Anglo-American policy in the liberated territories

From the book Anabella Byukar and Ralph Parker Meanness allies. How the West betrayed Stalin

People of the world met the news of the victory over Nazi Germany solemnly, with great joy, which mingled with tears of sorrow, severely suppressed during the war.

In Czechoslovakia after its liberation by the Soviet Army has come a new life. My friend Czech, who belonged to the intellectual circles of Prague, wrote to me about the day of the release:

"We heard loud cries of joy. The people fled on all sides to the Soviet tanks. Our liberators — Russian — seemed to us brothers with whom we have long been separated for too long. Courageous, friendly, they embraced us, caressing children, gave them sweets, take them up on the tanks and machine. This is the brightest and most joyful experiences of my life. But will never be broken ties that linked us with our dear brothers! "

Here's what he wrote another friend of mine Czech:

"That was Russian! I experienced the most wonderful moments of my life! What seemed weary of these young soldiers who were standing in the open hatches dusty tanks rolled over the mountains — a living embodiment of everything that I imagined the word "Russia". Generous, noble people with a broad kind … I immediately felt that they — their own, they are not strangers to us. The tanks were not hitting, there was a truck behind them. The driver, a Ukrainian, has picked up in the hands of our little Slava and kissed her, he said that he had a daughter house of the same age. "

***

And in the British official circles have talked a lot about what the post-war Eastern Europe is too exhausted to be reborn without heavy technical and material assistance from the United States. We talked about "economic aid", and mean political subjugation.

The British Embassy in Prague, headed by Philip Nichols, spared no effort to put pressure on the political developments in Czechoslovakia. In the first months after the end of the war, these efforts were limited to persuade the president acceded to limit the activities of the progressive elements in the government, created after lengthy negotiations between the leaders of the four parties that formed the National Front.

The President mentioned these efforts during my interview given to them in Hradcany in Prague in July 1945. In response to the question of how far will the Czechoslovakia in efforts to socialization and nationalization, the President has very clearly gave me to understand that he will use all his influence to prevent a repeat of what happened after the First World War. "Then — he said — the Anglo-French bourgeoisie in fear of Bolshevism prevented the Czech and Slovak peoples to create a socialist state."

"We can not count — he said, emphasizing his point, inherent to it, something like the professors, gesture — we can not expect that they will not try again put pressure on us. But now there are three new factors. First, the existence of the Soviet Union as a great power, and secondly, the respect enjoyed by the communists in our country, thanks to their impeccable behavior in the days of resistance, and thirdly, the lessons of Munich, a long time will make our people relate to the West with suspicion .

Do not be mislead that we pay tribute to the British war effort. This feeling is quite sincere. But I can assure you, it will evaporate in a second if, first, our people will suspect that England is trying to turn us against the Soviet Union, and secondly, if he sees that England was involved in a plot to restore the aggressive power of Germany . "

"Some of your countrymen — said in conclusion, the President — tell me that Czechoslovakia should be a bridge between the East and the West. But the trouble is, in the words of Jan Masaryk, the bridges that pass too many people. And we do not want to re-passed through Czechoslovakia anyone. "

***

Diplomatic representatives of the Western powers with the increasing malevolence belonged to this new mood in post-war Czechoslovakia. After living for some time in Prague, I was convinced that most attempts to prevent the unification of the people of Czechoslovakia comes from the Anglo-American diplomatic circles. Every time disclosed political intrigue or conspiracy, it was possible to trace the threads that go to the "news agencies" societies "cultural relations" and special missions, through which the diplomats were doing their job, trying to play on the "struggle between the West and the East."

Industrialists, bankers, landowners and the Catholic clergy, longing for the 'good old days' and understands that to restore the privileges they could only by force, expected from foreign imperialism help and support, and I must say, in rare cases, their expectations are not met . U.S. Ambassador Lawrence Shteingart not hide his sympathy for such people. To them, he arranged for luxurious receptions, which together with dessert served nylon stockings in plastic bags.

However, over the nylons and for something else, resulting from the Anglo-American diplomats, traitors of the Czechoslovak people, of course, had to pay. And they paid espionage and sabotage.

On the border of Czechoslovakia to Germany Czech border guards had to beat off an attack by armed gangs of saboteurs, which are often included in the German SS. The Czechs were convinced that the armed underground gang of terrorists have a good relationship with the American zone of Germany. The validity of these assumptions prove found photos of American trucks and testimonies of prisoners.

Help induced in Prague, has convinced me that is exactly what the situation was. The British Consulate in Pilsen, led by an intelligence officer, who was at the first of the Polish Army in London, actually served as a transit point for Polish renegades. Moreover, diplomats used their immunity to smuggle contraband dissatisfied fate of the Poles and the Czechs from Prague to Plzen.

I knew for sure that family members of Bor-Komorowski was smuggled out of Poland through Czechoslovakia in Nuremberg is this underground road.

In 1947 was established a similar relationship, this time the American Consul General in Bratislava to help the gang of Ukrainian Nationalists-Bandera break through the mountains of Slovakia and the Austrian border in the American zone of occupation.

Providing, with the assistance of Catholic priests and "kind-hearted" officials of the Slovak administration, criminal assistance nationalistic elements, the Anglo-American officials have sought thus to revive their hopes on the fact that the war between the East and the West is inevitable.

The most shameless of all the actions of British and American diplomats, against the interests of the Czechoslovak people, was an attempt to prevent the eviction of Sudeten German minority. They refused to settle the Sudeten Germans in the American and British occupation zones and tried to exert diplomatic pressure on Prague. The British Ministry of Foreign Affairs, betrayed Czechoslovakia to Hitler now had the audacity to read the Czechs morality of the "inhumanity" of eviction. The British appointed in Karlovy Vary vice-consul Bandrou, the main duty of which, by his own admission, was to gather information about the "atrocities" of the Sudeten Germans.

Without a doubt, the Anglo-American diplomats had hoped to create from the Sudeten German question another "problem", similar to those with which they succeeded in the past divide the peoples of Central and South-Eastern Europe.

***

In Poland, the Anglo-American diplomacy pursued a policy similar to the one it conducted in Czechoslovakia. In March 1946, I came to Warsaw and went to the hotel "Polonia" (which temporarily placed British diplomats). There reigned commotion, people running around the corridors. I asked the First Secretary of the Embassy of Michael Winch, what's wrong, and he told me that Winton, assistant military attache wants in on Saturday and Sunday to arrange a "hunt for a Russian."

The fact that Winton decided to "prove" to London, which takes place in Warsaw's Russian troop movements. Now he recruited for his "expedition" to go hunting on Saturday for the city under the pretext that there they want to rent a country house.

I went along with them in the beautiful valley of the Vistula River, dominated by sandy steppe heath and pine forests. Stopping the machine in each of the countless stalls under the pretext of buying him all unnecessary detail, Winton asked sellers (he was fluent in Polish) about surrendering nearby cottages — and by the way of Russian troops. But he hopes to find a trace of the Red Army vanished as quickly as this spring day.

In the "Polonia" in the evening everybody was gloomy, with gloomy faces. "Hunters" were able to "see" only one Russian — Soviet embassy employee, who was peacefully engaged in digging up the beds in the garden of his villa. However, appeared in the London newspapers stories about troop movements around Warsaw continued to exaggerate the complete silence Foreyn Office.

Michael has always Winch sure you could meet any Polish politician, but it has always been a member of an opposition party, in the press department of the Embassy staff had many Poles, but they are all, without exception, belong to the former ruling classes. In Warsaw, there were foreign journalists, the majority of them, however, has combined journalism with some other responsibilities: Associated Press reporter Larry Allen — with the publication of the newsletter of the U.S. embassy, the correspondent Kemsley Press Selbi — a spy working for the Polish terrorist gangs.

The Polish authorities considered Selbi dangerous renegade, and the correctness of the assessment I made after a single conversation with him. I met him in the elevator of hotel "Polonia". This frail blond young man with a tough but light-hearted and quite amiable expression. "What is really lacking Poland — he said in answer to my random question of the political situation — so it's a bloodbath. The Civil War — it was her only path to salvation. "

Embassy of the United States at that time was headed by Arthur Bliss Lane — drunkard and the player, the former in 1939, the Minister Resident in Belgrade. When I visited him in Warsaw, he burst into a series of anti-Soviet "stories" are so absurd that it is unlikely that they can sound convincing to anyone else, and even more so for a journalist who spent five years in Moscow.

"Number One" was a story about how the wives of Soviet officers returning from Berlin to Moscow, was arrested on the Soviet border, forcibly shaved and dressed in the "Russian national costume" in order to, as he assured me the diplomat, the Soviet people were not demoralized by a permanent or European dresses! "My people were present at the same time," — he said to me.

***

Shortly after returning from a trip to Eastern Europe, I received an offer to the editor of the newspaper "Times" temporarily go to the British zone of occupation in Germany.

Much of what I have seen that there is evidence of suspicious tolerance with which belonged to the British administration of the fascists. Driving through the agricultural regions of Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, I was surprised by the variety of painted swastikas everywhere. In addition, I have seen several times that the German youth greet each other in Hitler's — show of hands. In the area of Hamburg was disclosed secret organization called itself "the radical-nationalist." She had a clandestine arsenal, nestled in the English airfield, its military and secret police headquarters. English Court unleashed most of the arrested members of the organization, and the judge said he wanted to give them an opportunity to "start a new life." What do they have used this new life, one may ask?

When in 1946 a member of the British Parliament solemnly declared that for him, freedom means freedom of opinion, if you want, become a fascist, he just repeated what was on the minds of so many in positions of responsibility in the British Military Administration in Germany.

However, it was not only in the mind, this was done in my life. British occupation authorities have authorized a return to responsible positions of prominent German National Socialists. North-German Commission for the Control of coal openly ignored the decisions of the courts de-Nazification and laughing at the protests of the progressive elements of German society. In school, near Hamburg, which was created in order to prepare the future leaders of the organization of the German Youth (the director of the school was an English pastor), was invited to a few months, Kurt Celanese (formerly zealous propagandist Goebbels' speeches) to participate in political discussions. Do I have to wonder that with such examples before the eyes of the average German worker questioned the integrity of the army of occupation, the successor to the Nazis? ..

Nothing is condensing in the atmosphere such as hopelessness and depression in the British occupation zone of Germany as a displaced persons camp, where most of the detained Poles and citizens of the Baltic Soviet republics. Formally, the inhabitants of the camps allegedly provided the freedom to start a new life on their own. In reality, they were deprived of any freedom of choice was, for in these camps actually disposed of rabid reactionaries hid from internment true situation in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

I visited some of the camps when I was in Germany, and I have the firm conviction that they set the current mode of political terror. Almost all internees who are in these camps tend to their homeland, but they are constantly bullied all sorts of wild tales about their countries.

Once I learned that almost all the inhabitants of one camp for Poles, on the way between the cities of Soysta and gamma, contrary to "advise" the camp administration, decided to return to Poland to train for returnees, who had to leave in a few days. However, when I drove into the camp, he saw that things Poles unpacked, and all their plans have changed dramatically. I learned the reason for this in a polka, thin and gaunt, with three young kids clinging to her skirt. The commandant of the camp, hiding the time rabies, which has brought it to "disregard" of his authority, went to the trick, declaring that the Polish organization of the Red Cross in London sent specifically for this camp a large batch of food and clothing. People experienced such a terrible famine that this provocation commandant was enough to put them on their return home.

Naturally, these camps have become breeding grounds for all sorts of crimes. And the responsibility for this lies with the Anglo-American occupation authorities have turned a displaced persons camp in the hotbed of lies, provocation and terror.

***

If in camps for displaced persons rampant hunger and terror, the other orders have existed in the camps for German criminals. I visited one such camp near Iserlohn, which contained the former officials of the National Socialist institutions. In addition to incurring too onerous responsibilities, like cleaning their own room, 1800, the inhabitants of the camp were not doing anything. I asked what they were busy all day? "They listen to lectures" — never for a moment thought, said a British officer.

Library, brought from the neighboring castle, consisted mainly of books on military history of Germany.

Lectures delivered by former Nazis for former Nazis, consisted mainly of theosophy, metaphysics and work of Friedrich Nietzsche.

I took a look at a book of ex-Nazis, dapper, arrogant youngster, fresh as the flowers of May. He was sitting in a group of internees — they were all in woolen coat and kept kneeling fedoras.

"The sword of the spirit" — was the name of the book — an anthology of quotations from the works of Nietzsche. Under the title of the book I read: "The word of the German soldier and the soldier."

What happened in this camp under the patronage of the British and American authorities, especially the sounds blasphemous, because next to it is a common grave where buried hundreds of Soviet soldiers who died fighting the Nazis, in the struggle, and that was in England democracy.

However, it is not necessary to have seen the camp of former Nazis to make their lives freely in the Anglo-American occupation zone of Germany. Enough, for example, was to see how people lived former Wehrmacht officers. Most of them lived no worse than before the war. While the working people of West Germany experienced dire poverty, these people do not have any trouble.

Many of them have managed to avoid the de-Nazification, because, like the military, they allegedly did not play an active role in the National Socialist Party and its related organizations.

One of my German friend, talked with this military caste, well-characterized its traditions and its history listing the slogans, which it has consistently taken:

"Long live the Bismarck!

Long live the Emperor!

Long live the Hindenburg, Down with the red!

Hail Hitler!

Long live the Christian-Democratic Union! (Because the more right-wing organization is not yet available.)

When we are again going to war with Russia? "

***

In carrying out his plan for the dismemberment of Germany and turning it into one of the main springboards in a future war against the Soviet Union, the Anglo-American authorities relied on the most reactionary forces in Germany, in the person of whom they found themselves obsequious aides. This policy is extremely complicated, for example, the prospect of resolving problems of the Ruhr by the time of the Moscow meeting of foreign ministers.

Foreign diplomats had expected the Russian at the conference will be "compliant" — because in the Soviet Union in that year there was a drought. Given that the aid YUN-PPA Ukraine and Belarus stopped, Russian must have had a hard time now. Do not have time to end in the conference, they will ask for help from the Americans and give up their stubbornness in matters of denazification and demilitarization of Germany. With these sentiments of many British and American diplomats came to the meeting in Moscow.

Heads of the British and American delegations did not even try to hide his hostile position toward the Soviet Union. All delegates were given to the U.S. secret instructions not to hold any conversation about the conference at a hotel or even at the embassy — and only in special "mikrofononepronitsaemoy room." It was assumed that all telephone conversations intercepted and in all the rooms occupied by the Americans, installed devices for eavesdropping.

The British delegation and accompanied its correspondents arrived in Moscow dressed as for an expedition to the North Pole: a shapeless, like bags, warm coats and heavy boots on wool lining that Foreyn Office gives everyone traveling to Russia. They were surprised, and some even seemed disappointed when it turned out that they will have to live in warm, bright rooms of comfortable hotel "Moscow" that there awaits them perfectly organized service that their service machine, snack and drink at any hour , tickets to all theater and all forms of transport.

All this is very bad jibe with the "squalid, uncivilized and hostile Asian" capital, which they expected to see. After all, as Walter Citrine assured that all Russian bath without traffic jams! And the stories of journalists White and Winterton of "sameness" of the Moscow landscape? And talk to Foreyn Office of horrific cost of living in Moscow? Draw a picture of that hideous Soviet Union, to which visitors were preparing correspondents, is not so easy. However, it "for sure" we know that the hotel "Moscow" — the only modern type of building in the capital, and then go to them only generals and members of the Government and the snow on the main streets cleaned only as a blind itinerant foreigners. They say that all its citizens living in the heart of Moscow, just before the conference was given new costumes, and the shops along Gorky Street received a special order to put more items in the shop windows. And these paintings shoes cleaners at intersections — because they have specially brought from the Caucasus to Moscow to give a certain exotic flavor! Then — who knows — maybe as soon as the foreign delegates will part of hotel rooms will be removed and baths, sinks, and phones.

That's what kind of fable go these days between the inhabitants of the hotel "Moscow".

***

Arrived from London correspondents have worked closely with government officials. The British embassy every morning briefings are held, even for English correspondents residing in Moscow, access to it was closed. Apparently feared that their presence might disturb the harmony of the relations existing between Foreyn Office and diplomatic correspondents, who came from London, who were called "hand-seals."

I could not help admiring the skill with which the representative of the Office Trained Foreyn their "hand-seals." His reports on the conference limited to the facts. Desirable for Foreyn Office tone of the material has been pre-set to a select few, and no small effort has been made to ensure that emphasize the "objective" nature of the public press conferences. However, by moving the focus, the use of irony and ridicule, by deliberately circumvent sensitive issues was achieved exactly what coverage that best suit Foreyn Office.

Suffice it to recall, as were lubricated with very serious accusations against the Soviet Dinkelbaha and other former Nazis, consisting in the English service. The representative of the Office Foreyn stumbled on German names, did not know how they are written, and finally said "it is not necessary to dwell on this issue because it is of only secondary importance." Meanwhile, the resolution of the issue of de-Nazification of the Ruhr largely dependent outcome of the Moscow session of the Council of Foreign Ministers.

Even during the session on the information you have journalists, it was easy to see that the line of the Anglo-Americans, followed by the French delegation and should lead to the failure of the talks. Following this, the Anglo-American bloc planned education "Bison" as an anti-Soviet barrier. William Strang, while Foreyn representative office in Germany, in his brief interview with the press, said that Britain should be "realistic." To be "realistic", according to the spokesman of the views of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, meant to abandon the "just another nonsense" about the democratization of the British zone of occupation in Germany, this means total acceptance of the American policy of "free enterprise", by which is meant the provision of German industrialists authorities provided that they will act in American interests.

My colleague Pierre Kurtad, which was at a dinner at John Foster Dulles said that Dulles was trying to persuade the French reporters that France can protect themselves from the British assault on French independence only if it is united with Germany into the Western European federation under the auspices of the United States. Reports of the dinner attracted considerable stir when they came to the British, because while Bevin and his supporters strongly advocated the theory that they are in close cooperation with France (Bevin had just signed the Anglo-French agreement to Calais) and therefore France, they say, must defend itself from U.S. attacks.

***

Many eminent journalists in America and Europe used a session of ministers to visit Moscow. The British and American embassies quickly took steps to ensure that these new browsers do not try to paint a picture of Soviet life, which would be at odds with the openly anti-Soviet position of these embassies. British and American diplomats were especially interested in the fact that the true life of the Soviet Union remained hidden from public opinion in their countries. After all, it's hard they spread the fable that the postwar five-year plan will not solve the problem of increasing the living standards of the Soviet people.

Once the foreign correspondents arrived in Moscow, they immediately notified that the embassy has a lot of information material they can use. British Embassy offers ready-printed reports of Soviet culture, education and other aspects of life in the USSR, the U.S. Embassy also pleased American correspondents report, compiled with the purpose of proving the truth that "the collapse of the Soviet state is inevitable."

In all my journalistic work I have not seen such a pathetic example of cooperation of government officials with newspaper correspondents. American journalists in Moscow, mainly engaged in that rewrote the embassy reports. Paul Ward, a correspondent for "Baltimore Sun", from this source have gathered most of the material for his series on the Soviet Union. For the accuracy of his "observations" of the Soviet Union, he received a 1947 Pulitzer Prize, considered the highest in the western world award.

The representative of the magazine "Time", Sam Wells, specially tightened their stay in Moscow to complete rewrite of the embassy reports in his notebook. A year later, he published his book about the Soviet Union, in which the head of education in the USSR based entirely on the materials of the British Embassy, and this book was advertised as a result of "personal study" the author of the conditions of life in Soviet Russia!

But the record falsification beat French correspondent Padovani, describes the life of the alleged Russian with the words of a certain Russian girl named … Misha!

The lobby is the hotel "Moscow" during the Moscow session of the Council of Ministers served as a hangout foreign delegates and guests. Arrogant ranks of the U.S. military police in white helmets, fussy bunch of reporters with notebooks in hand, diligently recording every word of officials Foreyn Office, U.S. generals secretly scold Russian in a conversation with the young aides, English typist, happy prospect for the first time in my life to see the Russian ballet, Chicago journalist, loudly boasting "first-class" material for an article, which gave him a sobering visit, and his fellow Frenchman, angered that, when he stood on Dzerzhinsky Square with a map in one hand and a camera in the other, he was approached by police and required documents.

In those days, returning home from the hotel "Moscow", I asked myself why these people stubbornly refuse to objectively inform the public opinion about the Soviet Union? Why diplomatic correspondent "The Daily Telegraph" Ashley prefers to paddle through the mud in the March thaw, then to mourn some ramshackle piece of Muscovy in the quiet Arbat lanes, and is not going to admire the new high-rise buildings in the Kaluga road? Where did the belief that if people are not involved solely in their clothes, then they are immune to the culture, the girl who drives a trolley, incapable of love and romance that people who dream about the construction of new plants in the country and happily watching the progress of the People liberation forces in China, can not, wearing new shoes, worn with passion in a waltz?

There was a time when some of these people were ready to see the Soviet Union "an interesting experiment" of "temporary visitor" on the ground, but got scared when the guest expressed his intention to stay forever. They calmed secret anxiety that inspired them Soviet communism, the consideration that this is an experiment, possible only on Russian soil, but what they saw in Moscow May Day, finally convinced them that the Red Square fixed gaze of the workers of the world. And because of this they became so scared that they pocketed their "objectivity" became even more zealous to serve their masters.

***

Justifying a failure of the Moscow conference, the Western powers were at a heightened pace to implement its development plans in West Germany in the spirit, right opposite the decisions of Yalta and Potsdam. It could have been foreseen by some remarks at a reception Bevin correspondents in Moscow in April 1947 before leaving delegations. It was obvious that for him the Moscow conference served only new reason to violation of obligations solemnly undertaken in Potsdam. Throughout his career leader tredyunionistskogo Bevin adhered to the principle: "you can not work with the Communists" and made by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, has remained true to this principle. And Bevin is not even hard to hide his satisfaction at the fact that the Moscow session of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of untied his hands for new unilateral action in West Germany.

The natural development of the position taken by the Anglo-Americans in Moscow, was the fateful day when the world learned that in the Ruhr again came to power Hitler's generals.

Of course, the German industrialists and financiers surfaced again after a temporary opals are only a cover for the real masters of the Ruhr, the representatives of the Anglo-American capital, such as I. Steele, vice president of one of the largest coal corporations in the United States, as his assistant Marshall of Pittsburgh "Number konsolideyted Company." German industrialists made their way back to power with the permission of General Clay, who said that "if the resolve of those who profited during the years of Hitler, would have eliminated the capable business people."

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