Western ideology, based on liberalism and relies on the so-called "universal values", is going through a serious crisis. Economic problems of global scale, popping at the seams European Union, the United States waged war for world domination — is only a consequence of this ideological crisis. On why global liberal project fell through, we talk with the famous Russian philosopher, a professor of Moscow State University. University Alexander Dugin.
Dizzy with success
— Alexander Gelevich, you've been talking about the collapse of liberal civilization. But is it obvious?
— Liberal ideology has failed on at least three levels. The most obvious — political and economic. Less obvious — philosophical. Any thinking person can see that the evaluation of the situation in different countries and societies of the West today is applying double standards. Most totalitarian, brutal regime to accept their moral and liberal, if they carry out a pro-Western policies. If not — everything is exactly the opposite. Here's a simple example: in Saudi Arabia, and does not smell any democracy, but nobody criticizes, however, is quite democratic Syria faces the threat of military invasion. Thus, the liberal recognizes only what benefits the West. Politicians lie to us in the face, so many have well-founded doubts about the solidity of the course conducted by them. As for the liberal economy, its crisis is also certain: today it is fully transferred to the virtual sector, the industry contributed to the conclusion of the first-world country in the second and third world countries, provoked huge flows of global migration. The number of financial transactions that occur in the world, hundreds if not thousands of times more than their actual commodity coverage. For the overheating of the financial sector, we have already paid the crisis of 2008. However, the conclusions of him, no one did, and now we are having a second wave that threatens to sweep the entire world economy by insolubility of the accumulated contradictions.
— With politics and the economy is more or less clear. What allowed you to draw a conclusion about the crisis of liberal ideals at a philosophical level? Is the world gave up on the seemingly immutable values such as freedom and human rights …
— Liberalism — an ideology that seeks to liberate the individual from all forms of collective identity — nation, religion, society, class, even from their own state. When liberalism was fighting against totalitarian regimes, in particular with fascism and communism, the task seemed quite constructive and creative. But when liberalism triumphed globally, it appears that the individual is no longer exempt from whom and from what. And then showed negative nature of this installation. Now, liberalism offers to free the individual from such forms of collective identity, such as gender and sex (hence — performances liberals in defense of sexual minorities), as well as on the person (talking about the research projects that improve the "human" function — for example, cloning). But these projects are a lot of enemies. Thus, it is the victory of liberalism has brought us to a crisis of this ideology. He eyes loses its connection with the person with humanism. At the same time, I note that liberalism is not losing ground in the face of some alternative model, namely due to the fact that can not cope with his triumph … won all over the world, he began to find their weaknesses and contradictions.
"Liberal dictatorship must say 'no'
— But is it possible today as a foregone conclusion that his kingdom was established in the land of liberalism?
— Historically, liberalism first victory in the United States, where the dominant value system as always and almost did not feel the resistance. In the 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet system, he conquered all of Europe. There was originally a liberal opposition in the form of social-democratic models, which in the last decade on the backburner. And already in Europe and America liberalism powerfully strengthened throughout the world. For example, even such a strong player like China, today took for himself as a model liberal economic model. Almost all countries of the world, even if some are formally recognized norms and values of liberalism. The promotion of this ideology by the various international foundations, non-governmental organizations that receive this multi-million dollar grants. The Liberals have in Russia — and not only in the Swamp area, but surrounded by the leaders of our country. That is, liberalism is still a very powerful force …
— How is it possible then to speak about his upcoming death? How, in your opinion, will last agony of liberalism?
— Very interesting but difficult question. The fact that liberals themselves insist that history is moving toward liberalism, it is the crown of human civilization. Anything outside of this ideology, they do not see. And this is very dangerous because we are dealing with a kind of militaristic movement, a sect of fanatical people inspired by their success on a global scale. They firmly believe in the triumph of liberalism as the greatest achievement of mankind. Alas, these fanatics will be hard to hold on to their ideas whose destructive and totalitarian nature comes through all the sharper and clearer. So finally cope with liberalism is not so simple. To overcome it, will have to make a profound revision of many of the historical process, in fact — to review all of the logic of world history.
— That is, liberalism still have to fight in itself a slow death, he will not die?
— I believe that the time is approaching global revolutionary uprising against the liberal dictatorship. Anti-liberal political groups arise in all countries of the world — places where this ideology has been brought in from outside and discovered her monstrous nature, and in the West, which is also seen its vices. At the same time, we must recognize that the retreat of liberalism may be accompanied by severe processes in the world — the collapse of the financial system, the paralysis of the management structure … Not the fact that it's over a third world war. And yet once again emphasize that liberalism is experiencing today is not a technical problem. This is a global systemic crisis of human civilization.
The future of the "new socialism"?
— Alexander Gelevich, and what, in your opinion, will replace liberalism?
— With that we come out of this crisis, how and when — these questions are still open. So now the question is ripe for the development of the fourth political theory — on the other side of communism, fascism, and liberalism. I think you need to take as a basis the idea of a multi-polar world, the dialogue of civilizations, a new pluralism and a new humanism based on the recognition of the diversity of the human phenomenon. In fact, we have to go back and once more all the ideological theory that emerged in the XIX — XX centuries, inspired by both conservative and left-wing socialist ideas. But not to repeat the past, but to lay the groundwork for the future.
— A number of thinkers in one voice say that the future of the so-called "new socialism" …
— It might be. Personally, I think socialism is a much more humane, multi-dimensional and interesting ideology than liberalism. The more that he gives priority to fairness, and it is very deep and beautiful thesis. In contrast to the freedom that within the individualistic ideology has shown its limitations and nihilism.