The contours of European architecture has finally drawn home to his tenants.

Ukrainian newspaper "Today" explores the implications of joining the European Union for its peripheral members.

GREECE

In Greece, many believe that the prerequisites to the current economic crisis began reforms that were carried out at the request of the EU, especially in agriculture. And the most severe blow was dealt on cotton. In the late 1990s, Greece has produced more than 1.3 million tons of cotton a year, whereas now it is allowed to collect half — 782 thousand tons. At first hot Greeks were on strike, tractors blocked the road and out of spite Brussels seeded in all fields. But in this case, the EU has a so-called "tax appropriateness", which are required to Athens to impose the rebellious peasants, and in this case the proceeds of the cotton can not fully cover costs. Especially difficult was to small and medium-sized farms, which quickly went bankrupt.

"We can say that after joining the EU have gone an entire branch of light industry. All of agriculture in our risk: we have a very hot and a little fresh water, and therefore we are less competitive, such as the French or the Belgians. Our agriculture has been and remains heavily subsidized, and this is contrary to the EU ", — told the" Today "Athenian journalist Socrates Grammatikopulos. According to him only just now beginning to revive cotton production, as in the world of rampant fashion for environmentally friendly products.

Prior to joining the EU in Greece was a positive balance of foreign trade of agricultural products, but after receiving the coveted status of the Greeks were given quotas imposed to avoid overproduction of goods — to produce so much meat and no more, so much milk, wine, orange, olive oil, or — fine. As a result, seriously damaged the country's wine industry. For centuries, the Greeks were proud of their thick resin and tart retsina. But retsina not squeeze into quotas and began cutting out vines. The same fate befell the olive trees. For each pre-cut tends (ten acres) farmers were paid 720 euros, which had to go to the conversion selhozhozyaystva, but in fact were "'ll pass." Upon receipt of funds required to sign a promise to forever abandon the cultivation of grapes, olives.

Another sector in Greece, which has appeared in the affected — shipbuilding. The EU was more profitable to build new court is not in Greece, but in Germany. Many shipbuilding companies in Greece have closed, and the entry into the EU Greek shipowners themselves ordered 770 vehicles abroad! "Greece is really very difficult to engage in shipbuilding, which was defining the national branch of the country, as well as tourism, — two ridge, which could now pull Greece out of the crisis — said Grammatikopulos. — But for the EU it was not profitable, if we kept their ship-building, we would have had more political independence than it is now. "

LATVIA

Upon accession to the EU, Latvia has lost all of its sugar mills. There were not many, three — in Liepaja, Jekabpils and Jelgava. But they are completely covered with the internal market and they worked 330 farms. In 2006, the EU launched the reform of the sugar industry under the pretext of opening the EU market to third countries and the decline in sugar prices in the domestic market. As a result, before the reform of the sugar produced in 23 of the 27 EU countries, and now all the factories closed in Latvia, Portugal, Ireland, Bulgaria and Slovenia. "Our sugar industry could be saved, but our authorities have closed all dutifully — EU competitors had to be removed from our territory," — says journalist Vadim Radzivonau Riga.

Last Latvian sugar factory closed in 2007, receiving a compensation of $ 13.5 million Sugar-beet growers received $ 85,000 compensation. Since 2009 Riga is trying to regain the right to produce sugar, founding the Association "For the preservation of the sugar industry in Latvia." In Brussels the proposal was sent to open at least one sugar factory, but the European Commission decided — 2015 appearance of sugar factories in Latvia is excluded.

In the USSR, Latvia was an industrial country, but the example in Lebanon, you can see what remains of its industry. It was closed in the Soviet Union famous art glass factory "Lebanese glass", there was only a museum. Closed, and the no less famous house-building factory, which collected Finnish houses in the five rooms. Survived only peat little factory where thousands of jobs retained 20, and now they are working on German investors, and environmentally friendly product is sent as a laying on a farm in Germany. In Riga, unmounted paper mill (not covered by the EU ekonormy) and one of the largest engineering companies in the Latvian SSR RigaSelMash (was non-competitive).

By the way, the external debt of Latvia in 1991 was equal to zero, and now 7 billion euros (as of March).

LITHUANIA

Upon accession to the EU should be considered very high demands on the quality of dairy products, which are difficult to adjust for villagers who want to earn extra money for milk. By emission class milk is not sorted, as it was in the Soviet Union, and is separated into "appropriate for the procurement" and "unsuitable for the purchase." One by one, take it to be recycled, the second — no. And, of course, easier to upgrade the production of large herdsman than private traders. As a result, ordinary people in Lithuania have practically ceased to keep cows and livestock in general reduced four times, and this is how the experts say, is not the limit.

Carving cattle contribute and subsidies from EU funds issued by the villagers for the cessation of the production of milk. In the EU, there is a quota of milk — that is, each member of the Union can not produce more dairy products than allowed Brussels. This is done in order to EU had no overproduction. But it is the overproduction could cause a reduction in the price of dairy products. But prices are rising and more cows are not allowed to breed.

In the early years of the European Union in all the Baltic countries in general have a problem with surplus stocks of agricultural products: milk, meat, vegetables, wines that have gained power before the accession to the EU, eager as long as possible to contain the prices of these products. But the cunning of Brussels and it came up with fines — in 2007, the European Commission has fined Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to 3,182,000 euros each. Grounds — when negotiating accession countries pledged not to create a product inventory.

And Lithuania lost the Ignalina nuclear power plant, who worked with the 31 December 1983 to 31 December 2009. Closing the plant was one of the main demands in the talks in Vilnius on Lithuania's membership in the EU, and all because of fears of Europeans pursuing a repetition of the Chernobyl accident. Without the Ignalina NPP Lithuania has become a country that depends on imports of energy, and to dismantle the station to 1.134 billion euros. The EU has promised to pay the money and build on the site of the Ignalina nuclear power plant a new modern unit. But when it has to be …

In 1991, Lithuania no state had a cent, and in 2010 the Lithuanian debt amounted to 7.8867 billion litas ($ 3 billion).

ESTONIA

Around the Lithuanian scenario of the "reformed" and dairy farming in Estonia, where the livestock from the Soviet period decreased five times. Now Estonia is reorientation of agriculture for biofuel production.

Not working Machinery Plant (equipment for nefteproma) and plant them. Volta in Tallinn, which in Soviet times produced engines and other equipment for the power industry. At the request of the EU has been reduced several times power generation with 19 billion kilowatt-hours up to 7 billion kilowatt-hour — the excess Europe did not want to buy, and Russia has not fundamentally. The external debt of Estonia — 16,560,000,000 euros (2010).

In all Baltic countries affected and the fishing industry — EU sets quotas for so-called norms of solidarity for the use of European water resources, leading to the closure of fish plants and reduce rybolovedcheskogo fleet.

POLAND

The main thing that has lost the Polish economy after joining the EU on 1 May 2004 — the coal industry, which once formed the basis of the Polish economy, although in recent years was in need of state support. It was closed 90% of the coal enterprises, which employed more than 300,000 people. Part, of course, was unprofitable, and some — dangerous. The remaining 10% were restructured and privatized. In general, 75% of Polish miners lost their jobs.

The second, but as yet incomplete loss — the famous Gdansk shipyard, which is 1960-1970 years it launched the world's largest number of fishing vessels and mother ships, but now divided into two private companies that are still idle. At EU money is being reconstructed shipyard, but recent work has slowed down due to the general crisis. Dozens of smaller shipyards were closed and their workers uhali in Western Europe.

Incidentally, the Polish foreign debt at the time of entry into the EU amounted to $ 99 billion at the beginning of 2011 — $ 245.5 billion

HUNGARY

One symbol of Hungary were "Icarus", produced the largest in the 1970's and 80's in Europe avtobusnostroitelnoy company Ikarusbus. In its heyday, the company released to 14,000 buses a year. In 2004, the year of accession of Hungary to the EU, the mass production of buses here was discontinued two years of the legendary plant was idle until the Hungarian businessman Gabor Seles did not have the desire to revive the brand, and he bought 100% of the shares Ikarusbus. Now here is a transport assembly to order.

Hungarians are very hopeful that after joining the EU, they will fill the whole of Europe as one of its main agricultural products — honey, which had hoped to make serious cash. But it did not — the program to stabilize prices of bee products Brussels removed restrictions on the purchase of honey in China and other countries — not EU members, and Hungarian honey exports to the EU fell by 50%. The purchase price of honey in Hungary fell from 4.92 to 2.73 euro per 1 kg, as a result of the beekeepers can not recoup their production costs.

The inviolability of the EU norms

Prior to joining the EU all candidate countries signed commitments to adhere to a common European policy in a particular area, have a functioning market economy, and its makers — to be competitive enough to operate in the European Union. In the area of market conditions for accession to the EU is the rejection of the "soft" banking restrictions, reducing the budget deficit, the abolition of the state monopoly on exports, free entry to the market, the removal of subsidies on traded goods, privatization of enterprises, autonomous position of the Central Bank, the introduction of an efficient tax system.

Member States must comply with all rules that exist on the date of their accession to the EU. Cancel the accepted norms in a given country is not permitted, but under certain circumstances permitted temporary relief in complying with them.

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