Daria Aslamova, 18.08.2009
Flight Moscow — Minsk usually handed out to passengers Belarusian newspapers. Opening them, you are immersed in the wonderful world of milk yield and milk yield, heroes fields and school medal, the struggle for the harvest of and knowledge of sports and labor feats. Morality they are fed to satiety, a soup spoon.
In the Belarusian society bright personalities, never darkening, there are also some dark Personality of doomed to hopelessness: evil bureaucrats and bureaucrats with whom this society is winning the fight continued.
I do not know what all this has to do with journalism, but calms nerves wonderful. In the world of the raging financial crisis, the doctor must prescribe the Belarusian press everything is losing ground as a heart drops and sleeping pills.
Belarus — the last illusion of stability and return to the Soviet childhood, where there was no advertising and traffic congestion, when all warmed quiet confidence that tomorrow will be exactly the same. [Cut]
Forward — to the past
The restaurant "Deja Vu" in the center of Minsk labor byat marble pioneering buglers, roam the sleep-ITATION important-looking waitresses on the walls Port rety members of the Politburo and threadbare carpets (as at the time of my childhood, when the carpets on the floor were considered nobility and slap in the face of public taste ).
From the loudspeakers came the bouncy "Do not be sad to-do, a whole life ahead!" And then they, refugee lorusam, sad? Is his cum and gum, Uli-particles of Lenin and Marx and avenues, wide and direct mye as truth.
Crime as a phenomenon absent — the children play in the streets until late at night. People hi-Livs and slightly inhibited, taxi drivers are polite and give change on the counter, drunk walk straight, in general soaking direction, and not rude.
Women moderately beautiful (not your Uk Rainha, with its lush beauty of women), men moderately ugly. By restraint of colors and phlegmatic behavior Belarus is much closer to Europe than to Russia.
Presidential slogan "cracklings cup" has been respected holy: the hungry and begging on the streets there, a shot of vodka and a piece of bacon to provide each mu. Add to this the natural peasant stinginess Belarusians.
"If I buy bacon in the store, be sure to take unsalted — explained to me by my new knowledge Comay. — It's cheaper, and I had the house itself saline. We, Belarusians, thrifty, like hamsters. All anything stashed away for a rainy day. "
Popular chain stores "Rublevskiy" co-torye I mistakenly took to be an oasis of luxury and a gourmet, is aimed at people who know how to count money. "This is not your Ruble — a little offended, I explained to the Belarusians. — "Rublev-sky" — from the word "ruble". Shop for those roads every ruble. "
Belarusian — not just a nationality, and mind. "We are dealing with the phenomenon of peasant country, and more specifically, the country's non-adapted rural migrant workers" — says the Belarusian political scientist Leonid Zaika log.
Hence the village thrift, and the mind-set throughout apply to a meager indeed, STI, and bouncer, gently sweetened talkative-Stew and hopeless enmity any of revolutionary idea, heard in the last 20 years, and low migration.
In Moscow, the Belarusian guest workers far less than Tajik, Moldovan or Ukrainian-tions. Belarusians feet deeply in the loose soil of their fields. They are nostalgic about his Soviet yesterday, today, and are content with their fear of their tomorrow.
They long lurking distrust of Nome sudden wealth, the nouveaux riches — is not convinced of the revolutionary class consciousness, most tie-tion envy peasant.
When a couple of weeks ago in Minsk old "Volkswagen" attacked the new "Bentley", citizens of the captured complex feelings: on the one hand — the pride that in Belarus the first "Bentley" (note that "Mercedes" and BMW here as mud ), on the other — a satisfied feeling of social justice (it serves him right, for it-alls "Bentley"!).
"We will defiantly be indecent god-th — says a local businessman Victor Lobko-vich. — Money is not necessary to show, why annoy people? There is no such a monstrous gap between rich and poor, both in Russia. "
"So you like egalitarianism?" — "We like the stability." — "Stability of poverty?" — "Even so. None of this, that were very poor. But there is no Belarusians in the "Forbes".
"The Russian elite like the fact that they have Abramovich, who can buy a boat or a submarine — says the analyst Leonid Zaika. — She likes the oligarchs. When I look at these terfaces, I feel like in football: 20 le gionerov running around the field, the rest sit and smot are lit.
In Belarus, there is no boat. Have her dangerous. If someone appears, the president of his CPA-LU "privatize": Posada seedlings. We like to put people. "
As soon as the Belarusian businessman plant's dyatsya money, he was invited to the "interview", local authorities and kindly offered to take over shefst of a school or hospital (depending on income).
This is an offer that you can dispense with, but it is better not to do so — in Belarus 70000 regulations, to find a reason for planting is not difficult. Patronage — a kind of moral tax: if you're lucky, help public-operation.
"It's easier to buy a couple of times a year-held computers and sports equipment for schools than rice-forge their freedom," — explained to me by a knowledge komy businessman.
The big banks and the plants get a load of the collective and even compete with each other, whose number of households better. At the National Bank of Belarus (the analog of our Central Bank) under the patronage of such farms already 13! "What we have to help them? Concessional loans Tami and advice "- explained to me the bank representative Alexander Glebko and invited on a tour of popular print rural Belarus.
Our journey reminiscent of the famous cartoon of Puss in Boots. "Whose is it greener-out fields?" — I asked. "Marquis of Carabas (that is, the bank)," — answered me. "Whose pre-red dairy farm?" — I was surprised. "This is our sponsored" — again with emotion boasted a bank representative.
The appearance of the collective farms of Belarus, but the ability to squeeze out a tear impotent envy and bitterness anyone who knows the Russian village. Smiling landscapes, rich collective farm land with hozyayst-governmental buildings, strong and independent in appearance, barns with "European style", clean the ear-conjugated agricultural towns with neat streets, but Venka-schools, kindergartens and bars for fur-trainer of.
Director flourishing of an agricultural enterprise "Fatherland" Pruzhansky Brest region Vladimir Bond-Renko Bryansk was our guy.
"Disappeared Russian village — with longing Govo it is lit. — When I arrive at his small par-well, in the village of Bryansk (my father living out there), my heart bleeds. Only drunks and duds left, all the young people left. "
"And what, in your collective farm does not drink?" — "Why not? Drink. But to work drunk, I did not let anyone. I have a machine-pass medical examination before a change, we breathalyzer Kru-che than cops. "
"And I thought, mechanic on his natural state is to be drunk" — las surprising me. "Yes, I would trust a drunken car price at 190,000 Euros?"
Vladimir Bondarenko of the breed of the authority-tion, hard-working men, on land that once held a la Russian, Belarusian and now keeps. On his farm says with justifiable pride and passion.
And indeed there is glory in it: a $ 1.5 million net profit for 2008. Exemplary potato and vegetable fields ("Our potatoes you give in Russia for the Dutch to milk mug-sell"), 204 acres of orchards, infinitely strawberry patch.
I take on a large sample of a handful of strawberries — sweet, like my mother at the cottage. "We buy seedlings from the Dutch, only those leading strawberry-grained and tasteless, — says Vladimir Mikhailovich Lovich. — They take off their land as uro-zhaev that long ago it "ate". It is in their overfed chemicals, and in Belarus money on expensive chemist you do not, thank God. We drip irrigation pro-fought, as in Israel, now we are not afraid of no drought. A straw beds are paving that was pure strawberry and beautiful, as in the window. "
But the pride of Bondarenko — cows with the elite "marble" meat. "We first thought to buy cows abroad, and then decided, expensive and high risk. They are dying from climate change, from the stress. "
"Well, their homesickness suffer?" — Skeptics-cally ask me. "Of course, cows, like humans. And survive in a foreign land only cow-selfish — those forces that cherish, no milk, no meat really do not give. So we all have the same Dutch stole th purchase and improve their own breed. Te We now have 400 cows with precious meat for gur addicts. And that's just the beginning! "
"Why, in your opinion, from the Russian village of Liu Di run, and in Belarus third of the population lives in the cross-le?" — "Conditions should be created. We have in-agrogo rodkah has all the infrastructure: roads, houses of culture, schools, pharmacies, banks, ice rinks and even water parks. We here in my Kobylovke pool building.
And most importantly: have solved the problem with housing. Presi-dent put forward a program: each village 5 new homes a year for young professionals. Banks give loans — 3% per annum for 40 years (instead of 18% under 20 years old in Russian). Cottages and is called out, "presidential houses." In our Kobylovke already 42 such house. "
Street plunged neat evrodomikov less nya in quiet frustration: I dream of a decade-bedroom cottage that close to nature, but that's not karma well. Three fully decorated rooms, a large kitchen, a bathroom, a large heated terrace and impressive size attic. By the cottage by the appended solid plot and stone sa paradise. Around the soft, soothing nature and stork nests.
"If the family of young professionals working on the farm, she relies a cottage, — explains the Bondarenko. — First, we, of course, people can be verified. See how they work. If all layers-lived, moved out of temporary apartments in the cat-tej. You can live in it until the end of his world-wide, paying only utilities. But if you want to privatize and to bring the children have to take a bank loan. "
Cottages, ice rinks and swimming pools — a lure for cash-strapped young people. Someone is called a cheese in a mousetrap and lifelong boars formula, and someone — a good starting conditions. Salaries in prosperous Belarus village by Moscow standards are low — $ 400-500 per month, mechanics — comes up to 600-800 (and in the busy season and earn up to 1600).
People are attracted to the village, above all, stability, Fully and social benefits. Quiet life in the shade and full political bezvet-Rie — a bonus not only for Russian pensioners and retired military who buy for next to nothing huto-ra on the edge of forests, but also for the unemployed Russians from villages and small towns.
As for the Russians Tatiana Zakharova kind of go-Slavgorod Altai region, living in Koh bylovke with two children. "For me, the main thing — ho-roshaya school for my children — says Tatiana. — There's not a good faith teaches, but also feed the children fully and free, and in winter give them vegetables and fruits. "
Happy life in the Belarusian village and charm-state Russian Elena Karsyuk, the chief raw-entries shop Pruzhansky dairy plant. Helena considers Belarus and Russia united country.
"Like us, Belarusians and Russian, can be de-shed? — Surprised her. — We are one people. We were a hard blow milk war. At the height of summer, when the cows produce a lot of milk, when in the heat storage-thread it is not easy, suddenly announced the blockade of our products! But we produce goods of the highest quality. It's not as neighbors and not as a relation. "
Elena shows me the shiny shop, Poho-zyje on the space station, and sprinkles technically-mi terms. "Well, that you can understand. That luxury German technology, we have bought, whether in cheese production — as a "Porsche" and "Mercedes" in the automotive industry. Machinery itself controls everything and does not make mistakes. "
All of this Belarusian brand new, brand-new, well-regulated agricultural production must luchiem the society's former farm and the current president, Mr. Lukashenko. Old Man in the countryside not just love — worship. It flies in a helicopter over the fields to harvest time, as less stnye Batman, going down to the ground from time of time, to punish or to kiss.
"So you call a dictator Lukashenka? And I'll tell you in a different way — tells me Bondar-to. — Was here in Grodno collective farm chairman, his tyrant and a despot called. Steep was moo-zhik. But if it were completely covered retirees 18 packets of milk per month, 600 kilos of grain to feed the cattle, a lot of benefits. On-chalas restructuring, political bolt-bred us. Died our chairman, came to power pain-tuna, collapsed farm. Shout easy thing to do is difficult. But when it comes to do if the authority and power not to apply? "
"At whose expense this banquet?"
Passion for slogans — Belarusian weakness, remaining from the Soviet era. In the open field I, for one, has met a strict a poster warning: "Take care of pipelines! Gas — our wealth! "" Wait a minute! — I was outraged. — Why is gas — your wealth? This is our of wealth! "" But we have a pipe "- blissfully uly-bayas, explained to me.
"Belarusian trick is to pretend that we are poor, and thus to receive from Russia about $ 8 billion in subsidies a year — said local political analyst and economist Leonid Zaika. — In Russia did not know that until 2004, the money just was not considered. We only did not give you the oil export duties on 3000000000 $ 10 million a year. And Lukashenka did not even order this so-shaft does not pay, but I still did not pay. Russia was the star. "
"Today Belarus starts a new game with Europe and alludes to replace the" orientation. " What hap-chitsya with Belarus if Russia in retaliation force her to pay the real price of gas? "
"For this it will be necessary to say a big thank you. Once Russia will sell us gas at the average regional price in Belarus will start economic progress. Low prices for raw ve-DUT to the non-compete production. Prices for The starting resources should be up to the world. When they are lower, the company lays ahead in their products the wrong decision. Once your Miller will sell us gas at the normal price, I'll subscribe to his monument in the center of Minsk, as the economic liberator Belarus. We will remove from the needle. Cheap gas — is a drug. It's like having an apartment in any Muhosranske: you are holding on for her and afraid of the motion nutsya from the spot. Freed from the gas anesthesia, depending, we can be competitive right to leave the country and to Europe. "
"Do you think that natural resources — is not happiness, for the country?"
"Of course! Look at Japan, where there is nothing, and what a success! Worst of all those developing countries that are rich in resources. Remember the Soviet Union, which collapsed due to its nekonkurentospo-lities. For Russia, its successor, the resources — it's a curse. It is necessary to buy women's fashion boots — now cut a forest and sell. It is necessary to buy computers — now oil dumps. After a 91-year no one in Russia has not built anything. Russia, which is not any established: no brand, no product. Availability of natural resources, eliminating the need to think and work. "
"Why do Russian people go to Belarus, where the prices of all imported high and wages ma-Lenka?"
"This is a nostalgic effects. Who else but the Russians believe in the island Sannikov, in happiness livuyu the ground and in the film "Kuban Cossacks"? White-Russian village, which you so admire are paid for by Chiva-city — state annually directs the more than half a billion dollars in the tree-nude. The village is so highly subsidized that it causes irritation in the Kremlin. Farmers is obtained at a significantly lower energy than the average of the country, cheap fertilizer.
We do a strange society of subsidiarity: every other citizen receives a subsidy from the state. Half of the population used to the fact that they are paid a variety of social benefits, pensions and benefits, and the other half to work. In Belarus, we are dealing with a vulgar authoritarian-tion neosotsializmom a very dangerous social policy, which has already led to an increase in Paterna-ism — neosotsializma built on the ideas of social equality and economic fraud. "
Lukashenko Why so popular?
In 1990, Belarus declared its independence, it soon became clear that the chances of a successful construction of a new state practically none. There is no historical experience of statehood, there is countless deposits of oil and gas for, not even water power (in Belarus hopelessly flat landscape).
I could count on a poor little country? To Western investment? But Belarus — not the Baltics, promising relations with the West, the house she did not work out. However, the country remained moose-outdated Soviet production.
"Belarus has an assembly shop of the USSR, — said the chief editor of the newspaper" Observer "and businessman Sergei Atroshchanka. — When Lukashenko came to power, all lay in ruins. It is by starting the flywheel dying businesses and powerfully gathered all the power hierarchy in a single fist. He did not allow the privatization in Russia, when the oligarchs-he bought the factory and turned them into nightclubs. 75 percent of large Soviet enterprises that had allied value is left in the hands of the state. If you're buying for Belarus-vodik, you can not reduce the volume of production or reshape it, nor can you-throw people on the street. "
"In your opinion, is socialism with a human face?"
"Most market economy with a strong social component. This means that the time has to be paid salary, provided stan-dard of medical care, controlled prices of essential commodities. Nothing has started up its course. When Lukashenko was elected, he said, Belarusians, engaged in manufacturing, of developing their own business. For example, I sew pants, and that: excellent briefs in Russia are going to cheer. "
"In Belarus, the manufacturer treated like a domain, because it provides jobs, — said the director of a cosmetic company" Modum "Victor Lobkowicz. — Lukashenko said at the time: we do not have dealers — those that have bought the goods cheaper abroad and sold here, if expensive. We have an unspoken rule: 70 percent of store assortment to be Belarusian, hang everywhere calls "Kuplyayte Belarusian-parameter". To the people who produce, are very loyal attitude: banned checks in comparison with Russia, corruption risks are low. Now register a new firm is worth nothing: come and wrote a letter. "
Actively promoting the local manufacturer's, the state, however, many and varied business puts people in jail. One of my white-Russian friend, long since fled abroad, told me that 20 of her friends Businessman photons 13 (!) Languish in captivity.
"We the people are kept in good shape: a lot of business people sitting in jail because of the imperfections of our legislation Islands — said the chief editor of the newspaper" Observer "Sergei Atroschen-to. — And it's a sad fact. Plant and also the officials and even ministers: give no quarter to anyone. But there is no system is perfect. But we do not have the oligarchs in Russia. After all, what the oligarchy? This merging of business and government. In Lukashenka's Belarus is in principle impossible. "
"Landings" of officials and businessmen Polish zuyutsya at popular among the simple people by pandering to his lowest instincts. (In the attitude of "we the people are poor but honest" always an element of social aggression.)
"Lukashenko is playing on the electorate — people with secondary education from a small town or village, usually around age 50 or older, — said political analyst Leonid Zaika. — A favorite voters — pensioners over 70 years, a lot of them — 933,000 people. In Belarus people live long. "
Such appeals to the electorate is always the carrot and the stick social benefits of public punishment.
Will Belarus' bulbyannaya "revolution?
This is unlikely, as Comrade Sukhov. Propensity to riots and revolutions is mainly from the empty stomach, and the potato famine rural Belarus clearly not threatened. All the attempts of the local small opposition political pinch conscience of the people for a living are doomed to failure. Part of this is due to some sort of antiromantiche-tion reaction of the middle classes to the "orange revolution" in Ukraine.
Caricature of Ukrainian democracy Belarusian peasant layer defines the sober-tion "a mess." A deeper explanation of the unacceptably revolutionary solutions lies in the self-IOM national character in the notorious "in myarkovnosti." "Pomyarkovny" — means tolerated-st, tolerant, thoughtful.
"Belarusians long suffering — says business-man Victor Lobkowicz. — Besides, we do not have a national idea, both in Ukraine and in the Baltic. We have never lived apart from Russia, we think in Russian, although the national pride of the Belarusians, of course, there is. "
"We are quiet people — confirms authorities businessman newspaper" Observer "Sergei Atroshchanka. — But even calm people can ignite if it is good to sponsor the idea of nationalism. When Lukashenko came to power, he immediately drove all the Soros foundations. Kicked, and rightly so. "
The younger generation of Internet based, however, looking forward to the West. 70 percent of children topically elite working abroad and never returned.
But the majority of young people who can not afford to pay education, goes to study in state institutions, dooming themselves to "own recognizance." Lukashenko has introduced the old Soviet system of distribution: after the end of free education graduate required to work a few years in a place where it will direct the state (for students who shines distribution, travel abroad is forbidden: to obtain a Schengen visa is almost impossible). And there is a young thing: marriage, kids, house, look, and stuck a young professional in a small town or village.
Shiny and years of proven system to the Torah, I'm ready to applaud: why tax-payers in the name of the state should be remunerated-Vat training talented and ungrateful children, who immediately after graduation Dominguez-played overseas and from there show fig his unloving home?
My girlfriend youth — Belarusian journalist Irina Khalip sheet — one of the most prominent leaders of the Belarusian opposition ditch, a man brave, resolute-tive, has received for his struggle for the rights of human rights and freedom of the title "Hero of Europe." We sit with the heroine of Europe in her kitchen (in the best traditions of Soviet underground) and talk about the fate of Belarus.
Our position is hopelessly dissimilar Ira — a romantic and a Democrat to the bone, I — pragma-tic, Ira admires America, I do not like her. Ten years Ira struggles with the dictator Lukashenko, a decade dictator Lukashenko feels pre-red.
Little angry Belarusian opposition is infinitely far from the people, from those large, under-verchivyh masses former rural migrants vstre-emitting all new deaf suspicious grumbling-tion. Democracy for them is probably a virtue, but because of her dinner not weld.
"Lukashenko always beats the opposition — explained to me, one local journalist. — He could kill them all like flies, but not nicotinamide always tightening the screws until the end. To his advantage to keep them under supervision, but at liberty, when once again the game starts with the West, you can always submit an any opposition. Suppose, say, sitting in their apartments or diskuti with ethyl online, turn up to the rally — where they are waiting for the cops with batons.
We have real political life is possible only in the kitchen, as in the Soviet Union — with the only difference-Tsey that our dissidents can always leave, no-who does not keep them here. I can not say that we have a dictatorship with a capital letter, so — a small, home-diktaturka. Unfortunately, the majority of the population policy to the bulb. "
"The opposition has no influence on the in-our society — said a businessman Victor Lop Covic. — She lives by its own laws, and society — on their own. They very rarely intersect. "
In Belarus, primarily valued purely Burgers Gera, purely economic virtue, and the granting fully vested its President Lukashenko. In a society where there is still strong sturdy peasant sourdough, pragmatic Sancho Panza will always take precedence over lofty knight.