As Tempered Democracy

"The Holy Fathers" and "insidious killer '?

Most Americans today are descendants of Englishmen. As emphasized by the American historian William Foster, "the British were at the time top-notch pirates and slave traders first class … When England … looted America, she began to act truly cannibalistic practices typical of capitalism in the early days of his youth — to take away from Spain, the fruits of her" work " using this as their main weapon of sea robbery. The first place among the famous English pirates and slave traders belong to Francis Drake. For successful pirate attacks Queen Elizabeth awarded him the title of nobility … With Drake competed in the glory of such prominent pirates like John Hawkins, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Henry Morgan, Captain Kidd, Thomas Cavendish and many others. Since 1565, they plundered the city … in the Spanish colonies and Spanish vessels in all seas and oceans, regardless of whether Britain was at this time in a state of war or peace with Spain. It is estimated that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth's English pirates brought the country revenue of 12 million pounds — a huge sum in those days. English pirate fleet, which operated in the Caribbean, was the basis of the Navy of Great Britain. During their raids pirates captured many West Indian Islands — Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica and others — and used them as a base for their raids. "

One of these buccaneers and adventurers — Sir Walter Raleigh, who was executed in the end, the Spaniards for piracy — made in the 80 years of the XVI century attempt to establish the first English colony in North America in Virginia. However, if the attempt was unsuccessful.

Since Britain was late to the partition of America, she got land located far from the Inca and Aztec empires, rich in gold and silver. However, it later became clear that the descendants of Britons have not lost in their share of the American pie. The grounds on which to place the eastern states of the U.S. and southern Canada from Halifax to Milwaukee and east Texas, one of the regions most convenient for agriculture. As in the middle lane of Western Europe, where it was possible to obtain large and stable yields due to a uniform distribution of rainfall throughout the year and rare droughts. As a Dutch colony in North America and owned first French Canada as well, eventually passed into the hands of English colonists, the whole region, where you can collect common crops was under their control. However, at first, these benefits of new land no one noticed, because the colonists were more concerned about finding gold deposits, rather than agricultural labor.

The new American nation was born under the influence of the changes in the world, which was marked by the era of great discoveries. In America, came those who were energetic, brave and courageous, who are not shy in front of the ocean and the elements to difficulties mastering the unexplored edges. From Western Europe to come to America who was oppressed by the established order there, those who are in pursuit of profit was looking for new solutions in the organization of life in the new lands, regardless of traditional morality, and even humanity. Among them were many people who transgress the laws of society and had served prison terms.

From Europe to America, leaving as supporters of new religious movements, which were characterized by rejection of old norms of the Catholic Church and the confidence that they can interpret the biblical texts. They were inclined to see the promised land of America, the Old Testament.

One of the founders of the colony of English settlers in America were Puritans, who were English Calvinists. Calvin's doctrine differed among other Protestant areas of extreme intolerance to their opponents, as well as petty and picky supervision over the behavior of the flock. Calvin taught that "heretics" should be cracking down on the sword. At his insistence, was a distinguished scholar Servetus burned, executed many other people accused of heresy. Kalvinstov distinguished courage, persistence in achieving their goals, hard work, thrift, turning into skopidomstvo, confidence in his "predyzbrannosti" and "infallibility", the worship of wealth and contempt for the poor.

Latest principles characteristic of Calvinism, represented a decisive break with the basic provisions of Christianity rejects the "exclusivity" of the rich, and contempt for the poor. To explain this contradiction, one of the Calvinist index in 1609 was taken as dogma: "Although it is said that God sent his son to atone for the sins of the human race, but that was his goal: he wanted to save from destruction of only a few . "

Puritans, the Calvinists of the sect, which eventually left for America, called variously "separatists", "independent", "dissidents", "kongretsionalistami." Lifestyle of these people, their way of thinking and speech were similar to the descriptions of the Puritans from the novel by Sir Walter Scott. Their habit on every occasion to quote the Old Testament, to detect similarities between their opponents and hated the Hebrews Moabites, Edomites, and other peoples, their vicious intolerance of any deviation from the rules adopted by them converted to the members of this denomination in conflict inhabitants in any human society. It is not surprising that they consistently driven from different cities and countries.

Rigid dogmatism and intolerance of Puritanism reflected their own claim to exclusivity, superiority over others, and selfish demands on the world around them. Explaining the meaning of the Puritan movement, the American historian VL Parrington said: "It is not to be a mistake to regard the Puritan Revolution as primarily an uprising talented bourgeoisie, growing business interests which demanded greater freedom than the one agreed to provide her with the autocratic king and the landed aristocracy."

As a result of religious persecution in England, members of the sect of Puritans led by the preacher Robinson ran at the end of the XVI century in Holland and settled in the city of Leiden. Belief in his "chosen people" allowed the members of the sect call themselves "saints." As noted by the Soviet historian Lev Sliozkin, "their religious beliefs and their compliance with the" Christ's discipline "allowed the congregation to gain considerable credibility and greatly expand it. But the same qualities, especially as growing in "holy" feeling "chosen" were gradually from the independence of their church to its isolation, caused hostility to her less strict separatists, especially the Dutch Calvinists, among whom they live. "

After the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) followers Robinson decided to leave Europe and America to find the "New Canaan." With the knowledge of the British authorities, and in agreement with the English merchants sects embarked on board the ship "Mayflower", which is August 5, 1620 sailed across the Atlantic. As noted by LJ Sliozkin, of the 102 passengers on board the ship "about half were" saints ", the other" outsiders "- the colonists recruited merchants in England. In America, "aliens" and entailed a desire to re-arrange a better life and not in the least — approval of the "true faith." However, all passengers "Mayflower" in common is that none of them belonged to the privileged sections of English society. Among them, there were even a few relatively wealthy people, especially among the "outsiders."

November 21, 1620 "Mayflower" dropped anchor off the American coast. Although up to this already existed in Virginia English colony, it was the passengers of the ship were considered "founding fathers" of the American people, and then those who claim to antiquity of a kind, tried to prove that their ancestors arrived on the "Mayflower." A place where travelers disembarked, was subsequently called Plymouth.

On the same day travelers (or as they are called "Pilgrims") amounted Agreement, which read: "In the name of God, amen. We, the undersigned, loyal subjects of our mighty sovereign monarch James, by the grace of God King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and so on., Undertaking the glory of God — to spread the Christian faith and honor of our King and Country — a voyage to establish a colony in the northern part of Virginia, hereby solemnly and mutually in the face of God unite in civilian political body to maintain among us better order and safety as well as to achieve the above objectives, and in view of this, we will create and introduce such just and equal to all laws, ordinances, acts, the establishment and administration offices, which at any given time will be deemed the most appropriate and relevant general good of the colony, and we promise to follow and obey. In witness whereof we have set our names. "

Subsequently, the agreement was considered to be the first legislation of America, laid the foundations of the American Constitution. Speaking at the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the arrival of the pilgrims at a ceremony in the city of Providence, the director of the Department of History, Institute of Carnegie Professor John Franklin Jameson said: "We are here to note the beginnings of the American government, the first manifestation of the New World spirit of voluntary association, the spirit of obedience to the majority, the spirit of democracy, which has since gained a continent … Truly not elect me people? I want us to do the invariable habit of thinking about our own history as a sacred history. " As emphasized by LJ Sliozkin, "this view is established and defended … until now." Sliozkin acknowledged that "Americans revere the name of the" Pilgrim Fathers "and the presence in the views of the religious messianism pilgrims used and is used to claim a special role in America."

Although the first arrivals were not dare go ashore for fear of wild animals and "wild" Indians, they soon had to build relationships with the local population. But first the Indians blew white left unattended instruments, but other Indians helped bring them back. And soon the leader of a tribe Massasoit signed an agreement with the leaders of the community in which the Indians have pledged not to attack the colonists, to return things, if any, will be stolen, and help each other in case of an attack on them enemies of the tribe or the colonists.

Who spoke English Indian Scanti become "guardian angel" of the new colonists. In the words of L. Sliozkin, "Scanti was their permanent translator, facilitator and guide. He taught them to plant corn, fish, hunt and do a thousand other things necessary for life in the wild. " When harvested the first crop, it became clear that "maize planted under Scanti, born a good European crops (wheat, peas) — bad … We decided to make a Thanksgiving. It took place in October 1621 invited Massasoit and other guests. The Indians brought with them five deer carcasses. They ate, competed in shooting, dancing. " Since 1863 Thanksgiving Day became a national U.S. holiday. On this day, Americans are not working, remember the early settlers of Plymouth, and the table is eaten turkey, like those birds that were eaten at the festival in 1621.

At that time the colonist Edward Winslow wrote to England: "God has been pleased to instill great fear of the Indians, and love for us … Now there is peace among the Indians, which was not there before … We walk in the woods is just as easy and as safe as the main roads of England . We accept them easily in our homes, they are friendly and endows us venison. " Colonist Thomas Morton wrote about the Indians of Massachusetts: "I found the Indians of Massachusetts by more humane than the Christians, and they were much friendlier … My experience has confirmed the following: the more savage, the more hospitality, more than the Christians, the less you take, and it can confirm any impartial colonist. "

However, these idyllic relations between whites and Indians did not last long. The colonists accepted the hospitality of Indians for showing their weakness and flagrantly abused them. In search of food residents of Plymouth, led by Captain Myles Standish went to Massachusetts. Here, according to Morton, they stole from Indian graves adorned her beaver pelts. These skins are they expected to sell for a profit English merchants. The leader of the British Indian village expressed their outrage. Then Standish and his men opened fire on the Indians. Their leader was wounded.

By that time, was founded another colony in Uessagassete. These colonists were convicted of robbing Indian stores. The chief Massasoit in Plymouth reported that the Indians of some tribes have decided to cut the white "that caused the harm and injustice." They offered Massasoit to join them, but the one being faithful to the agreement, refused it.

Then, as he wrote Morton, alarmed by reports of "conspiracy Indians' plimuttsy came to the Indians of Massachusetts," ostensibly to trade. " At lunch time, when the owners brought the guests were treated to pork, "not knowing any trap" of the British suddenly attacked them and killed all "by their own knives." One of the survivors were hanged. After that, they left, saying nothing about the incident of the colonists Uessagasseta. Morton wrote: "The savages of Massachusetts, who did not know from where and for what purpose those people came, but know that they have committed gratuitous evil, have since called the English colonists' votavkenange", which means the language of the savages "insidious killer," or "bandits", and this name was transferred also to those who came back later with good intentions. "

Upon learning of the incident, the leader of a neighboring tribe ordered his tribesmen attacked the village on the night of the colonists Uessagasseta. Many of them were killed. Explaining the background of the massacre, hosted by "holy" people of Plymouth, the historian George Willison argued that plimuttsev purpose of the operation was to get rid of competitors who have settled in Uessagassete. His brutal massacre of the Indians, they have provoked the latest attack on the colony, and then made a new slaughter Indians under the pretext of preventing their "conspiracy." So was implemented on American soil law of modern times: the higher the profit, the greater the neglect manifests capital of morality and humanity

"Good Indian — it is a dead Indian"

Plymouth was not the first English colony on American soil. This was the Virginia colony. In the ode, written in 1606 on the occasion of its founding, Virginia was called "paradise on earth". The founders of the colony were going to convert the Indians to Christianity, found a gold mine, open the Northwest Passage around the American continent, to produce "all consumer products in Europe, Africa and Asia, and to ensure the needs of all types of production, degraded" to provide housing for British unemployed. However, gold is not found. Most of the new settlers were former criminals who are not able to work and honest artisans was nothing to do in the new colony. Proclaimed the capital of the colony of Jamestown settlement was a hotbed of malaria. Two years after the founding of the colony of 104 of its inhabitants only 53 survived.

The rest were rescued by the Indians. According to the colonists, "God, seeing our extreme need deigned to move the Indians, and they brought us a grain of maize, although immature to support us, even though we were expecting more, they will destroy us." But this grain will soon be over.

Later, in the United States was celebrated by Captain John Smith, who was able to rally the Virginia colonists in their struggle for physical survival. As he wrote LY Sliozkin, John Smith, "who has learned to speak the language of the Indians, made a saving step: He went to them for food, capturing the exchange trinkets and household equipment, including highly valued by their axes … together … The Indians traded with me and my people, not more doubting my intentions, than I am in them. "

In the first Native American village, which was attended by the colonists, in exchange for his proposed subjects Indians were willing to give a little corn kernels. According Slezkin, "Smith spurned what he considered a pathetic sop, and the British, led by captain attacked the hosts by surprise fled in fear. Breaking into the village, the colonists profited from Indian reserves and they loaded their boat. The Indians, after recovering from the first fright, rushed to the newcomers. Fierce battle ensued, during which fell, struck Smith, media totem. Seeing it as a bad omen, the Indians retreated. After a while he returned for the totem they brought a large number of British products. By Smith imbued with respect and terror, which greatly helped the captain in his future enterprises. "

In the course of his future expeditions Smith was captured by the Indians. Later claimed that the Indians were almost killed Smith, but he has stood up for the beloved daughter of the leader of the Indian tribes Pauhetana — Pocahontas. Owing to this, or for other reasons, but, according to Smith, the Indians treated him "with all possible kindness … The more we got to know, the better treat each other." The Indians even revealed his plan to attack Smith on Jamestown.

When he returned unharmed to the colonists, Smith continued his expedition to the Indians to replenish food stocks Jamestown. Soon, under the guidance of the Indians themselves colonists learned to sow corn, and began to eat it.

From the complete economic collapse of Virginia was saved thanks to the creation of plantations for growing tobacco. Despite fierce resistance to the English King James I of smoking, a habit of tobacco spread to England. Production of Virginia tobacco was growing rapidly, and with it the increased inflow of capital and new immigrants to Virginia.

Meanwhile, the departure of Captain Smith in England showed that the relationship between the colonists and the Indians rested on shaky basis. Doctor of Theology William Sim Mondsee, said: "Now we understand what it means to lose Captain Smith: instead of grain, provisions and other assistance from the savages we only received fatal wounds from their clubs and arrows." The point is that instead of exchanging products colonists became more and more openly rob the Indians. In 1611, under the leadership of the British governor of the colony Dale broke into Apamatuk Indian village and killed several of its inhabitants and looted her home.

Such raids were repeated. During one of these colonists captured Pocahontas, who interfered in his behalf at the time of Smith. While holding hostage favorite of Indian chief, the British forced the Indians favorable to the agreement. (Later, Pocahontas was baptized and called Rebecca. She married an Englishman, John Ralph, and came to England, where he died of smallpox.)

Agreement that the British began to conclude with the Indians, turned them into subjects and tributaries of the British Crown: the beginning of the harvest Indians had to replenish the stock of settlers corn "as a tribute, for which they will receive knives and axes." However, these agreements have been broken a surprise attack by Indians March 22, 1622 at the English settlement. 347 men and women were killed. Jamestown survived only. As pointed Sliozkin, the immediate reason for the Indian attack March 22, 1622 was the death of Indian farm colonist Morgan. The Indians believed that their tribesman was killed by white settlers.

Commenting on the event, American historians have written about the "treachery" of Indians. However, the British historians who have written on the heels of these events 250-300 years ago, spoke of "repelling" the Indians, their "revenge." Explaining the reasons for this revenge, LY Sliozkin recalls the treacherous attacks of the colonists, including those led by John Smith on Indian villages. Historian remarked: 'Kindness Indians, their hospitality is celebrated every first English travelers in America. Prior to the beginning of strife, provoked by the colonists, they are not just saved from starvation last … In the 10 years after the founding of Jamestown potentially force the Indians outnumbered the British forces. Be the first more united, less artless made aware of the consequences they are alien influence, Jamestown could probably be killed, died as the first English colony on Roanoke Island Reilly. "

Having stood in the face of hunger and a foothold in the new land, the colonists began to expand its ownership and settle wherever they want, regardless of the ancient tribal customs of the Indians. Sliozkin wrote that under the pressure of the colonists "Indians retreated into the interior of the country to places less convenient for the conduct of their usual economy and way of life. According to the unwritten but firm laws of Aboriginal each tribe had its own well-defined region of residence and migration, where its members are engaged in agriculture, hunting and fishing. Outside of this region lived another tribe, to protect their land. Thus, the Indians retreating from the British, regardless of their wishes, and so provoked frequent tribal wars. "

In fact, the first colonists their land grab caused a chain reaction of destruction in the world in which they came to the border tribes were unbreakable for centuries. That "domino theory", which since the mid XX century American politics scare the country in connection with the events in Indochina, and then in other regions of the world, in fact, has long been realized by American colonists in the wars against the Indians: each tribe repressed colonists, like a domino , "fall" on the other tribe. As pointed Sliozkin, tribal wars weakened "the already crushed the forces opposed to strangers."

In response to the massacre of 22 March 1622 started a real war for the extermination of the Indians. British historian William Robertson wrote: "All men have taken up arms. A bloody war against the Indians began. All were imbued with a desire to destroy the whole race, regardless of age. The behavior of the Spaniards in the southern parts of America was openly accepted as a role model, and, like the Spaniards, regardless of the principles of faith, honor and humanity that regulate hostilities between civilized nations and to moderate the fury, the British considered acceptable anything, to achieve its purpose. " After this happened is that the historian Beverly called "total extermination of the Indians" under the "convenient excuse."

Robertson described the subsequent military action against the Indians: "After several months of fruitless pursuit of those who managed to hide in the woods, the English pretended that they were ready to make peace, assuring their good intentions and evil oblivion. They persuaded the Indians to return to their old places (their emails are stored and their actions prove it) and spread on fields near the old British … "When the Indians came back and were waiting for the new crop, the English, Robertson wrote," suddenly attacked them, hacked into pieces of those who could not escape, and then completely destroyed their crops. " In addition, during the conclusion of an imaginary world the British treated the Indians poisoned wine, resulting in upwards of 200 people.

In assessing past events, Captain John Smith, who is still considered a model of friendly relations with the Indians, he wrote: "We used to clear the land ranged from a dense forest, which is something he was not particularly needed, we can now capture their own processed fields and houses that are in the best locations of the country. In addition, deer, turkeys and other game will be much greater if we will drive the savages of the country … In addition, they will be easier to civilize and won, than by peaceful means. " Smith recommended that the British, for example, the Spanish force the Indians to carry out "the hardest work, to make them slaves," and to live by, "taking advantage of the fruits of their labor."

American anthropologist Ruth Benedict wrote: "The British wanted Indian land, but without the Indians. The first royal dedicatory letters to land in the New World did not contain mention of the indigenous people who lived on this earth, as if it was a completely uninhabited spaces. The settlers did their best to create as soon as possible to make such a nice situation. " William Foster wrote: "White colonists outnumbered Indians cruelty, and they cut out all the polls civilians — men, women and children were tortured prisoners, burned them at the stake, scalped." The policy of extermination of the local population based on the principle that subsequently formulated the U.S. General Phil Sheridan: "Good Indian — it is a dead Indian."

Sometimes the extermination of the Indians turned to the military campaign. Was unleashed war years 1675-1677 of the colonies of New England Indian tribe against drug ragansetov led to the so-called King Philip (he was the son of Massasoit, who saved the early settlers from England, from starving to death). These wars were fought to the complete destruction of an Indian tribe. In the course of the war in 1711 was virtually destroyed by the Tuscarora tribe. The same fate befell many of the Cherokee Nation during the military campaign in 1759. Only in 1723, authorities in Massachusetts have paid £ 100 as a reward for scalps of Indians. Pennsylvania authorities were paying 130 dollars for the scalp of Spanish men over age 12 and $ 50 per Indian scalp.

At the same time, the true story of the early years of the English colonies was hidden under a layer of later American legend, in which idealized the first colonists, especially Captain Smith, the organizer is not only trade with the Indians, but also predatory campaigns against them and demonized Indians. About saving them from starvation white forgotten. But the constantly repeated their cruelty and perfidy. The story of Pocahontas is used white as a hostage, was turned into a sentimental story worthy of "soap opera".

As noted by LJ Sliozkin, despite the brutal terror, "the Indians could not make slaves, as recommended by Smith. They resisted enslavement and could not live in captivity, dying quickly deprived of their liberty. " Then the colonists began to import African slaves to the Americas.

Since long before the proclamation of the independence of the United States was the beginning of the genocide of Native American tribes and the oppression of Black people that continued in the future and that was the cause of many of the leading thinkers of the perturbation of the XVIII century. Paying tribute to the efforts of American labor, AN Radischev wrote in 1789: "Forests barren and mountainous jungle translated into fruitful fields and covered stovidnymi proizrascheniyami, united America characteristic or well as the judges in preselennymi. Obese meadows potaptyvayutsya many cattle, for it is clear and defined job man. Everywhere visible hand of building a doer, everywhere it seems kind of outward sign of wealth and devices. "

At the same time, the Russian humanist pay attention to those who do much of the hard work and was in a state of servitude, "But who is such a powerful hand compels a mean, lazy nature to bear fruit in their so great abundance? Indians was slain … devastated America, utuchniv cornfields its blood to its natural inhabitants … at the same time, Europeans are mad against preachers of peacefulness in the name of God, of truth, of meekness, and a teacher of humanity, to the violent murder of indigenous instill cold-blooded murder of enslavement acquisition of slaves bought. These are the unfortunate victims of something sultry shores of the Niger and Senegal, have been cast aside their homes and families, they relocated to the unknown country, under a heavy rod improvement vzdirayut abundant fields of America, works to abhor them. And we called the devastation the country blissful for that field it is not overgrown with thorns and fields abound proizrascheniyami species. We call the blissful land of where one of the proud citizens are surrounded in luxury, while thousands have no safe food, no self from the heat and Mraz ukrov. Oh, that become empty packs plenty sim countries! so that the thorn and thistle, extending its deep root, and destroyed all Drago America works! "

It is worth recalling that these lines Russian thinker wrote in his book "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow", which was made a few bitter words about the situation of the serfs in their own country. The only foreign country, which has caused even more outrage Radishcheva its appeal to people was America.

War for furs and skins

Greedy business in the new colonies combined with the harsh religious. In the colony of Massachusetts law was introduced in which a man, who denied the existence of the Holy Trinity, was subject to the death penalty. In the town of Salem (Mass.) in the years 1691-1692. place a process which entailed a penalty of nineteen women accused of witchcraft and dealings with the devil. Later, the story was described in Arthur Miller's play "Crucible."

Describing the life of the Puritans in 1692, Arthur Miller remarked: "Their doctrine prohibits all resembling a theater or an" empty pleasure. " They did not celebrate Christmas. A day without work meant only that they had to concentrate on prayer. " For violation of the rules followed by the harsh cruel punishment. Slothful servant, has irked the owner, or a son to disobey the parents are punished with lashes in the pillory. Above serious offenses punishable by the death penalty and stigma. Therefore, when it was discovered that the heroine of the novel N. Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" Tester Notes "changed" her old husband disappeared and was the mother of an illegitimate child, the Puritans put it publicly on the scaffold, and forced to wear a scarlet life the letter "A" — the beginning of the word «Adulteress "(adulteress).

In this case, the Puritans firmly believed in his mission: to remake human beings and the earth in his image and likeness. Arthur Miller wrote: "They believed in their hands the candle to light the world. We have inherited this belief, which has helped us and at the same time has caused us harm. "

Stressing the rigidity of Puritan morals in Massachusetts, VL Parrington at the same time, wrote: "The Puritan and the Yankees — are two sides of the same coin … was the Puritan heritage of the Old World, a product of the English Reformation harsh ideology. Yankee was the brainchild of America generated specific economic conditions. " In addition to the impact of Puritanism on the public consciousness, emphasized Parrington, "… another phenomenon was the development of mercantile spirit … As soon settled in a new land," the leaders of Massachusetts' embarked on a commercial enterprise: build ships for trade with the West Indies, were engaged in fishing off the coast of Newfoundland, ventured in pursuit of Grist on long trips. Capable, enterprising people, harbor a strong preference for abstract thinking, great administrators who care about the public interest, do not forget about their own, they would not tolerate that in their worn-out plans pry pesky and inexperienced people … Empower now these people religious fervor and the notion that they are called to take the world of righteousness, give them the opportunity to implement its program without any interference was from rivals, prepare their leadership, to the subtleties developed skillful creator of the religious-political system, and you will understand that the result could be only one: they Utopia was bound to be embodied in a monolithic theocratic state where the power would be in the hands of the aristocracy — chosen of God. "

Parrington observed: "The later criticism of Puritanism consider theocratic experiment undertaken in Massachusetts, as a ridiculous venture to turn back the wheel of history and reshape the English on drevneiudeysky bizarre twist. However, by the creators of the theocracy taken by them seemed to have a different perspective — for them it was an attempt to implement them Dreams of Utopia and create a "Promised Land" is the most perfect in the world social order. "

Defending their purely mercantile interests, the English colonists explained their ruthless exploitation of nature and of Negro slaves, the extermination of the Indians order requirements, to respond to the letter and spirit of the Old Testament. The same ideas are inspired by, and in the fight with their competitors to capture the American lands.

In addition to English, the lands of North America claimed by France, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. Dutch colonists settled at the mouth of the Hudson River, founded the New Netherland. The capital of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was built on the island of the Manhattan-ten. Its boundary wall was (wall-wall). The adjoining street called Wall Street.

The first Dutch competitors were Swedes, as very humorous told the American writer Washington Irving in his humorous "History of New York." According to the writer, the governor of New Netherland, Peter Styuyvesant or Peter Tverdogolovy, "felt an unbearable thirst for military glory, which raged in his heart … and that nothing could quench, except for the conquest of all of New Sweden." Although during the clashes between the Swedes and the Dutch, which ironically W. Irving compared with the battles of the Trojan War "on both sides are killed no one," the Swedish army led by Governor Risingom was beaten. New Sweden was Dutch.

More casualties on both sides were in skirmishes with the Indians, the Dutch. According to American historians Morison and Commager, one of the Dutch governor William Kieft, "based on the fact that if the Dutch did not exterminate the Indians, then the opposite will happen. So he calmly attacked the river tribe of Indians, although they were friendly set because they feared the Iroquois. But the Indians did not want to be destroyed, and had such a stubborn resistance. The Dutch needed the help of the New England before they dared to go beyond Wall Street. "

Meanwhile, in 1643 the English colonies (Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven) formed a confederation of New England for a common struggle against the Dutch, the French and the Indians. After 10 years in prison nearly went to war with the Dutch because of mutual claims in the rich furs. Mori dream Commager and stressed that the issue of furs, which is closely associated with the "Indian question", played a dominant role in the American colonies: "He held a commanding position in the struggle for the West, he was a leading factor in British foreign policy during the War of 1812 years, and then in the struggle for Oregon and the Upper Missouri. It was not only the international competition, but the ruthless competition between the people of one country in the business, does not recognize ethical standards … As soon as the flow of furs from a region dwindled, trappers and traders moved to the west, where they joined the competition with the Spanish for the Indian clientele. "

Hero of the five novels of James Fenimore Cooper — a noble Indian trapper and friend Natty bump — hardly the typical hunter of those years. Greedy trappers tried to shoot as many beasts, regardless of the capabilities of nature and the interests of the local population. At the same time, merchants, offering the Indians for furs and skins of slain beasts unpretentious industrial goods, pushing them to the extermination of the native fauna of forests. In pursuit of the fur and skins, of which manufactured leather goods, the colonists of different countries penetrated the interior of the country, where their interests clash. New England's first war with the Dutch colony of almost broke out in 1653 because of human rights in the territory where the hunted.

It soon became apparent that in this rivalry all the advantages on the side of England, as the total population of New Netherlands — no more than 7000, which was 10 times less than the population of New England. Accordingly, the British troops were more numerous Dutch. So in the summer of 1664 when the British fleet appeared off the coast of New Amsterdam, and its commander ordered the city to surrender, the governor of New Netherlands, Peter Styuyvesant had to obey the dominant force. New Amsterdam was renamed New York, and many former Dutch nationals became the ancestors of many American families, including those recognized by the aristocratic families like the Roosevelts, van Bureny, Vanderbilts, and so on.

English colonies continue to expand. After the restoration of the monarchy in England, the new King Charles II granted the patent for the possession of the coastal area between the 31 — and 36 degrees north latitude group of businessmen and politicians close to the throne of the Stuarts. After that, at the initiative of Sir John Collett-on who owned the rich plantations in the British colonies of Barbados, and the leader of the Whig party in Britain Anthony Cooper was founded in 1670 in the city of Charleston. In 1683, a group of French Huguenots who lived in England, and a group of Scots founded Port Royal. The Spaniards tried to repel intruders from Britain and captured Port Royal, but they soon knocked out. So we created a new British colony — Carolina, further divided into North and South.

During the XVIII century, the American colonies were repeatedly embroiled in wars fought between the European powers (War of the League of Augsburg against France 1689-1697 gg., The War of Spanish Succession, 1702-1713 gg., The War of Austrian Succession, 1745-1748 gg., The Seven Years' War 1756-1763 gg.). The colonists supported the war, and these were often the initiators of the new territorial conquests. Thus, residents of Massachusetts asked the British government to take over French Canada, but a collection of South Carolina directed the petition to London, arguing the need to expand Carolina to Mississippi as "half of the Canadian fur trade and skins goes this way."

Although as it advances into the continent colonists from various European powers destroyed the Indians, they at the same time continued to use them to your advantage as miners and fur skins, as well as attacks on his rivals to seize the land and the natural resources of America. Thus, the government of King Louis XIV instigated the French allied Indian tribes to attack the British colonies. In turn, the South Carolina settled yamasi tribe, which under the leadership of British colonists raided the Spanish land. In their raids Indians of the tribe of Indians even stole Creek and Cherokee tribes. Those sold into slavery in New England.

Particularly acute took military action on American soil between France and Great Britain during the Seven Years War. They attended and future first commander of the U.S. Army, George Washington. On the French side were Native American tribes. After a series of failures of the British began to besiege the French and Indians, and finally came to Quebec. The world in 1763, Canada was transferred to the British.

The Seven Years' War, in the words of William Foster, "had disastrous consequences for the strongest and most numerous group of Native American tribes living in the East and Midwest of North America — Algonquin, who trekked all the way from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Palmiko . This large group of tribes who fought in alliance with the French, there are hundreds of tribes who spoke forty different dialects of the language. It included the Mi'kmaq, Ottawa, Delaware, Kickapoo, pottavotomi, Cheyenne, shouting, Blackfoot, arapagi, Ojibwe and other Algonquin suffered a double misfortune: they were defeated in the war, and then at the conclusion of a peace treaty (in Paris in 1763) they were abandoned to their fate of their allies defeated the French. As a result of these numerous tribes have been largely dispelled. Trying to save the Indians from defeat, the leader of the Algonquin Pontiac united under his rule several tribes — Ottawa, Mi'kmaq, Chippewa, Wyandot, etc. — and for several years bravely but unsuccessfully led a rearguard action. He captured the Midwest all the forts, with the exception of Fort Pitt and Detroit, he ineffectually besieged for several months in 1769. "

As soon as the boundary of the colonies was receding to the west, the colonists conquered and exterminated the Native American tribes. In his novel "The Final Frontier" Howard Fast wrote: "The fact that we called" abroad ", it was like the crest of a wave when the tide is coming … At the edge of this wave were always the Indians, the people who fought for their homes and their way of life."

Frequent wars with the other colonial powers, the ongoing clashes with the Indians in the colonies have created a permanent situation of armed conflict or expectations thereof. The concept of "frontier" meant not only the line of the British possessions in America, and a large band in which the population lived in the western colonies. Here were built forts which could withstand a sudden attack of the enemy. And outside of the forts civilians were armed to repel an attack or take any, against a possible enemy. As a boundary line is not so far from the Atlantic coast, it turned out that a large part of the colonists, without entering into the ranks of the army, still felt himself a "border", defended with weapons in hand their land to other European competitors, who fought with the Indian tribes.

Residents of villages on the banks of the Atlantic and constantly expecting attacks naval ships of enemy states. There have also been built coastal forts and civilians also were ready for battle. The knowledge that Americans are living at risk, generate a special code of conduct, in which the use of armed force has become the norm along with greedy business, religious rigor and faith in their exclusivity.

From the book by Yuri Emelyanov USA — EVIL EMPIRE

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