In Europe, flourishing crime, for this there are all conditions. Impoverished nobles, remained idle mercenaries and the poor, often robbed on the road. The whole criminal subculture "bottom" existed in large cities. And despite the fact that the penal system in Europe was extremely cruel. Those who were caught were killed mercilessly and bloody. It must be said that the death penalty was a common punishment for many offenses. And the Europeans are so accustomed to the killings that they themselves do not have a sufficient method of intimidation. For serious crimes have sophisticated forms of execution. People publicly tortured to death, broke a bone in turn, roasted over low heat, gradually dismembered, the molten metal is poured into the throat (counterfeiters). Such executions have been one of the favorite sights of the townspeople. The entertainment was not enough, so people would come to a penalty for the holidays, the whole family, with wives and children, tried to take a seat close enough to see all the details, drinking, eating. Discussed with the neighbors art executioners.
It should be noted that this terrible century executions that have been used for almost any, even minor offense, laid present vaunted European "law-abiding." Europeans are law-abiding, not because they are acting on their conscience and try to live by the truth, but because of fear of cruel punishment.
In this part of the foundation of European civilization was in law. West is proud to be inherited from the Roman cult of the law. The law was considered a self-sufficient entity, which had to be obeyed by all, including the monarchs. However, the laws for centuries have produced so many that they understood only by specialists. They could use them to prove anything. Any shares in the European states tried to justify from a legal point of view — the beginning of the war, higher taxes, etc. Therefore, in all European countries, lawyers were prominent (this situation persisted in the West to this day.)
Why England was the "cradle" of a new order
In England in the War of the Roses (1455-1485) was "cut off" the old elite. The feudal lords almost killed each other in this protracted conflict between two branches of the Plantagenet dynasty — Lancaster and York. As a result, the power received from Henry Tudor House of Lancaster, who founded a new dynasty which ruled England and Wales for 117 years.
Accession of the Tudors in 1485 is the beginning of a new time in English history. The Wars of the Roses actually drew a line under the English Middle Ages. Tudor did not bank on the barons and merchants, prosperous layer of cities and rural areas. Tradespeople much to press the military aristocracy. In addition, the monarch pressed remnants of the feudal nobility. It was razed most of the fortifications, castles, barons who made small, independent rulers. Baronial squads were disbanded. Barons were forbidden to hire, train soldiers, build troops.
On the basis of the merchant class began to form a "new nobility" — the gentry. Wealthy merchants, moneylenders and businessmen acquired land bought titles from the king. The new nobility was no different belligerence, preferring money military glory. They were indifferent to the traditional chivalrous amusements, such as jousting, dueling and hunting big game, where they could be killed or seriously injured. But there were business people, merchants, did not shun usury. Since English has degenerated from the military elite in the trade and usury. A further dilute its merchants and bankers of Holland and Italy, who will move to London, the future capital of the world colonial empire. However, a new British elite retain terrible arrogance and haughtiness. Gentry will try every possible way to emphasize his high position, with rich clothes, carriages. Will try to become related with the rest of aristocratic birth, giving daughters of the poor nobility, or taking a wife representatives of noble families. As a result, and there will be a "mutant" — the English elite, which will ruin a lot of blood all over the planet.
The loss of tribal nobility deprived England of feudal administration. Therefore, the main role in the management of the counties have become elected justices of the peace. They not only were in charge of collecting taxes, but were responsible for the protection order. And no payment for their work from the treasury, they did not. So, this post was only available to very rich people. The peculiarity of the kingdom of England, and was the parliamentary system. Kings during previous conflicts have tried to attract the rich elite cities, turning to her for money, and providing a variety of broad rights. The result was a two-chamber parliament, approved by law and solve financial issues. It is clear that talk about "democracy" in this period is not necessary.
Contemporaries of Ivan the Terrible
Henry VII — King of England and Ireland in 1485-1509 Emperor's. Was thrifty monarch, greatly strengthened the British budget, heavily devastated during the Hundred Years War and the Wars of the Roses. Under him England became involved in the process of Discovery. Henry VII supported the Italian expedition in the English service Giovanni Caboto (aka John Cabot) in America, and he opened Newfoundland.
He was succeeded by a second son — Henry VIII Tudor (Reigned 1509 — 1547 gg.). He became a key figure in English history, which drew a line between the Middle Ages, with its cult of chivalry and the rule of Christian morality and New Times, where the cult of money and the pursuit of profit came in first place. "Fencing" and "bloody legislation" became a sort of sacrifice before the construction of the New Order.
In his youth, Henry was prepared to take holy orders. Henry attended to six Masses a day and wrote essays on theological topics (as will be seen later, this does not ennobled this man.) Due to the early death of his brother, Arthur, Henry became the top contender for the throne. Father, desiring to strengthen relations with Spain, married him to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Isabella of Castile, and the widow of his brother Arthur.
There was an important event in the history of England. King Henry VIII is best known for the English Reformation, which made the British mostly Protestant nation. Mark this monarch and his active family life — only the king had 6 wives. 17-year-old monarch did not like the system of thrift and economy that has developed under his father. He was young and eager entertainment. He began his reign with that executed the premier financial advisors, Empson and Dudley, who heads to thwart the monarch. And then actively engaged in everything he wanted, ie, hunting, drinking and women.
The real power belonged to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. This temporary worker, the son of a butcher, climbed up the social ladder still under Henry VII, entered the circle and became his close adviser to the king. Wolsey did not forget himself, taken over the archbishopric of York, became chancellor of the kingdom of England and cardinal. Over two decades of being in favor of Cardinal Wolsey (Woolsey) has amassed a huge fortune. Lived in luxury, built Hampton Court Palace and laid the Christ Church, Oxford. In spite of celibacy, had illegitimate children. In its foreign policy was trying to make Britain "arbiter", which will oversee the situation in continental Europe.
In 1512 — 1525 years. Henry VIII fought with varying success in France. Great success is not achieved, the treasury was empty and the French had to make peace. At the same time in England began the process of "ring-fencing" — violent liquidation of communal lands. The bulk of the arable land in England was in the hands of the nobility, the Church and the Crown, the peasants did not have title to their land holdings. Therefore, landowners lords easily confiscated land from the peasants, turning them into pastures for sheep. Expropriated land fenced off from the small plots left to the peasants, and so the process is called "fencing". With the development of the English woolen industry under the Tudors XV-XVI centuries and the price of wool, pastures have become more important than subsistence farms. As pointed out in his "Utopia" Thomas More: "We can say that the sheep were to devour men." The process of "ring-fencing", which lasted for centuries, became the cause of extinction of the English countryside. Another impetus to the depopulation of the village gave the English Reformation, during which monastic peasants were expelled from confiscated church lands in the coffers. The peasants became massively vagrants and beggars thieves. Cities could not absorb and give work to all the former peasants.
English law regards such people as "voluntary" criminals. Home "bloody legislation" put the statute in 1495 of King Henry VII. Cruelty statutes were different in 1536 and 1547's. Henry VIII and Edward VI. Persons charged with vagrancy and in collecting alms without the permission of the authorities, we can have castigate, denounce, give away as slaves to the time (in the event of escape, for life, for the third capture — were executed.) Edward allowed to give each loitering in bondage to the person who will carry it. The owner could not sell it, give in loans as any personal property or livestock, bequeath inherited. Every person can take away from the tramp of his children and keep them to yourself as an apprentice — girls under 20, boys under 24. If they tried to run away before the appropriate age, they were turned into slaves of their masters. The poor were obliged to work for the county or the people who undertook them to feed, water and provide jobs. This kind of slaves — "slaves parishes", existed in England until the 19th century.
The law of Queen Elizabeth (reigned 1558 — 1603 gg.) Of 1572 provided that the beggars and tramps over 14 years old who did not have a special permit to collect alms, will be subjected to a brutal flogging and imposing mark on his left ear. When Jacob I (1603 — 1625), a person loitering and begging was considered a tramp. Justices of the peace have the right to expose these people public flogging and imprison those caught first time at 6 months, and those caught a second time — for 2 years. These provisions of the law operated in the English kingdom until the early 18th century.
English kingdom under Henry VIII was marked not only the "fencing" and "bloody legislation", but has become another epicenter of the Reformation. I must say that the prerequisite for this was the king's personal life. Initially, the monarch was not interested in the Reformation, and was marked as a fierce persecutor of Protestants. In 1521, Henry even wrote a book against Luther. Themselves Lutherans in England without further ado sent to the penalty. For this he received from Pope honorary title of "Defender of the Faith", rather than proud.
But after a few years the situation has changed radically. In France, at the court of King Francis I served as maid of honor Englishwoman Anna Bolena. A young girl quickly hit the "sphere of influence" of the French king, who was very full of love and had a harem for the purpose. In 1520, she returned to England and appeared at the English court. The French experience, the ability to "gallant" of France quickly made her a "star" of the English court. English monarch did not like and did not respect his wife, Catherine of Aragon. It has got to "inherited" from my brother was older than him. In addition, all children younger spouses or are stillborn or died in infancy. Their only surviving child was Mary. In addition, the king had a violent temper and always "grazed" somewhere on the side. And not distinguished French or Italian gallantry and refinement, took what he wanted, did not think about courtship or gifts. Mistresses mood could beat such a way that they are to sources for many weeks lost capacity.
Anna did not have outstanding beauty, but was able to apply themselves well, had a good mental ability and started a dangerous game. Graceful, unusual girl liked the king. Behaved strictly in bed for the monarch is not in a hurry. Mistress of the place refused. Unavailability of girls ignited the king and he succumbed. I decided to marry her and offered the crown. The pretext for the resignation of Catherine was the lack of an heir. Henry was sure that my father would not refuse "defender of faith." Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was mandated to "settle a personal matter of the King" in Rome.
Pope Clement VII refused. Then the English King Henry demanded a divorce. Cardinal Wolsey, knowing the nature of their king, urged Catherine of Aragon, and for the good of Catholicism in England, voluntarily agree to a divorce and leave the monastery. However, the proud Spaniard refused, saying that he wants to live in a marriage and let her cut into sections, but in the convent she will not go. The Pope also refused, Catherine was a relative of the mighty emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Castile and Aragon Charles V. Wolsey to the case was the end of a career. Wolsey fell into disgrace, was stripped of all titles, accused of treason and arrested. All his wealth was confiscated. However, the powerful former temporary worker was lucky to court, he has not lived and died in prison.
Lord Chancellor was Thomas More, who by this time was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and the Speaker of the House of Commons. He tried to do the will of the monarch, but success is not achieved at the Vatican. Henry has taken offense at all and decided to break with the Vatican. In 1532, the Parliament at his command passed a law that ordered the clergy not to do anything that would displease the king. Also, Henry made himself head of the clergy to recognize the Church of England. Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer was elected, a protege of the king and a clear supporter of Protestantism. He annulled the marriage of the king and married the Henry and Anna. Catherine of Aragon continued to persist, was taken into custody and died soon after (it is believed that she was poisoned.) Her daughter, Princess Mary was declared illegitimate. Elizabeth became heir to the throne, the daughter of Anne Boleyn.
Pope excommunicated Henry in response to the church. But that is not confused. Henry gave the order to carry out "scientific research", and the Oxford University granted the conclusion that "Scripture gives no power to the Bishop of Rome over England." In 1534, Parliament passed the "Act of Supremacy," which reported that the king is the "supreme head of the Church of England." Only the Bishop of Rochester, John Fisher and Thomas More refused to admit it. They were accused of treason and executed.
The matter has been very financially beneficial. Henry in one fell swoop was enriched by 1.5 million pounds. Several hundred monasteries closed, their property and the land remained with Henry, and sold or gave away the "new nobility", which supported the monarch. Thousands of monks and nuns were on the street — go wherever you want. On the grounds of the monastery had fencing that thousands of impoverished peasants.
Not all the British meekly met these religious experiments. In the northern counties of the rebellion led by Robert Eksom. Its members were nobles, townspeople and peasants. However, the rebellion has turned conventional. The participants considered themselves to be law-abiding and loyal subjects of the king. Rebellion was called "Holy pilgrimage." People went "pilgrimage" to the king, and began to ask the monarch and Parliament to change the decision. Henry pretended merciful king, entered into negotiations with them, accepted the petition and promised to think and asked to disperse. When people are dispersed, 200 leaders were captured and executed, others flogged. More willing to "rebel" was not found.
Their customs. "Enlightened" Europe in the XV — XVI centuries