Remember what we talked about issues on the forefront of ideas of separatism. The Question fiscal.
Let's go back to the approach expressed by S. Kara-Murza, to the consideration of separatism in Russia, in fact manifested itself in Siberia really only after the February Revolution.
The Revolution of 1905-1907. rallied the national bourgeoisie and landowners regions around the royal power as the most reliable protection. Class fear was stronger than the natural nationalism of the bourgeoisie. After the collapse of the monarchy center position has changed, it has become dominated by the desire for the nationalization of nations. The collapse of the empire, not caused by the falling away parts, and the destruction of the center.
First of all separatism struck the army. Even before the Feb. established national parts — Latvian battalions, Caucasian native division, the Serbian case. After February was formed Czechoslovak Corps, and suddenly "all languages" demanded the formation of the national army. The command and the government does not have a specific setting and were not ready for it. Supreme Commander General A.A.Brusilov allowed the creation of "Ukrainian regiment named after Hetman Mazepa." Began "ukrainization" army (the soldiers refused to go to the front under the pretext of tricky, "Pidem pid ukrainskim ensign"). In the late summer of 1917 a struggle for the Black Sea Fleet, the ships raised Ukrainian flags with them to write off non-Ukrainians sailors.
Started territorial disintegration. Poland and Finland (two territories with the development of the national ruling class) demanded independence. Poland at that time was occupied by Germany, and the Provisional Government vaguely promised to recognize its independence. Finland also refused to self-determination, even breaking up in June, the Diet. A course for the preservation of "one and indivisible" Russia though the whole practice of the Provisional Government promoted decentralization and separatism, not only of the borderlands, but the Russian regions. Increased dramatically Siberian "regionalism" — the movement for autonomy in Siberia. The conference in Tomsk (2-9 August) adopted a resolution "On standalone device Siberia" within the federation of self-determination of nationalities and regions, and even adopted a green and white flag of Siberia. October 8th I opened the Siberian regional congress. It ruled that Siberia should have full legislative, executive, and judiciary, have Siberian Oblast Duma and the Cabinet of Ministers. Provided for the possibility to transform itself into a federation of Siberia. Bitter enemies regionalism were the Bolsheviks. After October, the Duma has not recognized the Soviet power, and most of its members were arrested.
SG Kara-Murza, "Soviet civilization."
One can agree with S. Kara-Murza, you can not agree, however, we see that the greatest scope of the idea of separation of Siberia from Russia, reached up to the October Revolution of accomplishment. Simply put — this idea was driven by the local bourgeoisie. The interest of the bourgeoisie — financial. Soviet power is not given the country finally fall apart, and now these relationships are not destroyed — as we have seen, the idea of "independent" of Siberia, despite the fact that the Soviet government no more than twenty years — wandering in the minds of all 30 people . True, the "brains" is difficult to call, but that's another matter.
In his paper "Problems in the Russian House", S. Kara-Murza, defining the cornerstone resolve the issue of separatism ideology or unifying idea, points out:
With respect to threats to the collapse of Russia's position much more difficult than that of the United States or France. Fasten it could only be a strong centralized state monarchical or Soviet-style — one that began with the law is not the market, and the family of nations. Let us recall once loosened ties of the royal government, the Russian empire crumbled just — in February 1917 after just three months. Thus began separating and Russian regions. For example, in Siberia, and had already established its own parliament and its own state flag. Only within the framework of the Soviet state's people have been able to gather in a large country, the Soviet Union. And they were not collected by military force (although it played a role), and the type of living arrangement that is offered to the Soviet authorities.
_ * Absolutely the same percent ESA collapse began immediately after the "turn to the market" under Gorbachev. Local and national elites began to tear the country apart and to safeguard their piece, to build their own little pseudo. Not only in the autonomous republics, but also in the areas had their own pa
rliaments and ministers! Through the Looking Glass …
This process tries to stop Vladimir Putin? And at the same time continue the policy of reform that this process had created? But these are two incompatible things. After installation on the collapse of the country is in principle, been placed under its ideological base. You can not fight against separatism under the banner of separatism, this political schizophrenia undermine statehood.
_ * In the recently disclosed program, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin for the reorganization of power is clearly visible attempt to use the approach applied in the formation of the USSR in the 20s. That — and a sharp increase in power of the center over the regions (denial of electing heads of administration), and termination of freemen elected in single-member constituencies (as the period from February to October 1917, in the face troubles in this election preference criminals) and almost mandatory Membership of top officials in the ruling party.
_ * Of course, local experience should know and consider. But there is today the conditions to repeat the experience of successful nation-building? Let's remember how it happened. The Soviet Union out of the Civil War is not a state, but as countless Soviet republics, bound by a common almost religious idea, a common type of "cell" state (the Council), an army general and a small but provided throughout the party. Under all that lay inherent in general and the vast majority of world population (in terms of Western science, "archaic communal communism"). It was a proto on having vertical. County Council Eletski himself decided to "act against the Germans' own, or by agreement with Moscow. "All power to the Soviets!" — The slogan of anarchy, which denies the hierarchy of power and the rule of common law.
_ * Then the vertical of power was able to quickly build — but it was given in a difficult political struggle within the party (instructive debate about the NKVD and the Prosecutor's Office.) As for the national government, after heavy thought had to go to the creation of the Union, federations — otherwise it can not cope with the untwisted after February nationalism. A short period when it was possible to eliminate almost painless republic emerged in the wake of victory in the early '50s, but it was not used. (According to the press, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in April 2004 with the project is rebuilding the Russian Federation in the form of 28 provinces, with no national republics. Perhaps this newspaper duck, because it is difficult to imagine a more adventurous project).
_ * In the 20 years of the myriad Soviet republics have been pulled together and are connected to the "republic of Soviets," a strong unified state. But this can not be achieved if the whole bunch verticals of power and control was not associated with horizontal hoops in the design like the radio tower on Shabolovke. For this was an important finding creative Stalin — nomenclature system introduced in 1923, each post of the state apparatus was under the dual control — vertical (agency) and horizontally (party). And the appointment and removal from it was made in the system, taking into account not only the departmental and local criteria, but also the national criteria. This greatly hampered the formation of clans and cliques of the local elite, which nests and local nationalism and separatism. This system served for forty years and then, after Khrushchev's reforms, began to degrade.
_ * Prime Minister Vladimir Putin is trying to revive elements of the system — if only for a small part of the state apparatus. In this sense, it is logical law allowing officials and even ministers to join a political party. It is clear which party they come. After the party, and will operate the new nomenclature system of selection and placement.
_ * Implement this plan? I think the chances of that are slim, if the project will be supported by a more fundamental steps. In the absence of the base and the forces that act in the successful Soviet project, an attempt to simulate the apical its features and techniques likely to drown. During the Stalinist nomenklatura system to perform its task, because it operated through the party, which really was the "Order of the Sword." Figuratively speaking, it operated until that party had a conscience and honor — so much so that its members have agreed to limit their personal income partmaksimumom. And most importantly, they propped up the bottom mass, absorbed a great project, a great ideal. Neither nomenclature nor this mass were not corrupt.
_ * What do we have now? A party that does not have the qualities of the CPSU (b), and a sickly mutant of the Communist Party since the late blight. Party functionaries which are almost opposites "Sword" as a philosophy of life they profess intolerable vulgarity. In general, human body of the state apparatus, which is to become the template for forming the new nomenclature is corrupt. What do we nashtampuet tip of "United Russia"! Finally, on what basis will keep the spiritual subjugation vertically? On the worship of Sakharov and Novodvorskaia? What project will force officials to work not for the ruble, not out of fear but out of conscience? The increase in revenues Abramovich? Acceleration of pumping oil from Russia?
_ * Not in the program, Mr. Vladimir Putin, a positive ideal, nor the saving of the project. So, do not have anything to fall back on. So, digest corrupt bureaucratic morass technocratic utopia Kremlin swallow coming out of it vertically. Though