All XVII-XIX century British hounded us Turks. As a result, Russia was at war with Turkey in the Russian-Turkish war of 1676-81, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1686-1700, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1710-13, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1735-39, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-74 in the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-91, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-12, and in the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-78. In addition, Turkey fought against Russia in the Crimean and the First World War. Thus, a total of 10 times.
In the beginning of XIX they incited us to Napoleon, with whom, as with Germany in 1939, we had the Tilsit treaty concluded in 1807. In 1805 he almost invaded the UK, but then the British were able to pull in the war against Napoleon, Austria and Russia. Russian-Austrian offensive forced Napoleon to move to Bavaria and then in Bohemia, to defeat the Allies on November 20 (December 2) in 1805 Austerlitz. But in 1812, the efforts of agents of British influence, Napoleon decided to invade Russia.
British also forced us to act in foreign campaign of 1813-14 period. What we have benefited from this campaign? Eternally rebellious Poland? Strengthening of Austria and Prussia, who became a century our enemies? Yes, all of this was paid tens of thousands of Russian lives. After 1812, Napoleon would not have went back to Russia. But he would have to focus all their efforts on England. Many scoff at Admiral Chichagov have missed Napoleon on the Berezina (More on this Here). In fact, Paul V. Chichagov acting on secret orders Kutuzov's plans which did not include the capture of Napoleon. If Kutuzov was necessary, he would have seized by Napoleon in early November in Smolensk, where, coming from Moscow, he went through Borovsk Vereya, Mozhaisk Vyasma and after the defeat of Maloyaroslavets. Kutuzov was a supporter of Russia's withdrawal from the war immediately after the restoration of Russian borders. Anglophobia Kutuzov believed that the elimination of Napoleon as a political figure grist to the mill of primarily British.
In 1807, Mikhail Kutuzov was a supporter of the Peace of Tilsit, and join the Continental blockade. In December 1812 he was against foreign campaign, and when he was forced to obey the orders of the emperor, upset, sick and died.
Udavsheesya escape Napoleon put an end to the reputation Chichagova. Offended by public opinion, but bound by oath not to divulge the plan Kutuzov even after the death of it, Chichagov was forced in 1814 to go abroad. He died in Paris on 1 September 1849.
And in the years 1853-56, the English themselves in alliance with France and Sardinia landed in the Crimea, blocked Kronstadt, 6-7 July 1854 was subjected to nine-ship artillery shelled the Solovetsky monastery. A 18-24 August 1854 the squadron of Admiral Pryce (3 frigates, 1 corvette, 1 brig, 1 steamer, total — 218 guns) tried to capture Petropavlovsk. The city was defended by Russian garrison under the command of Major-General Zavoiko, numbering several hundred, with 67 guns.
August 20, suppressing the fire of two batteries, the British landed troops numbering 600 people south of the city, but the Russian detachment of 230 soldiers counterattack threw him into the sea. August 24 Allied fleet defeated the two batteries on the peninsula and landed a major assault (970 people) west and north-west of the city. The defenders of Petropavlovsk (360 people) to hold the enemy, and then threw his counterattack. The British and their allies lost about 450 people, Russian — about a hundred. Defeated, August 27 Allied squadron left the area Petropavlovsk. Ended in failure, and the British troops in the Gulf of De Castries.
British Grenadier Guards
Only in the Crimea, the British managed to succeed: August 27, 1855 Russian troops are not yet exhausted all possibilities of defense, on the orders of commanders left severely devastated the southern part of the city of Sevastopol, the defense of which lasted nearly a year — 349 days. It should be noted that the siege of Sevastopol led the Anglo-French-Turkish-Sardinian troops totaling 62.5 thousand people. The same number of defenders of Sevastopol was 18 thousand soldiers and sailors. So it is not the rottenness of the Tsarist regime and technological backwardness caused the defeat of Russia in Sevastopol, and the numerical superiority of the enemy in three and a half times. The numerical superiority of the enemy and defeat due to Russian troops in the Battle of the Alma River — 55,000 Allied soldiers against 34 thousand Russian, or less than 1.6 times. This is taking into account the fact that Russian troops were advancing. In a similar situation, when Russian troops were advancing, having numerical superiority, they were victorious. So it was in Balaklava battle, which the Russian won, having suffered less damage than the opponent.
Balaclava battle won by Russian troops.
Russian commanders blamed for not doing enough fast implementation of technical innovations — at a time when our opponents were armed with rifles, our troops continued to use shotguns. However, few people know that the rifled guns of our army and then were not needed — Nicholas I himself invented the bullet, which gave a counter-rotation of the airstream. This bullet-range one and a half times higher than in range of a bullet Minya fired from rifles. And if not for the untimely death of the Emperor, it is possible the development of weapons could go on a very different path.
British Enfield rifle model 1853
But despite the fall of Sevastopol, to tear away from the Russian Crimean peninsula the British did not succeed.
Attempts to overcome the Russian and the British continued in the twentieth century. At the beginning of the century they supported Japan, which without this support will not be able to win over Russia. Soon after the revolution, December 23, 1917, was signed the Anglo-French agreement on the division of spheres of future military operations and, therefore, the spheres of influence in Russia: in the area of Great Britain entered the Caucasus and Cossack region into a zone of France — Bessarabia, Ukraine and Crimea. At a time when the old Bolshevik army forces have already collapsed, and the Red Army had not yet been created, the British tried to grab at the Russian important key points in order to use them as starting points for further expansion. On March 6, British troops had been landed in Murmansk, August 2 of that year, British troops landed in Archangel, and on August 4 was occupied by British troops Baku.
But the closest thing to a Russian war with the British were in the early months of the Second World War — between Hitler's attack on Poland and the defeat of France. After the signing of the Molotov — Ribbentrop British began to consider the Soviet Union and Hitler's accomplice, therefore, as an enemy.
Almost immediately after the outbreak of war in Germany and Poland, in which the Soviet Union was involved with the September 17, 1939, to attend to the Anglo-French allied to the Baku oil fields and possible ways to remove them from damage.
By the beginning of World War II, Baku oil industry provided 80% of high-grade aviation gasoline, 90% naphtha and kerosene, 96% of automotive oils of the total production in the USSR. The theoretical possibility of an air attack on the Soviet oil fields was first considered as early as September 1939, the liaison officer between the General Staff and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France Lieutenant Colonel Paul de Villelyumom. On 10 October, the Minister of Finance of France Paul Reynaud placed before him a specific question: Can the French Air Force "to bomb Syria nefterazrabotki and refineries in the Caucasus." In Paris, meant that these plans should be implemented in close cooperation with the British. The U.S. Ambassador in Paris, William C. Bullitt, the former, by the way, at one time the first U.S. Ambassador to the USSR, was also informed about the plans of the French government Edouard Daladier and other French politicians in connection with the signing of 19 October 1939 Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance between Britain, France and Turkey. He telegraphed to Washington to discuss in Paris on the possibility of "bombing and destruction of Baku." Although the French and coordinate their plans with the British, the latter is not much behind them in the development of its similar projects.
January 11, 1940 the British Embassy in Moscow reported that the action in the Caucasus could "bring Russia to its knees in no time," and bombed-Caucasian oil fields can cause the USSR "knockout punch."
January 24th Chief of the Imperial General Staff Gen. Edwin Ironside of England — the same one that led to years of British military intervention mission in Arkhangelsk, the War Cabinet, presented the memorandum "The main strategy of the war", which indicated the following: "in determining our strategy in the current environment will be the only the right decision to consider Russia and Germany partners. " Ironside stressed: "In my view, we will be able to provide effective assistance in Finland only if the Russian attack on the possibility of a greater number of areas and, most importantly, dealt a blow to Baku — the area of oil to cause serious state crisis in Russia . " Ironside was aware that such actions would inevitably lead the Western allies to war with the USSR, but in this situation it is considered perfectly justified. The document stressed the role of the British aviation to implement these plans, and in particular, stated that "the cost depends heavily on Russia in the war against the supply of oil from Baku. This area is within the reach of long-range bombers, provided that they have the opportunity to fly over the territory of Turkey or Iran. " The question of war with the Soviet Union moved to the highest level of military and political leadership in the Anglo-French bloc. March 8 was a very important event in the context of preparing for war with the Soviet Union, Britain and France. On this day, British Chiefs of Staff, presented the government with a report entitled "The military consequences of military action against Russia in 1940."
Halifax bomber was originally designed specifically for the bombing of our
oil fields, but their entry into force only began in November 1940.
By the beginning of World War II, Baku oil industry provided 80% of high-grade aviation gasoline, 90% naphtha and kerosene, 96% of automotive oils of the total production in the USSR.
British generals discussing the plan of air attack on the Soviet Union.
30 March and 5 April 1940 the British had made reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union.
March 20, 1940 in Aleppo (Syria) held a meeting of the French and the British command in the Levant, where it was noted that in June 1940, will be completed the construction of 20 airfields first category. April 17, 1940 Weygand reported to Gamelin, an air strike that training will be completed by the end of June — beginning of July.
30 March and 5 April 1940 the British had made reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union. Shortly before sunrise, March 30, 1940 "Lockheed 12A" rose from the Habbaniyah base in southern Iraq and headed northeast. Sitting at the controls of the best pilot scout Royal Australian Air Force Sidney Cotton. The task assigned to the crew of four, commanded by Hugh Mac-Feil — Cotton's personal assistant — was aerial reconnaissance of the Soviet oil fields in Baku. At an altitude of 7000 meters, "Lockheed" to circle the capital of Soviet Azerbaijan. Automatic cameras snapping shutters, and two crew members — members of the Royal Air Force — have done more images to your camera's manual. Later in the morning — after 10 hours — spy plane landed in Habbaniya. Four days later, he again took to the air. This time he made a reconnaissance of the refinery in Batumi.
But the plans for the Anglo-French command had been destroyed by the German attack on France.
May 10, the day of the outbreak of hostilities in France, Churchill became Prime Minister. The British considered him a savior of the Kingdom, at a difficult time dared to resist Hitler. But the facts show the opposite: Churchill signed the surrender only because Hitler did not offer it. Churchill was going to surrender before the release of the war, not only France, but also Belgium. So back on May 18, when the Anglo-French forces in Belgium have not yet been cut off and pinned to the sea, Churchill put it on the Parliament discussed the issue of where to evacuate the royal family: in Canada, India or Australia (House of Commons, Debates, 5th Series , Vol. 360, Col. 1502). He insisted on the latter two options, because I thought that Hitler would seize the French fleet, and in a short time, and gets to Canada (Gilbert M.Winston S. Churchill. Vol. VI. Lnd. 1983, p. 358). And on May 26 in a conversation with the head of the Foreign Office by Lord Edward Frederick Lindley Wood Halifax, Churchill said: "If we could get out of this mess, giving Malta, Gibraltar and some African colonies, I would have jumped at the chance» (Chamberlain Papers NC 2 / 24A). But in addition to Churchill's government was more active and defeatists. On the same day, May 26, Halifax suggested that the mediation of Mussolini in the signing of the armistice (Hickleton Papers, A 7.8.4, Halifax Diary, 27.V.1940).
Fuel to the fire and pour defeatism press neutral countries. Since May 21 the Swedish press reported that Germany has not 31 torpedo boat, as it was in reality, and more than a hundred, each of which will allow it to land on a British bank for 100 people. The next day, the same newspaper, citing a source in the German generals, wrote that the Germans set on the shores of the English Channel long-range guns, under cover of which intend to carry out the landing from day to day. This source is likely threw the Swedes misinformation, fabricated in the office of Walter Schellenberg. But the psychological effect was huge. Canadian Prime Minister even suggested Britain to evacuate in this dominion of all British children from 5 to 16 years. The proposal was accepted only in part, because the entire English transport was already occupied by the evacuation of Dunkirk. In Canada, decided to send only 20,000 children of the most noble families.
British position was more than unstable. In England, there were only 217 tanks and 464 aircraft possessed by fighters and 491 bombers. In addition, only 376 aircraft were manned (Liddell Hart B. History of the Second World War. New York, 1971, p. 311). If the Germans had not even landed troops, but simply offered an unconditional surrender to England, by the end of May 1940, it would have been accepted by the majority of British Parliament. But the moment the Germans lost.
It's no secret that a well-respected Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, a legacy from his father's Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill (1849-1895) was, among other things, the manic-depressive psychosis. This disease manifests itself periodically advancing mood disorders. Typically, it takes the form of alternating phases — manic, expressed unreasonably cheerful mood, and depressive. Typically, the number of attacks are replaced at intervals of good health. So, for the interval of good health in early June at Churchill came depressive phase. June 4, he wrote to former Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947): "You and I are unlikely to live to see better days» (Cambridge University Library, Stanley Baldwin Papers, Vol. 174, p. 264). A number of 12, going from Paris after a regular meeting with Reynaud and Weygand, he said, already mentioned here Ismeyu Hastings Lionel (1887-1965), the future general (since 1944), Baron (1947), and the Secretary General of NATO (1952 — 57): "You and I will die in three months» (Harvard University, Houghton Library, Sherwood Papers, fol. 1891).
That depressed mood Churchill was the latest blow to hopes Weygand to organize resistance to the Germans on the narrow coastal strip of the Bay of Biscay, with the support of naval artillery strong French fleet. It is guided by this plan, Weygand recommended that the government does not move anywhere, but it is in Bordeaux — just on the coast of the Bay of Biscay.
Soon depressive phase Churchill was over to the twentieth of June. Started manic. And now, Churchill, speaking in Parliament on June 23, said the astonished MPs that Britain would fight a war to the bitter end. On what was the basis for the confidence in the victory of Churchill?
The fact is that these days it struck a brilliant idea: to try again to force Stalin to think that Hitler, having finished with France, to attack Russia. More May 20, 1940 the Soviet side was informed of the intention to send to Moscow with the "research" mission "commissioner" Sir Stafford Cripps. Soon becomes Ambassador Cripps instead to go on holiday more January 2 previous Sir — Sir William SIDS. And in June 25 through Cripps Stalin Churchill receives a letter in which the Prime Minister of the broken country with an unarmed demoralized army, has not anyone, and Stalin, a hand of friendship.
Stalin did not accept it, but at that Churchill did not calm down. He decided to provide information about Hitler that hit him in the back preparing Stalin. Such information is British. Mainly through the French press and a neutral, unobtrusive Hitler tried to throw from the date of signing of the Molotov — Ribbentrop Pact. So once October 15, 1939 in the French newspaper editorial «Temps» stated that "the position won by Russia, pose a constant threat to Germany» («Temps», 15 octobre, 1939). A little later, in December 1939, «Epoque» wrote the following: "The plan is grandiose Russian and dangerous. Their ultimate goal is the Mediterranean Sea »(« Epoque », 4 decembre, 1939). One of the episodes of this propaganda campaign was mentioned above, and the spread of the Havas agency forged the minutes of the Politburo.
Do not fall behind their French colleagues and transatlantic press. In the January issue of the official journal of the State Department appeared the following lines: "Turning the troops from the east to the west, Hitler must constantly be on guard» («Foreign Affairs», January, 1940. P. 210). But truly large scale such statements in the press neutral reached between the end of combat operations in France and the German attack on the Soviet Union. Hitler made every effort to convince Stalin wanted to attack him. And Hitler believed it. Already January 8, 1941 Ribbentrop, Hitler said: "England is held only hope of aid from America and Russia. British diplomatic training in Moscow is clear: the purpose of England — is to throw the USSR at us. Simultaneous intervention of Russia and America would be too heavy for us. Therefore it is necessary to destroy the threat in the bud. " That is why the main cause of violations of Hitler non-aggression treaty efforts are just the English. It is England, saving themselves from imminent defeat, was able to redirect to the east of Hitler's aggression.