Ayrat Dimiev — PhD in chemistry, a native of Tatarstan, who left in 2001 to teach in the United States. This is a book about the American education system, "eyewitness."
What do we have in practice? The basic approach to education in America is that learning should be fun. American students go to school to have fun. Then have fun — as they call it. The educational process should be fun, interesting and unstressed. Otherwise considered to be child abuse.
It is clear that the enhanced mental process can not be a "fan". It is counter-American students. If in the process of learning the thought process can not be avoided altogether, it should be kept to a minimum, and after him have to follow the encouragement in the form of praise for solving the problem. Very popular and more plain and simple ways to encourage students, for example, in the form of candy for the correct answer from the spot. Otherwise, the American student lost the meaning of education as well as knowledge in itself is not a value. The educational process without remuneration ceases to be a "fan".
Sitting for a long time on a task not in their rules. Firstly, it requires a voltage. Second, the fact that the student sits for a long time on a task and can not solve it, indicates either a bad work of a teacher, or a low mental ability student. But this is a disorder. Such a democratic country should not be.
I think that one of the main purposes of streamlining the educational process and relegated him to a primitive level of the game is to disguise the difference in the level of training and mental abilities of the students. In fact, the difference is huge, with the abyss. So the teacher has to give such a task, which obviously will manage everything. Very often it's either a game or any hack at physical exercise in the fourth grade. As a result, everybody is happy, and the students did not even have time to realize how primitive do. They are under the belief that once they are at school, you are learning. Students do not realize that the real knowledge of the subject studied do not get …
Denote another significant difference between the two educational systems: the Russian and American. In the center of the Russian system of education is the teacher. The authority of teachers and respect for the teacher — the main components of the Russian school, and culture in general. Despite the fact that recently the situation has not changed this for the better, in general, respect for the teacher at us — a part of the mentality of the nation. The very etymology of the Russian word "teacher" is different from the English teacher. The word "teacher" can simultaneously be used to refer to the spiritual mentor. Teacher — it is rather an instructor who just hired to provide educational services.
Perhaps in no other country in the world, it has not been expressed so clearly as here, where everything is at the basis of commodity-money relations.
In my opinion, this is the time and is one of the main reasons for the low level of school education in the country. What can be learned teacher who does not have the authority? Without the authority of the teacher — it is not a teacher, namely the instructor. Of the teachers listen with bated breath and unconditionally fulfill all its instructions. You can listen to the instructor, but you can not hear. Total paid. You can take the services of the instructor, and you can opt out and take the services of another. The customer is always temper. Interestingly, the Americans themselves do not understand. They continue to invent, what else can be done to student life was even better that the student made an even smaller forces get more "fun", and his knowledge improved.
To achieve these goals, bureaucrats and theorists of education are developing more and more new methods of teaching, and a real knowledge of students, according to the U.S. as teachers, getting worse and worse. Back in 2005, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States concluded that the scientific and technological leadership of the United States is at risk. The Academy, in particular, drew attention to the fact that American math teacher worse educated than their counterparts in developed countries. Mathematical knowledge of American students noticeably inferior to similar knowledge of their peers from 11 countries.
To remedy the situation, urgent action is needed. Teachers are made to periodically devoted to new methods of seminars where speakers with minimal teaching experience, if not without it trying to convince the teachers with the experience, that what they were doing before — complete nonsense and a big mistake. The worst part is that after the workshops the school administration more or less persistence makes use of these techniques in the classroom. Do not like, these stupid techniques die and are replaced by others.
The funny thing is: no one thinks to ask practitioners and teachers — and what they think about a particular procedure? Let not all, even if only the best and most deserving. Nothing of the sort! Just down from above directive, and the principal must monitor its implementation. The teacher is no authority — he just hired an instructor. Do not like it — does not work, your place will find other, more docile.
Strange, but the end result of the work of the teacher in the form of real students' knowledge no one cares. The main task of the teacher — clearly and unquestioningly follow instructions.
As for the school and the district's administration, the quality of their work is mainly measured by the two most important indicators for today: the results of public examinations and the percentage of students who drop out of school or dropping out of school voluntarily. On state exams I will have more later, but the consequences of the pursuit of artificially keep in school the person who does not want it, I think, no need to explain.
As a result of this policy the school administration puts pressure on teachers with administrative tricks forbidding them, in fact, the output for the year of two. That is of two can be directly and are not prohibited, but by putting a bad mark, the teacher is faced with such problems, the next time will not want to do that. Such, for instance, is widely practiced in recent years to the school where I work. While most often, according to the testimony of teachers from other schools, the administration does not stand on ceremony and simply prohibits teachers to raise twins, despite the fact that it is a direct violation of applicable laws.
Often have a deuce for the exam the student is still transferred to the next grade with only one purpose — to prevent his expulsion from school. Therefore, in each half of my eleventh grade students who want to teach algebra and chemistry, are not able to add and subtract negative numbers …
In the first year of my uchitelstvovaniya in our District was held titled First Things First. Play on words, meaning "do the primary thing in the first place." According to this reform, all U.S. schools should be divided into smaller learning community — something like a school within a school. The idea is that students do not become scattered over a huge school by various teachers and pas through all four years of High School were under the care of the same teachers. That is expected to be established which is more reminiscent of the Russian school. Then the teacher would be better to know students and their parents, and through this contact allegedly improve the situation in the classroom and, consequently, performance. It's okay, but you can not make an omelet without breaking eggs.
It was assumed that children would sit in a classroom all day, and the teachers will come to them to give her a lesson. What? Teacher, which is already in effect disenfranchised, it becomes an even more humiliating position subservient to the student. In addition, the same science teacher will teach all three subjects: biology, chemistry and physics. Is it possible to know all these three things equally well, so as to teach them are really up to the mark? This was the reformers simply do not think. And why? The purpose of the reform is not to increase the real-world knowledge of students. And for what? Yes to every student in the school was a success. And it is not the same.
Losers get their 69 points
This view of education is reflected in the country's ratings system knowledge. Their five-point system is not like ours, and stoballnoy and expressed as a percentage. Let's compare the two systems, for which we recall what assessments put us in our childhood teacher. Let's reference work, it ten examples. Did the right thing, all ten — five. Nine — five-minus. Six to eight — get your foursome. Three to five — C grade. Well, and after that deuce. Of course, this all depends on the teacher. But one thing is certain: if you do at least half of the job, you can count on a positive evaluation. Let's see how they have.
Theoretically, in the case of the ten examples of each example should give ten percent. The result will be a hundred. At first glance, it's wonderful minimized subjectivity of the teacher and the student gets exactly what he deserves. All is well, but there is one "but". The country with the most advanced education in logic should be the highest quality of education, which must necessarily be reflected in the results. So, the bar really high. Unsatisfactory is any score below 70 percent. A evaluation in the range of 70-80 per cent are satisfactory, but not prestigious. Thus, the Russian student who made the correct six of the ten case studies, will receive four, and the U.S. for the same job — unsatisfactory. "This is hard! — You exclaim. — Here is the system so the system! "Take your time. What do you think, how many students in a class can properly resolve seven of the ten examples? And nine out of ten? A little …
What is the solution? It is obvious. Rather, they are even two.
The first way — to simplify the program! While the maximum. For example, in mathematics in the first six grades in the U.S. are that Russian children — the first three. And even if the program is something beyond that, it is a separate material that does not require the use of prior knowledge and building a cause-and-effect relationships.
The second way is even easier — simply put is certainly undeserved praise. What happens in reality. For example, most of the teachers in our school, a lower score is not zero and 50. This means that even if all ten examples solved correctly, the assessment will be 50. A lot of teachers put 70 or even 75 (in our opinion, only three points with a minus) just for the fact that the student meets the tightest, no matter what it says. However, this is an example of subjective and depend entirely on the teacher. And here is an example of a completely formal.
In all schools in our district's grade book is in the computer. Evaluation of the teacher's computer get on the school server, and then — on the district's main server. All that caters specifically designed program. So this program is not quite officially allows to derive an estimate for the quarter is lower than 50 points. A student may simply be absent, and the assessment will receive not less than 50.
What is interesting in real life in America, such things do not go. For example, if you hand over any qualifying examination, such as a driver's license, and rack up 69 percent, the exam is not delivered. The school is such a false legalized.
Being driven by the criterion of "fans" and the general success of the training process as simple as possible. This is most clearly traced by the example of such "nefanovyh" subjects such as mathematics, physics or chemistry. I'm going to stop on these subjects and more, because none of our Russian teachers, for obvious reasons, does not keep the humanities, so I can not objectively judge the depth and quality of education in these areas. We can only try to draw analogies. As for the exact sciences, this simplification immediately apparent when you first look at the school curriculum. For example, the math behind their program from the Russian by about three years. Physics is not as such. In chemistry taught primitive.
But it is sad that students are unable to grasp even this primitive material. Rather, they internalize it to the nearest control work. In the next lesson is do not remember anything. I'm not talking about what is in their minds a month or two. And it suggests that the problem is not so much with the program as a teaching method.
Amazingly, this area in American education is not given absolutely no value. In Russia in pedagogical high schools is the subject of "Methods of teaching chemistry" (physics, mathematics, etc.) that teaches future teachers, in what order to teach basic conceptual categories.
In the U.S. about it and not heard. This question is left to the mercy of the teacher. We can say that here, in fact, there is not even a clear educational program. That's such an interesting situation — there pedagogy and teaching methods do not. Rather, the technique is, I will focus on it below. But this is a common method of teaching, rather than teaching a particular subject. This fact only shows that the real knowledge of the subject a student do not matter. Important only success, not knowledge. Soon you will realize that these two categories are not one and the same.
Read the book