Frequent and regular use of modern Ukrainian public elite, the concepts of "European values" and the "European way of development", without attempting to give them a clear and unambiguous definition (best legal, since most of these phrases sound from the lips of leaders of the legislative body of Ukraine) In our opinion requires study and analysis of what these concepts can not stand. This article offers you a summary of the facts and the relevant conclusions that can contribute to a better understanding of the above, widely and frequently used phrases.
We present key events in the development of European history over the last millennium, that have the most significant influence on the formation of moral and civilizational foundations of Western society, and of Western civilization:
1) The Norman invasion of the eleventh century. The invasion of England in 1066 the army of William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and the subsequent subjugation of the country. led to the destruction of Anglo-Saxon military servile aristocracy and the formation of a new layer of the ruling feudal chivalry, built on the principles of vassal-represented relationship and has judicial and administrative authority over the peasant population. In the feudal system was included higher clergy. The process of enslavement of the peasantry, which began in the Anglo-Saxon period, accelerated sharply and led to domination in medieval England the feudal-dependent categories of peasants, which led to more enslavement.
2) Jewish pogrom in the Rhine Valley in 1096. Approximately 12,000 of those killed.
3) The Crusade 1096-1144 period. Capture and looting of foreign territories Levant. The capture of Jerusalem. Mass killings and executions of Muslims.
4) Civil War in England 1135-1154 period. Long feudal conflict in Anglo-Norman State middle of the XII century, caused by the struggle for the throne after the death of King Henry I. The war, with its sieges, battles, raids and kontrnabegami, looting, requisitions, especially horses, constant soldier, forced recruitment into the militia, and a significant loss in killed and injured people caused significant damage to agriculture, manufacture and trade. Especially heavy toll consequences of the war on the poor toilers — artisans out of work, the farmers who have lost crops, livestock workers. The high cost of bread has reached a level that has made it inaccessible to thousands of poor people.
5) The Crusade of 1147-1149 years on the Asia Minor. Ended in failure for the Crusaders.
6) The Jewish pogroms in England 1189 -1190 period. On a wave of anti-Jewish pogroms associated with the coronation of Richard I.
7) Crusade 1189-1192 period. Once again, the Crusaders moved troops to the south-east and, after the terrible hardships, made our way through all of Asia Minor. After crossing the Taurus, the emperor who led the armed campaign, was drowned in the river Salefe. Part of the army dispersed, many were killed, and the rest went to Antioch, then to Acre. In the spring of 1191, the Crusaders led by Richard the Lionheart captured Cyprus.
The Crusade 1202-1204 period. Pope Innocent III agitated to go to war in the east.
9) The burning people at the stake, as the death penalty, introduced in Germany and Italy in 1226godu. Start executions Inquisition.
10) The widespread use of multi-stage punishment and torture of the Inquisition 1233-1834 years. The first stage — stripped naked and demonstration instruments of torture. The second stage — torture, which lasts as long as it takes to read the Inquisitor "Ave Maria." The third stage — no torture metered time. The fourth stage — a slight mutilation of the victim. The fifth stage — broken bones and cutting off the limbs of the victim.
11) inquisitorial penalty in France in 1235 -1244. Burnings were at Montségur and Mont-Saint-Aimé.
12) Military conquest company of German Teutonic Knights against Russia in 1240 — 1242 period. The army of Alexander Nevsky repulsed the enemy.
13) The Jewish pogroms in Spain and France in 1320. Destroyed 120 communities.
14) The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 period. A series of military conflicts between Britain and its allies, on the one hand and France and its allies, on the other, which lasted roughly from 1337 to 1453. The reason for these conflicts were claims to the French throne of the British royal Plantagenet dynasty, which seeks to return the territories on the continent, formerly owned by English kings.
15) The Jewish pogroms in Germany and France, 1348 — 1351. Total destruction of some 50 large and 150 small communities
16) Jewish pogrom in Spain in 1391. Killed about 4,000 people.
17) War? Huh? Formula and Be? Formula ro? Threat — a series of dynastic conflicts between armed factions English aristocracy in the years 1455-1485 in the power struggle between supporters of the two branches of the Plantagenet dynasty — Lancaster and York. According to various sources, were killed from 80 to 150 thousand people.
18) Start the tribunals and executions of the Spanish Inquisition in 1480.
19) The beginning of the colonization of America and the genocide of its indigenous peoples, in 1493. Colonization of the Americas occurred by eviction from their homes and the extermination of Native Americans. The number of Indians from 1500 to 1900 decreased from 15 million to 237 million. In the historical document from 1496 written by Bartolomeo — brother of Columbus, which was at that time governor of the island of Hispaniola, recorded that in 1496 the island was one million 100 thousand Indians. However, the Spaniards owned half of the island and did not include women and children. From this we can conclude that the Indians were about 3 million just for the Spanish-controlled territory. In a generation (about 30 years, about 1526), the Spaniards counted a total of 11 thousand Indians, though the Spanish possessions widened. From 1498 comes into force a law on forced labor of indigenous Indians in the Spanish colonists.
20) The Franco-Italian War 1494-1496 period. French troops invaded Italy, Florence and subdued, almost without opposition, in 1495 occupied Naples. However, against France soon developed Venetian League Italian states, who fear too strong French influence on the peninsula.
21) The Franco-Italian War 1499-1504 period. In 1499, the new French king Louis XII repeated invasion, seized Milan, Genoa, and, now in alliance with Spain, Naples. However, in 1502, the Franco-Spanish alliance fell apart. The war between France and Spain. The following year, Louis was defeated at the Battle of Tserignole in Puglia and Garidzhliano river in central Italy, and was forced to abandon the conquest of the south. Under contracts concluded in the years 1504-1505 in Blois, Milan went to France, and Naples — to Spain.
22) Luso-Egyptian War 1505-1516 period. The conflict between the colonial Portugal and Mamluk Egypt and for supremacy in the Indian Ocean.
23) Luso-Persian war of 1507-1622 years. The war ended with the Anglo-Persian army defeated the Portuguese on the island of Hormuz in 1622.
24) The War of the League of Cambrai 1508-1516 period. In 1508, the imperial army tried to invade the territory of Venice, but was repulsed, and the Venetians occupied Rijeka and Trieste. Strengthening Venice rallied against her European: in 1508 was formed antivenetsianskaya League of Cambrai, which included Pope Julius II, Emperor Maximilian I, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and the King of France, Louis XII. In 1509, Spanish troops captured the Venetian port in Puglia, army dad invaded and occupied the Venetian Romagna Ravenna, Hungary attacked Dalmatia, and the army of Savoy landed in Crete. Simultaneously, the troops of the emperor seized Rovereto and Verona, and the Venetians defeated the French army at the Battle of Anyadello.
25) Italian War of 1521-1526 years. The causes of the war were the hostility between the French king Francis I and the Spanish king Charles V, which arose after the election of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, and the need of Pope Leo X in alliance with Charles V in order to fight the influence of Martin Luther.
26) The Peasant War in Germany 1524-1526 period. The popular uprising in central Europe. Consisted of mass unrest economic and religious nature, which have been the driving force of the peasants, townspeople and nobles. The conflict, which took place mainly in the southern, western and central areas of modern Germany, also raised the neighboring Austria and Switzerland, reached its peak in the spring and summer of 1525, when the events attended by some 300,000 peasant rebels. According to current estimates, the death toll was about 100,000 people.
27) War Coniacian League 1526-1530 period.
28) The third war of Francis I and Charles V 1536-1538 period.
29) The Fourth War Francis I and Charles V 1542-1544 period.
30) Shmalko? Ldenskaya war? 1546-1547 period. Major armed conflict between Catholics and Protestants. Union forces suffered a crushing defeat at Mühlberg, which led to the signing of the surrender of Wittenberg.
31) Italian War of 1551-1559 years.
32) The Massacre of St.. Bartholomew (or Bartholomew? Evsky night) — the massacre of the Huguenots in France, organized by Catholics on the night of August 24, 1572, on the eve of St. Bartholomew. According to various estimates, killed more than 30,000 people.
33) The Eighty Years War of 1568-1648 years. Long armed conflict Seventeen Provinces (now covering the territory of the modern Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, parts of northern France and western Germany) in the struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. As a result, the revolution has been recognized the independence of the Seven United Provinces. The area now known as Belgium and Luxembourg are called the Southern Netherlands.
34) The Anglo-French War of 1627-1629.
35) A 30-year-old war in 1618 — 1648 period. Began as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany, but then grew into a struggle against the hegemony of the Habsburgs in Europe. The last significant religious war in Europe.
36) The Civil War in Scotland 1644-1647.
37) Jewish pogrom in Poland in 1648. Killed more than 100,000 Jews were burned and destroyed a third of the Jewish Communities in Poland and Ukraine.
38) The Civil War in England in 1640 — 1688 period.
39) Anglo-Spanish War of 1654-1660 years. In the era of the Protectorate between England and Spain for commercial supremacy in the West Indies, and first of all, for the possession of the islands of Jamaica and Hispaniola.
40) War the Swedes led by Charles XII against Russia in 1709.
41) Seven Years War? 1756-1763 period. Attended by all the European great powers of the time, and the majority of medium and small states of Europe. Consider the colonial war, as it faced the colonial interests of Britain, France and Spain, as well as the first trench — because of the use in war of a large number of redoubts and other fortifications of quickly — and the first artillery war. It killed more than 650,000 soldiers and up to 860,000 civilians (almost all of them — the subjects of Austria). Total losses amounted to 1.51 million people. Although the German and Austrian historians believe that the costs of war could be over 2 million people.
42) Anglo-American colonial war of 1775-1783. War 13 British colonies in North America against the British colonial rule, during which it was created an independent state — the United States of America.
43) The French Revolution 1789-1799 period. As a result, 17,000 people were guillotined, about 25,000 were killed in the incidents (lynchings and armed conflicts), about 500,000 were imprisoned.
44) Napoleonic Wars 1796-1815 period.
45) The English-Tasmanian war years 1804-1830. The war British colonists against the indigenous people of Tasmania. As a result, the colonists were killed or executed almost the entire local population, the survivors of 200 British moved on Flinders Island in Bass Strait.
46) Anglo-Danish War of 1807-1814 years.
47) The War of 1812. The invasion of Napoleon's army in Russia.
48) The Swedish-Norwegian War in 1814. The conflict that erupted as a result of the unwillingness to recognize Norway Kiel peace treaty.
49) First Anglo-Burmese War of 1823-1826 years. The war came about as a result of the British desire to expand its territory in the struggle for colonies. Ended with the defeat of the Burmese, so that the British occupied a large area and received substantial contribution.
50) First Opium War of 1840-1842 years. UK war against China. The purpose of the British troops was the expansion of the drug trade (opium), which prevented the Chinese policy of the Qing empire.
51) The Second Anglo-bi? Rmanskaya war? 1852-1853 period. Took place during the reign of King Minh Pagan. The war led to a significant expansion of the colonial possessions of the British Empire.
52) The Second Opium War 1856-1860 period. The war with Britain and France, the Chinese Qing Empire, in order to expand the drug trade.
53) Franco-Prussian war of 1870 -1871 year.
54) Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. The unique position of the Zulu powers retained by the 1870s its independence, military organization and the traditional way of life, greatly irritated the English colonists.
55) Franco-Tunisian War 1881-1883 period. Capturing the French Tunisia and the suppression of their anti-colonial rebellion broke out there. Tunisia became a French colony.
56) Franco-Malagasy War 1883-1896 period. The war against the French colonization of Madagascar Kingdom Imerina.
57) Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885-1887 years. Led to the complete elimination of colonization of Burma and the Burmese monarchy and independence.
58) The colonization of Africa, 1885 — 1980. The period of colonial rule, the Western European countries on the African continent.
59) Italo-Ethiopian War 1895-1896 period. As a result — about 30,000 killed, and Ethiopia colonized by Italy.
60) The French invasion and conquest of Chad 1899-1914 period.
61) Anglo-Boer War 1899 — 1902. The war against the British Boer republics — South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State (Free State), which ended with the victory of the British Empire. In this war, the British first used scorched earth tactics on the ground drills and concentration camps, which killed about 30,000 Boer women and children, as well as an unknown number of black Africans.
62) Genocide of the Herero and Nama tribes colonial troops of Imperial Germany in 1904 — 1907. During the brutal suppression of the popular uprising that killed more than 65 000 (80%) of people from the tribe of the Herero (Bantu) and 10 000 (50%) patients tribe Nama (Hottentots) in German South-West Africa in present-day Namibia.
63) Italo-Turkish War of 1911-1912. Killed more than 20,000 troops.
64) The Balkan War of 1912-1913. Participants: Romania, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Serbia. Killed about 150,000 people.
65) Capture the French troops of Morocco in 1912.
66) The First World War 1914 — 1918. Died 10,066,671 soldiers and officers, and 11,440,310 civilians.
67) The Hungarian Revolution of 1919. Killed more than 15,000 people.
68) Civil War? Finland was one of the many national and social conflicts in the post-war Europe, was conducted from January 27 to May 15, 1918, between the left and the radical bourgeois-democratic forces of the Finnish Senate. As a result, it was executed about 12,000 people, and imprisoned 76,000 people.
69) The French military campaign against Syria in 1920.
70) Civil War in Ireland 1922-1923 period. The armed struggle in Ireland between opponents and supporters of the conservation status of the country of the British dominion. Ended in victory for the supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, which provided all assistance to England.
71) Start the establishment of dictatorial fascist regimes across Europe in 1922. In Italy — Mussolini in Spain — Primo de Rivera and Franco, Hungary — Horthy, Albania — Zogu, Bulgaria — Tsankov, Portugal — Salazar, Romania — Codreanu and Antonescu, Finland — Ruti, Poland — Pilsudski In Germany, Hitler.
72) The civil war in Austria in 1934. Armed clashes between the left (social democratic) and the right-wing groups in February 1934 in the cities of Vienna, Graz, Wiener Neustadt, Brook aan den Moore, Steyr and Judenburg. On both sides were killed or missing before 1600.
73) Civil War? in Spain 1936 — 1939 period. The conflict between the Second Spanish Republic in the face of the Spanish Popular Front government and the opposition Nationalist military dictatorship led by General Francisco Franco, supported by Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Portugal, which is a result of hostilities finally eliminated the Spanish Republic and overthrew the Republican government.
74) The Second World War 1939-1945. Died 24437785 military, and 46,733,062 civilians.
75) Civil War? Greece 1946-1949 period. Major armed conflict in Europe, even before the outbreak of World War II, after the liberation of Greece from the German and Italian occupiers. The conflict has taken the form of civil war between communist guerrillas and government forces of the monarchy, based on the support of the UK and the U.S..
76) Franco-Vietnamese war in 1946 -1953 years.
77) British-Malayan war years 1948-1960. The cause of the war was the looting of the English colonists of Malaya, to restore its post-war economy.
78) Franco-Algerian colonial war of 1954-1962 years. Political and military conflict, characterized by a guerrilla actions and conduct counterinsurgency operations, urban terrorism, the use of torture by both sides. Is one of the most important events in the history of France, the second half of the XX century, causing the fall of the Fourth Republic, the two coups in the army and the emergence of the ultra-secret organization OAS, which tried through terror force the French government to refuse to recognize the independence of Algeria.
79) The Yugoslav war of 1991-2001. Provoked by Western European and American elite, with the participation of NATO, a number of inter-ethnic conflict between Serbs on the one side and Croats, Bosniaks and Albanians on the other, as well as the Croatian-Bosnian conflict in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the conflict between Albanians and Macedonians in Macedonia, due to religious and ethnic divisions.
80) War Western European countries and the United States, with the assistance of NATO against Libya in 2011. As a result, according to various estimates, between 150 to 200 000 deaths and more than 200,000 refugees. After destroying an independent and prosperous state, using a strategy of "controlled chaos" of Western European countries and the United States moved their armed aggression in a protracted civil war. Today, the same methods are trying to use against Syria.
In modern Europe to the present day, in one form or another, carried out ethnic conflict between Hungarians and Slovaks, Corsicans and French, the Scots and the English, Irish and olstertsami, Hungarians and Romanians, the Romanians and the Gagauz, the Flemings and Walloons, Catalan and Spanish, the Spanish , the French and the Basques, Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians, Albanians and Serbs, Greeks and Turks. Today, gaining a new kind of internal conflicts between the indigenous people of Europe and migrants from Asia and Africa, it is manifested particularly strong in France and Germany as well as Sweden and England. You should also pay attention to the increased throughout Europe far-right sentiment, and a victory in the last elections to parliaments, political extreme right-wing forces in the near future could lead to an increase in social conflicts. Serious political and economic conflicts between Britain and the European Union as well as within the EU itself, supplemented by the crisis, and large public debt in many European countries, could lead to the collapse of the formation and renewal of old internecine conflicts.
This list of factors gives us the opportunity to come closer to understanding how for centuries formed the collective unconscious of the European, or rather the whole of Western civilization. Based on the above, we can safely conclude that historically the "European way of development" — it's basically barbaric violence, supported by a paranoid aggression and cruelty, poured into the war, mass executions and killings, external aggression, revolution, conspiracy, betrayal and ideological repression and dictatorship. No region in the world has spawned a number of conflicts, death, evil and suffering as the Western Europe, and Western civilization, not only for their own territories, but also for the rest of the world.
The answer to the question of what kind of "European values" took place, and there is all this crazy and inhuman bloody orgy, officially remains a mystery. In our opinion this issue is best addressed by our politicians, who chose these values as a guide, maybe they know something. Most likely, with European values, those in power is associated a Swiss bank account, and the villa on the Cote d'Azur. But most people do not have to do with it.
Possible with today's perspective, bringing a historical result, some might call those "European values" which loomed after going this long and bloody way? A careful and impartial analysis of the state of contemporary Western society will show an expanding civilization catastrophic systemic crisis in all spheres of public life, pouring out until the growing protest movement of the lower and middle classes. On the current problems and the crisis is increasing talk in European summits, seminars and round tables, trying to comprehend what is happening and to find at least some way. An important indicator of the beginning of the death of the existing system is the substantial decline in income and living standards, the main carrier of the consumer and the liberal-bourgeois ideology — the middle class. With all this, there is, not only the absence of new ideas of civilization, but also hints at possible ways out of the crisis, and the fear candidly discussed at the highest levels of current problems.
Perhaps our politicians want to go the way of the modern era, with its driving force — the spirit of capitalism, wrote about Max Weber, but it hardly possible because of our Orthodox tradition. In addition, the true spirit of capitalism that existed in the early stage of development, suppressed all over the world the spirit of usury.
Those of our citizens who still finds "European values" do not see them in the works of classical European art, and the achievements of scientific thought, but mainly in small bourgeois pleasures: inexpensive trendy shops, cafes, Alpine ski resorts, the French and Italian wines, Swiss watches, German cars, cigarettes and Dutch with grass. And these little petty-bourgeois values have become the meaning of life and the guiding star of so many of our people, turning a great nation and a great country in ruin, which is still barely alive the spirit of creativity, creativity and freedom.
The habit of always trust the alien, and the unwillingness to live their own minds, inhibits creativity and creative activity leads to serious consequences. Here's the tragic facts of mindless, total spread and the introduction of the power we have Western morality, fashion, traditions and laws:
— Serfdom came from Western Europe, as the new-fangled form of management, and represented a form of slavery, as a set of legal rules of the European feudal government and establishes the most comprehensive and rigorous form of peasant dependence. Acted on our lands from 1497 to 1861 years, and greatly influenced the social confrontation. Prior to that, the Slavs have never known any of slavery nor serfdom.
— Western monetary system that existed at us before the Soviet authorities, and resume their lives after the destruction of the Soviet Union, also came from Europe, and is, in fact, not a means of accounting for the economic and exchange, and an instrument of financial enslavement and unjust redistribution of resources in favor of a minority holding, or printing money. All the crises and problems that have arisen and arising in our economic life (with the exception of the Soviet period) largely due to the use of foreign credit and financial system.
— the idea of world revolution, as well as white and red terror, based on the experience of the European bourgeois revolutions of the ages 16-18, and supplemented by not fully understood the philosophical teachings of Marx, have led to violent civil conflict and war.
— modern parliamentarism, who came from England, and we have used today, is a tool in the fight for power, and lobbying the interests of certain minority groups to protect their property and business. It leads to a fierce political struggle for false ideals, which artificially drawn broad masses of the people, and weakens the state strife and corruption, as well as destroying the Slavs inherent commitment to collegiality and the world.
— all the elements of Western pop culture that permeated our TV, Internet, media and advertising, based on the promotion of violence, physical excesses, addictions, selfishness, sexual perversion, and totally boorish ignorance. Every day, absorbing all these poisons the mind and soul of poisonous streams, people lose their true value and meaning of life, and with them the spirit of the original People's Slavic nations initially aspiring to emancipation and the awakening of the higher creative abilities in every person.
We hope this information will help readers understand the thinking in the true sense of the phrase "European choice", "European way" and "European values."